The purpose of this review in to determine the difference between marital status; married vs. single working adults in terms of job satisfaction and the relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction. The findings are concluded from different working industries and country. The results obtain from the studies shows that there is a relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction and several research proves that married working adults perceives higher job satisfaction as compared to the single working adults. In addition, this studies should be applied or use as a reference to more organization to study the job satisfaction of the employee which will carry benefits to both party. Nevertheless, there are so many other factors that can influence job satisfaction and life satisfaction.
The aim of this research is to investigate the difference between married vs. single working adults in terms of job satisfaction and to study the relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Many studies and research have been conducted by various researchers to determine both of the aim stated above. For example, a study was done in an International Language Teacher Training Institute (IPBA) on the lecturers to investigate the level of job satisfaction and also examine the factor that play a part on the level of job satisfaction among International Language Teacher Training Institute (IPBA) lecturer (Tan, Dahman & Hasmali, 2007).
Job satisfaction have been defined by many researchers and according to Hoppock (as cited in Scott, Swortzel & Taylor, 2005), job satisfaction is defined as “any combination of psychological, physiological, and environmental circumstances that causes a person truthfully to say, ‘I am satisfied with my job’”. Another definition by Mosadeghrad, Ferlie & Rosenberg (2008) is that job satisfaction is the way of one behaving to perform their work in their job and organisations. As for Spector (as cited in Mosadeghrad et al., 2008), job satisfaction is “the extent to which people like or dislike their jobs”.
Sousa and Lyubomirsky (2001) defined life satisfaction by defining the word satisfaction first. The word satisfaction which means sufficient is a Latin word. Therefore, satisfaction is when “one’s life implies a contentment with or acceptance of one’s life circumstances or the fulfilment of one’s wants and needs for one’s life as a whole”. Basically, it means that life satisfaction is a personal judgement towards the quality of the individual life. However, Kahneman and Krueger (2006) define “life satisfaction is neither a direct, verifiable experience nor a known personal fact like one’s address or age”. Overall it is a fair assessment which only happens when it is brought up and also depends on the respondent’s ability to recall its memory and the current feeling.
Marital status is defined as married which mean a female and a male by law there are husband and wife living together whereas single means an individual (female or male) which is living individually or with their parents or friends or relatives and this individual must not be stated in law or being registered to be with a partner or another individual of the opposite sex.
In the society these days, somehow you can tell that marital status and job satisfaction is likely to be correlated because an individual life can be affected by being married or single since if you are married, you might feel more satisfied with your life given that this is just an assumption. For that reason, past research have been studied and it can be prove that there is difference between married vs. single working adults in term of job satisfaction since so many researches had been conducted in various kind of working industries. In addition, past studies will also prove that job satisfaction and life satisfaction do have a relationship since working and lifestyle are important to an individual.
So according to Knerr (2005) past research, a research was carried out on GSS 2000 data which consist of nationwide representative sample of the United States adult citizens to analyze the relationship between marital status and job satisfaction, as for the past 20 years, marital status’ effect on job satisfaction was ignored by researchers. After analyzing the data, a strong correlation was found between marital status and job satisfaction for the United States adult workers. Despite, to ensure the positive relationship is accurate, age and sex was set to be the control variable. Due to this, Knerr (2005) concluded that “married people generally posses higher job satisfaction than their single counterparts”.
Besides, Bowen, Radhakrishna and Keyser (1994) constructed a research and did a study to see whether job satisfaction were related to the agents’ marital status and it is discovered that job satisfaction of agent was significantly related to marital status and is said that “older, married and more experienced agents had higher levels of job satisfaction and were more committed to cooperative extension than younger, single, and less experienced agents”, as the younger agents may still be considering their future profession.
A similar result was encounter by Khaleque and Rahman (1987) in their research among the industrial worker. The purpose of the research was to determine the effect of some personal factor (e.g. age and marital status) and job components (e.g. wage and promotion) on the overall job satisfaction of the industrial worker. In addition, Inlow (1951) purpose of the research was to investigate what aspect is being related to the job satisfaction of the graduates. The result come across from the study is similar with other results obtain by other researcher, as it is concluded that marital status; married or single person and job satisfaction has statistically significant differences.
However, according to other researchers like Testa and Mueller (2009), the result obtain differ from the other as no significant relationship was found on the effect of marital status on job satisfaction of the international service worker, but a strong correlation between age and marital status was achieve. Therefore, an assumption was made saying that it is likely to claim that there will be a greater among of satisfaction for single respondent within the research environment.
Furthermore, Dolan and Gosselin (2000) did a research to investigate the impact of the “social demographic indicators on life and work satisfaction” using the ANOVA analysis and a contradictory result is discovered proving that “marital status does not explain differences in job satisfaction”. However, out of the ordinary result was found, showing that marital status was instead greatly affecting life satisfaction allowing them to conclude that those “married (i.e. couple situation) are significantly happier in life (higher life satisfaction) than singles of all kinds”.
Due to marital status is said to be significantly affecting life satisfaction, therefore let see in the past research whether both job satisfaction and life satisfaction is proven to be significantly related or have a relationship. Nevertheless, as noted by Judge and Watanabe (1993) that the relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction is still debatable until today since there is no researcher whom can prove the exact relation.
However, Judge and Watanabe (1993) carry out the research using the “Quality of Employment Surveys data as it exploit a national probability sample that was representative of the U.S. workforces in terms of demographic and occupational characteristic” to see what they can conclude for the job and life satisfaction issue. As a consequence, they found that both job satisfaction and life satisfaction is significant and has a positive relationship as well as “the constructs appear to mutually influence on another”. In addition, they also conclude that “cross – sectional results suggest a strong bidirectional relationship that is equivalent in magnitude” and the longitudinal results can be said to be slightly more accurate, because it propose that life satisfaction on job satisfaction for more than 5 year is significantly moderate and a significantly weak relationship was obtain between job satisfaction and life satisfaction for the same amount time period.
Dolan and Gosselin (2000) main purpose of the research was to “empirically test a reciprocal model of job satisfaction and life satisfaction while controlling some social demographic variables” among the employees working in various car dealership in Canada. Moreover, a moderately strong relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction was reveal by them. Although, there is no significant result found between marital status and job satisfaction, and instead a relationship was found between life satisfactions.
However, according to Near (1984) research, an opposing result is found and she said that her discovery is not surprising for such result to be obtain since other past research results on job satisfaction and life satisfaction were found to be relatively weak. Near (1984) concluded her findings with three conclusion which are life satisfaction and job satisfaction appear to be constant throughout a long period of time, both job satisfaction and life satisfaction does not influences one another after a prolonged period and the third conclusion is “life satisfaction and job satisfaction are a function of current living and working conditions, which themselves are influenced by earlier levels of life satisfaction and job satisfaction”.
In conclusion, there is difference between married vs. single working adults in terms of job satisfaction and there is a relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction as it is proven by several numbers of researches and studies done by the experts, that married working adult poses a higher job satisfaction as compared to single working adults. Moreover, it is also found that there is a relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction but it is concluded that both are mutually influencing each other. Furthermore, all the research done can serve the future researcher and other variables can be considered to be search on or relate too and this studies or research should be applied or use as a reference to more organization to study the job satisfaction of their employee which will carry benefits to both party. However, the limitation of these studies is that there are so many factors that is influencing job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Besides, in my point of view, life satisfaction is difficult to measure because every individual is different from one another and they have their own way to define life satisfaction.