According to Higgins 1994, motivation is an internal force based on employees needs to drive him/her to achieve a goal. Base on this every sales employee is in charge of their own destiny to achieve or enhance their performance which in a result would make them feel more satisfied at what they are doing i.e. in terms of amount of sales they make. This all depends on the factors of individual’s conscious and unconscious needs that will tell you the outcome result. On this bases Drafke and Kossen(1998) cited in Schulze and Steyn (2002,03) that understanding this awareness would help manager to get an idea of behaviour of sales colleague on the shop floor so they can attempt to facilitate motivating. As stated Oosthuizen (2000), manager have very important role to achieve efficiency in retail store by inducing behaviour change as well as increasing positive thinking which will result in positive motivation. As this interlinks with job satisfaction Robbins (1993; 1998) outlines that to exert high level of effort toward hitting sales target is the fact the job itself satisfies the need for producing the outcome.
2.2.2 JOB SATISFACTION
As stated by Hirschfeld (2000) cited in Buitendach and De Witte (2005), that job satisfaction is the role they play in providing the outcome i.e. able to provide good customer service which they can see it as being paid for talking to customers which is all based on the sale employees looking at the positive of what they are doing. Note that this is different for everyone as it how you judge what you want to accomplish at the end. Schultz et. al., (2003) define as a number of attributes which enables employees attitude of work based on the environment they are working with i.e. work itself, relationships at work, interaction in the workplace, personal characteristics, rewards recognition and incentives. It can be also preserved as an evaluation of personal condition presented in job or the outcome in doing the job, this was review by Schneider and Snyder (1975) cited in Sempane, Rieger and Roodt (2002). This was backed up by Bellingan-Timmer (2004) and Sempane et al. (2002), that individual job satisfaction perception is influenced by the sales employee need which are unique to others needs, values and expectations. To outline this, it can be seen as a relationship with motivation which helps establish based on factors which are important to them.
2.3 CRITICALLY ANALYSE
2.3.1 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION
By critically analysing academic literature I have come to a conclusion based on the finding that motivation and job satisfaction are very similar in terms of what sales employees need and want as motivation can be seen as need in terms of job appraisal, bonus, progression etc and want is a job task in hand such as selling, demos, processing etc. To backup this augmenting I have come in to conflict after analysing literature by Hersey and Blanchard (1988), state it as very different terms of outcome. It is implied that motivation is a forward looking perception influenced by the relationship between performance and reward where as satisfaction refers to reward they have received based on employees feeling. On this basis, satisfaction is considered to be consequence of past events whereas motivation is considered to be expectations of the future.
After analysing more literature to support my argument, I had found out Kreitner and Kinicki (2001) which support the idea that there is a significant relationship between them. It outlines that sales managers can potentially enhance employees’ motivation through various attempts to increase job satisfaction. Sorge and Warner (1997, p. 459) state, “work satisfaction is the most prominent result of work motivation.” (They further indicate that motivational concepts are often used to analyse and predict a wide range of individual expressions relevant to organisations such as attitudes, perceptions, emotions and behaviour.)
2.3.2 CONSEQUENCES OF JOB SATISFACTION
As part of this review I have researched literature that acknowledges and present the inevitable counter arguments based on job satisfaction which provide fact that emotional feelings and efforts which have major impact on their health and well being. I have read throw a lot of academic literature and found out that common consequence relating to job satisfaction can have an greater impact on health as stated but also affect the social life as identified by Locke (1976) cited in Buitendach and De Witte (2005) and Sempane et al. (2002). I feel that in retail sales this is most important to question 3 biographical characteristics identified in chapter 1 especially age and marital status as this has a major affect on the minds as stress play a part of life when providing for partner or family. The fact that there is more money going out than coming in as well as the job in hand in terms repetitive job i.e. doing the same thing over and over again which make the job disinteresting. As stated by Coster (1992) confirm this that total quality of life of sales colleague is affected. To summarise the concerns relating to job satisfaction I have found out that sales employees are interested in fair outcome, treatment as well as procedures. This can be a number of things i.e. pay policies, procedures etc, if fairness doesn’t occur their job satisfaction will suffer which will result in rolling over of employees and cost to train them. If possible to be perceived positively then sales employees are (more willing to assist beyond their formal job requirements (Pearson, 1991).)
2.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
I have reviewed literature and have found the relevant information to answer the three questions I identified in chapter one, based on sales colleagues motivation and job satisfaction in Currys/PC World Mega Store. I have demonstrated the knowledge and understanding of academic debates based on the literature which relates to the study as well as critically acknowledging and presenting an argument in retail sales prospective based on academic information which has also resulted in providing me with negative aspects based on the argument by different authors and scholars who argue for or against.
2.4.1 RESEARCH QUESTION 1 – DOES BIOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTICS TELL YOU WHICH GROUP DETERMINES IF IT FITS WITH MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION.
The research on motivation in terms of biographical characteristics (such as gender, level of education, age, language and level of occupation / designation, tenure), appears to have opposing findings i.e. the variables influencing the levels of motivation. Considering Newstrom and Davis (1989), Gilbert and Walker (2001), and Robbins et al. (2001) work, there are several variables that effect job satisfaction. But, they expand on motivation, along with other variables to be difficult to measure and emphasise those biographical characteristics or workforce demographics which would provide knowledge on how to handle individuals in the work place. In contradiction, Louw et al (2000), found that the genetic disposition of the individual influences job satisfaction more conclusively than organisational factors.
Louw et al. (2000) citing Struempfer, Danana, Gouws and Viviers (1998) state that dispositional and situational factors are reasonable predictors of job satisfaction, but researchers differ about the extent of the effect they have on job satisfaction. For example, Yousef (1998), found that age, educational level, monthly income, tenure, job level, marital status and an organisations activity contribute to the variations in satisfaction with job security among employees.
The biographical characteristics impacting on motivation and job satisfaction are discussed below:
Research based on gender has shown uncertain differences based on motivation and job satisfaction as Nagoorsamy (2004) states. Whereas research conducted by Sousa-Poza (2003), in retail in the UK states the fact that females are working less in the past decade in electronic retail businesses. An example is Currys/PC World Mega Store as I feel that females have no interest in gadgets and technology which results in few female counter parts within the workforce working. Clothing and cosmetics show a high percentage of females based on reports of ( ,2010). Male levels have remained steady as motivation and job satisfaction fits well in with their interests as Al-Mashaan (2003) had found out. To conclude I have there by come to a conclusion that skills, abilities etc are more utilised by males compared to females who are more likely exposed to stress on shop floor meaning that males have better stress management than the females. In contrary to this statement as cited by Lambert et al. (2001) and other researchers, who have investigated and found out, as quoted “that females demonstrate higher levels of job satisfaction than their male counterparts, across most settings”.
Research conducted in 2002 by Reudavey in UK on retail states that no relationship exists between motivation and job satisfaction on the basis of age. According to Robbins (2001) views age is influenced on job satisfaction based on different age groups. Jones Johnson and Johnson (2000) explain that older employees have a higher level of job satisfaction, this argues against what I had reviewed as I believe more responsibilities are there as stated above about the factors of money outgoing and incoming. But also looking at it I believe older employees are more settled in terms of life experience and mentally as they are perceived to be seen as doing the job because it pays the bills where as younger employees are mentally more active which of course means they are thinking more. This analysis is backed up by Sui, Spector, Cooper and Donald (2001), which say “that age was positively related to job satisfaction and mental well-being”. This is very well but I still felt that it did not answer the question, so i took it upon myself to further analyse literature by Roberts, 2005 to find out which age group it effects. 41-50 years of age was reported as lower levels of motivation and job satisfaction. This can be true as well as false depending on job i.e. on shop floor where its nice and warm or in warehouse cold and damp. It also criticized that married sales employees had the lowest levels of motivation and job satisfaction. A correlation was found by Schulze and Steyn (2003) between age and marriage and the motivation and job satisfaction levels of employees that respond. Younger employees may experience satisfaction as a result of less experiences in the labour market against which they could conduct a comparative assessment of experience of job satisfaction.
Franks (2002) conducted research among specialists in information technology within the local government sector. A significant difference was found along racial lines adding to job satisfaction as personal factors and organanisational factors motivated employees. However very little research concentrates on the relationship between race and job satisfaction according to Pearson (1991). Job satisfaction varies between races amongst women was found by research carried out by Robbins et al. (2001).
Employees that were least motivativated were the ones working in the organisation for less than 5 years were least motivated and experiences the lowest levels of job satisfaction. More experienced employees which is determined by length of service were more easily motivated and had the higher level of job satisfaction according to Schulze and Steyn’s research (2003). To support this idea a significant relationship was found between tenure and job satisfaction by Bull in 2005.
Performance and satisfaction is influenced by rewards recieved from the organisation argued by Nelson and Quick (2003). Employees valued rewards and thought it had a direct link to the way they performed in the workplace. Job satisfaction has an effect on performance of employees and is more occurent in employees that have been working for an organisation for a longer period.
2.6.4 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL
Employees express their desire to use their powerful tools such as knowledge, experience and education in their organistaion as they spend a lot of time at work. There is not a great effect over qualification on job satisfaction discovered by Groot and Maassen Van Den Brink (2002). Although graduates and post graduates have less job satisfaction than employees who have less qualifications it was observed by Gazioglu and Tansel (2002). However, I think this could be due to stress of fulfilling course requirements to get the qualification and missing out on social activities etc. It could also be a feeling that they are more qualified but in a same job as the less qualified and feel that themself should be in a higher position or have a different job. Reudavey (2001) concluded the argument and did not find a relationship between job satisfaction and educational level i.e, qualifications.
Although Pearson (1991) found that job staisfaction was positively related to educational achievement. There is a relationship between level of education and factors of education discovered by Oosthuizen (2001). The two significant differences found between educational and motivational factors was responsibility and general level of satisfaction. Employees that were least qualified are least satisfied in terms of responsibility.
2.6.3 MARITAL STATUS
Employees that were married report the lowest levels of motivation and satisfaction according to research by Roberts (2005). A correlation between age and marriage and motivation and job satisfaction levels was found by Schulze and Steyn (2003). The same researchers conducted research amongst teachers in South Africa in 2003 found female educators experienced lower degrees of satisfaction in areas of salaries, biased evaluation of merit and for promotion participation in decision making and a fair workload. Higher levels of satisfaction in areas of relationships with learners, self esteem, love of their particular subject and pride in work were experienced.
2.6.3 MARITAL STATUS
Marital status has an effect on levels of motivation. It was revealed by Roberts, (2005) that married employees reported lowest levels of satisfaction and motivation. A correlation between age and marriage and job satisfaction and motivation levels of respondents was discovered by Schulze and Steyn (2003). I think this is because in marriage the other partner is considered and there are more responsibilities and commitments than when single.
2.4.2 RESEARCH QUESTION 2 –
2.4.3 RESEARCH QUESTION 3 – WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT DO YOU AGREE AND DISAGREE, THAT CONTRIBUTE TO WORK MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION?
Based on the literature that I have studied, I have found out that the best definition which fits within the Currys/ PC World Mega Store issue is that according to Schultz et. al., (2003) “defines job satisfaction as a collection of attitudes of employees regarding a number of areas of their work and includes the work itself, relationships at work, interaction in the workplace, personal characteristics, rewards recognition and incentives”. Whereas Kreitner and Kinicki (2004) “argue that job satisfaction is an affective or emotional response an employee has towards his/her job”.
Job satisfaction is due to many factors such as amount of work pay, working conditions, recognition, promotion, supervision, colleagues, benefits, management according to Locke (1976) and De Witte (1995) and Sempane et al (2002). Important factors to conclude job satisfaction are rewards, good working conditions and colleagues mentioned by Robbins (1993). He also stated that an individual’s genetic disposition and good personality job fit and positive thinking should be taken into consideration. Spector (1997) mentions that status and job content are causes of job satisfaction and structure of organisation could lead to dissatisfaction.
18.104.22.168 WORK ITSELF
This could be promotion opportunities, personal growth and responsibility. Desirable job characteristics increase job satisfaction according to research conducted by Liden, Wayne and Sparrowe (2000). Job opportunities or promotion increases job satisfaction amongst female respondents by research carried out by Culpin and Wright (2002). Furthermore, Bull (2005) posits a view that when employees experience success in mentally challenging occupations which allows them to exercise their skills and abilities, they experience greater levels of job satisfaction.
According to Oosthuizen (2001, p. 23), “the work itself refers to the doing of the work and the type of work. The job can be repetitive or changing, creative or monotonous, easy or difficult.”
According to Pearson (1991), jobs that are both motivating and
satisfying are said to be those that provide skill variety, task identity, task
significance, autonomy and feedback. Analoui’s (2000) research indicated that the ‘nature of the job’ is a major source of satisfaction for senior managers, particularly if the job is challenging and direct feedback is provided on their efforts. Similarly, Pearson (1991, p. 180) states, “continuing challenge provides continuing satisfaction and motivation.” However, contrary to Analoui’s research, Pearson (1991) states that feedback, although an important aspect of job design, refers not to the job itself but to the environment in which work is carried out.
Oosthuizen (2001) concurs that the types of work individuals do influences their
satisfaction. He states that managers must make the work content as interesting as possible in order to build strong levels of motivation. Lam et al. (2000) found that the job itself is an influential factor in predicting overall job satisfaction. They concur that a job itself should be seen as challenging and interesting. Therefore, variety and flexibility in managers’ work are important.
2.5.2 PROMOTIONAL OPPORTUNITIES:
This refers to opportunities for advancement and professional growth (vertical and horizontal). Many employees tend to experience job satisfaction if they perceive career advancement to be a real possibility (Drafke & Kossen, 2002). In a study by Jayaratne and Chess as cited in Bull (2005), the prospect of advancement was found to be the most positive predictor of job satisfaction in welfare and community agencies. Robbins (2001) asserts that promotions create the opportunity for personal
growth, increased levels of responsibility and an increase on social standing.
This refers to the ability of the supervisor to assist with technical and emotional support regarding work-related tasks. The ability of supervisors to provide strong leadership (for example a principal within the school environment) has an effect on job satisfaction of for example teachers (Morris, 2004). Allowing opportunities for educators to participate in the governance of the institution and not just be a subordinate in the employment relationship has the potential for increasing the job satisfaction levels of those educators (Nagel & Brown, 2003). Aamodt as cited in Bull (2005) also argues that research found that the quality of the supervisor-subordinate relationship has the potential for significant, positive influence on the overall level of job satisfaction of the subordinate.
This refers to technical, emotional and social support received from co-workers. Morrison (2004) posits a view that the relationships amongst co-workers are a precursor of job satisfaction. Furthermore, Markiewics, et al. (2000) is of the opinion that there is a relationship between the quality of close relationships at work and employee job satisfaction. An important characteristic of relationship between co-workers is cohesiveness as it relates to the group’s productivity (Robbins, 2001). Tinzer (2002) maintains that both socio-emotional cohesiveness – when individuals join a group to derive emotional satisfaction – and instrumental cohesiveness – interdependency of individuals to achieve a common goal – plays a significant role in realising job satisfaction.
2.5.5 WORKING CONDITIONS:
Satisfaction of work environment is a statement of working conditions. According to Nigdi and Sibaya (2002) it was stated that maintenance of working environment has an effect on whether employees are satisfied with their job. The example given by these researchers was that the condition of work in disadvantaged schools is not conductive to a learning and teaching environment. Furthermore cohesion among employees result of work processes among organisational units which the strength (Lambert, Hogan, Barton & Lubbock, 2001).
Whether or not pay is the suitable and appropriate amount for a certain job compared to other similar jobs in the workplace. Lambert et al, (2001) researched and found a significant impact of financial rewards on job satisfaction. Although it was found that findings of this research was consistent and importance of an individual is being gaugeg by financial rewards received according to Bull (2005). Bull also argues that the higher the financial reward the more financial security and therefore leading to higher levels of self confidence. However a relationship between pay and job satisfaction was not found by Groot and Massen van den Brink (1999). Sousa-Poza (2000) carried out research by ranking factors affecting job satisfaction and if was revealed that pay/income was ranked third in factors affecting job satisfaction.
2.8 SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTER
Based on review and critical analysis of literature in regards to question identified in chapter one, this chapter discusses theories related to employee’s sales motivation and job satisfaction. The changes it brings and how it brings about these changes. According to Shultz et. al. (2003) he argues that discussed theories have a major contribution in its own way by enhancing employees motivation understanding in workplace. In respect of this, content theories establish the motivation needs as well as the individual. This differs by theories chosen.
By understanding and grasping these theories, managers have insight in understanding motivation level of their sales employees and how to handle them. Furthermore, Currys/ PC World Mega Store acknowledge the critical role it plays in educating and providing information to assist managers in regards to the level of motivation and how to implement it to the sales force. This enables Currys/ PC World Mega Store to implement management performance and compensation to help or provide that support to backup up managers in managing employee motivation. Lawler (2003) confirms this by providing the support to manager to enable them to better motivate the employees, they would feel that they are recognised for what they are doing as well as been given a reward i.e. this could mean a gift card with ten pound vice versa. On this bases job satisfaction will increase which will improve sales performance as well as store hitting target. Furthermore,
research within a service organisation has indicated that various biographical factors
have an influence on work motivation (Bezuidenhout, 2001). However, limited
research has been conducted to determine whether biographical factors have an
influence on work motivation within the retail industry.
2.8.1 INTRODUCTION OF NEXT CHAPTER
Chapter 3 justifies the research methodology chosen, it provides insight in to research design adapted to investigate based on the three question identified in chapter one. The sample selection and size, method of data collection and as well as the statistical techniques employed in testing the research. Questionnaire and interview is the instrument used to gather data. (Furthermore, the findings of the demographic information with regard to the sample characteristics are presented.)
The purpose of this chapter is to justify the manner upon the questions generated for the study was investigated. Referring to methodology literature with appropriate referencing, research strategy would be outlined. To tie up loose end a discussion will present the advantages and disadvantages of why the chosen collection method was employed. This could by referring to the sampling method, selection of respondents, data gathering instruments i.e. questionnaires and interviews etc, whether or not there are any limitations by using them.