NCFE CACHE level 2 Caring for Children and Young people

NCFE CACHE level 2 Caring for Children and Young people
(CCN Karama Branch)
January 27 to May 30, 2018
Student: Melicia Balagtas CalandayCL2A2: Young children’s development
CL2A2-1.1 Outline the development of young children in the first four years of life.

Once a child is born, life outside the womb continues with wide and bigger responsibilities for its better development as a human being. A newly born child needs proper affection, care and respect to its natural needs as it grows and learns. No human being is alike and each child is different and unique when it comes to its own sequence and rate development as well as the process of growing up takes place accordingly to a constant pattern of connectedness that all areas subject to develop are all linked together which means… “the development in one area can strongly influence another area” (1).

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The following is an outline of development statement from birth to the first four years of life. Each stage follows a pattern of growing up process for evolving child in different stages of development.

Early age development is challenging but delightful especially from birth to month by month growing up. Parents or a responsible adult should be very sensitive and comprehensive enough to every cry of the little one.

There are seven (7) areas of learning for every child which are specifically divided into two (2) main parts and these are the Prime and Specific areas of learning.

A. Prime Areas
A1. Personal, social and emotional development
a. Making relationship – Cooing for baby gives himself/herself an emotional tone of loving attention. Coos and cuddles make the baby fells comfortable. Within this stage the baby learns to copy the movement of the face, starts to have attention when talked to, recognizes voice and becomes sensitive to familiar voices and people.

b. Self-confidence and awareness – “shows gestures, eye contact and facial expression, laughs and gurgles and starts to develop physical interactions” (2).
c. Managing feelings and behavior – Learns to shows emotions to people around, such as excitement, smile or crying. Starts to use the sense of touch for comfort.
A2. Communication and language
a. Listening and attention – Begins to react with interactions by becoming familiar with the sounds and voices of adults, shows fleeting attention, starts to locate specially where the sounds coming from or who’s talking around him.

b. Understanding – Starts to understand words and actions, pays attention when someone is calling his/her name.

c. Speaking – Begins to utter meaningless words or sounds. Communicates own needs by crying, gurgling and squealing.
A3. Physical development
a. Moving and handling – In this stage the baby learns to move from hand to foot using both fine and gross motor skills for growth and independence. Uses touch and sight to explore.

B. Specific Areas
B1. Literacy – Reading aspect a child can hold a book and try to look at familiar faces and images.

B2. Mathematics – About number a child enjoys nursery rhymes of numbers, gets conscious about lots of things
B3. Understanding the world – A small child or baby cannot understand a group or community where he/she does really belongs but it responses to moving objects through following those by sight, moves the hand and the head, reacts to changes, smiles and begins to recognize playthings.

A. Prime Areas
A1. Personal, social and emotional development
a. Making relationship – Builds affection with familiar people, interacts with children and adults but respond differently. He/she learns to explore different situation and recognizes familiar people from the unfamiliar one.

b. Self-confidence and awareness – Baby in this stage learns to know some parts of his/her body, begins to ask the favorite toy and learns to engage with other person to reach out on object.

c. Managing feeling and behavior – A child learns to calm down and understand the meaning of YES or NO, shares feeling of excitement and cooperates with people to dress up.

A2. Communication and language
a. Listening and attention – Enjoys music with actions, learns movements with the beat of songs, moves the whole body in response to sounds, gets more interest to explore things and concentrate to activity for a short period of time, pays attention to impulses.

b. Understanding – Starts to develop language skills by saying frequent expressed words in the family, initiate body language in the community.

c. Speaking – Uses sounds in play, begins to say personal words, initiate sounds and enjoy babbling.

A3. Physical development
a. Moving and handling – Continuous to develop fine and gross motor skills, learns to do few steps holding around stable things to support him/her. Feet move independent to make few steps.
b. Moving and handling continued – Physical activities continues. Begins to join two objects, development leads to improve cognitive aspects of the child. Begins to have good motor control.

c. Health and self-care – Starts to communicate vowel movement and urination, begins to grasp food and brings to mouth, lies still for changing nappy, pointing out the bottle or food when hungry.

B. Specific Areas
B1. Literacy – In this area of learning includes reading and writing but reading evidently develops first because a child at the age of 8 onwards starts to have interest in books through holding it with interest but yet indicates no clear sign in writing ability.

B2. Mathematics – Regarding numbers a child shows interest in listening nursery rhymes with number songs and begins to understand things that exist even out of sight. Shapes, space and measure can be understood in meaningful context.

B3. Understanding the world – The world for a baby starts to his/her own family, it begins to explore its small world through people and animals around him/her and learns to responds by making sounds. Explores toys and objects in simple ways.

B4. Expressive arts and design – It deals with the ability of a baby to exploring and using media and materials and it does through sensory play and he/she begin to imitate action from adults.

A. Prime Area
A1. Personal, social and emotional development
a. Making relationship – A child begins to develop self-esteem “uses familiar adult as a secure base from which to explore independently” (3). “Developing lifetime bond begins to this stage providing a child to develop the ability to relate positively”(4).
b. Self-confidence and awareness – “Demonstrates sense of self as an individual…(5) with the support of familiar adult who is constantly engage with.

c. Managing feelings and behavior – Personal awareness begins to expand. A child begins to distinguish different tone of feelings and these can affect him/her if it will make him sad or excited.
A2. Communication and language
a. Listening and attention – Enjoys to listen a pattern of nursery rhymes and stories, cooperatively communicates with actions or vocalizing the songs.

b. Speaking – “Copies familiar expressions, ask simple questions, begins to put two words together and learn to talk things and people that are not present”(6).

A3. Physical development
a. Moving and handling – Starts to climb up with support by adult and crawling backward to go down. Begins to have sense of balance.
b. Health and self-care – “Develops own likes and dislikes and wanted to try new textures in taste” (7). Learns to communicate needs for hygiene and cooperates for personal grooming.

B. Specific Areas
B1. Literacy – As a pattern of development literacy entails always to reading and writing and at this age a child shows tracts like making marks on the walls and papers. Reading is been always identified as showing interest in books and rhymes as child’s favorites.

B2. Mathematics – Learns to count numbers, begins to recognize things of the same kind and recognizes those that are existing. Recognizes shapes, space and measure by trying to put them into spaces, putting water into container, starts to understand daily routines and learns to have own structures and arrangement through building blocks.

B3. Understanding the world – A child at this stage begins to develop attachment with familiar adult within the community, it shows interest with the people constantly around him/her. This stage makes him/her explore and helps enhance its understanding in things.

B4. Expressive arts and design – Arts skills of a child in this stage shows interest in music, Dance with simple actions according to rhythm or repeated pattern. “Begins to express self through physical actions and sounds” (8).
A. Prime Areas
A1. Personal, social and emotional development
a. Making relationship – Begins to have natural interest in mingling with others through sharing in terms of toys and play. Builds up special affection and friendship to people and young children special to them.

b. Self-confidence and awareness – “Expresses own preferences and interests…” (9) in toys and situation a child is apt to.

c. Managing feelings and behavior – A child begins to grow its ability to own self when it comes to sensation like sad, happy, scared and worried, begins to be aware of things harmful to them, capable of diverting feeling from upset to excited and from sad to happy. He/she knows what they should not do.

A2. Communication and language
a. Listening and attention – One main factor to obtain child’s focus is through calling him/her name. A child easily gets attention from familiar sounds like rhymes, door’s sound or noise creating by familiar adults through story telling or knocking at the door.

b. Understanding – At the age of two (2) to three (3) years a milestone growth is happening to a single child specially to its understanding skill, in this stage a child develops the ability to understand simple concept but completely to its content of learning like extended sentences, understanding the “yes” or “no” but non-stop asking “why”.

c. Speaking – Within this stage a child learns new words rapidly and begins to use more questions like: where, who and what.

A3. Physical development
a. Moving and handling – Stability in motor skills continuous until this stage. A child can run safely with the whole foot flatted on the ground, can squat and rise without using its both hands, can hold steadily using three fingers.

b. Moving and handling continued – Fine and gross motor become more stable.

c. Health and self-care – A child is more independent and competent in feeding himself/herself and for self-hygiene although constant support from an adult is necessary. Recognizes danger and gains extended knowledge for personal grooming.

B. Specific Areas
B1. Literacy – Reading and writing skills at this age is becoming more specific like knowing lyrics of the songs or missing words in it and repeating words in the story that is used to hear more often.

B2. Mathematics – “Starts to know the quantities of objects and differentiate one (1) from two (2) or recognizes more and a lot. Can anticipate specific time based on event like mealtime and home time. Begins to fits shape and size” (10).

B3. Understanding the world – “Starts to have sense of immediate family or relationship, demonstrates family cultural backgrounds like drinking tea (11). A child shows sense of belongingness. Exploration continuous and a small world becomes bigger such as exploring a wide range playing ground. Interest becomes more concrete like playing a remote control car.

B4. Expressive arts and design – Demonstrates improvement in specific actions like doing things or making sounds according to interest like: shaking, tapping, banging, blowing. Experiment things around him/her and starts to make believe by pretending.

A. Prime Areas
A1. Personal, social and emotional development
a. Making relationship – A child can play in a group, can elaborate ideas through playing with others and able to initiate a kind of play. Demonstrate friendly behavior, capable to begin a conversation and forms a friendly relationship.

b. Self-confidence and awareness – Became more confident in doing things by his/her own, more outgoing in dealing with unfamiliar people, enjoys having responsibilities of doing small task.

c. Managing feelings and behavior – More aware of its own feelings, knows actions and words that are not good for others, can tolerate delays and understand that some wishes cannot be met. More flexible to changes in daily routines, events and situations.

A2. Communication and language
a. Listening and attention – Enhanced listening skills, has more focus but easily destructed by its own interest. Can follow instructions but more often ends up to its own choice.

b. Understanding – Growth development gives more ability in all aspects as well as understand skills. At this age a child can be able to know the “why” and “how”, uses the words top and under and learns how to use simple objects.

c. Speaking – A child begins to say more complex sentences, can relay an event or story or connect a situation. Shows fluently in language, situations and events.

d. Speaking continuous – Communication skills become more specific and concrete.

A3. Physical development
a. Moving and handling – A child at this age becomes more active to interact with adults and peers. There is more chances to develop child’s coordination, control and movement. Shows confidence to do movements in different ways such as: crawling, walking and running alternatively with both feet, slithering, shuffling, rolling, skipping, jumping, hopping.
b. Moving and handling continued – Able to write with more control and any movement can easily do using gross motor skills.
c. Health and self-care – A child shows more control of the body when it comes to toileting (bowel and urine), communicates when tired and hungry, uses tools and materials safely, able to perform simple personal hygiene like washing and drying hands.

B. Specific Areas
B1. Literacy
a. Reading – Shows more attention in rhymes, can be seen the ability to have more sense of belongings in groups or communities like: feels free to join and performs activities in forms of rhyming, dancing with rhythm and telling a story.

b. Reading continued – Describes the “how” and the “why” a story happened, recognizes the main characters. Able to hold a book correctly and turns the page precisely. Looks at the prints and images and gives meaning or relay with more accurate words.
c. Writing – Can be able to give marks with meaning.

B2. Mathematics
a. Numbers – A child can count one (1) to ten (10) in order. Can identifies the number of objects, tells some numbers spontaneously. Shows more disposed to learn the numbers.

b. Numbers continued – There is an increase capacity for learning mathematics. A child along the process of growing up effectively continue to learn as well as the shapes, days of the week and months of the year.

c. Shape, space and measure – A child shows the ability to tell spatial vocabulary words such as: under, above, below, next to, inside, outside. A child at this age is now more able to
understand about space, and uses more his/her hands for constructive activities.

B3. Understanding the world
a. Communities and people – A child becomes more interested to be with those people familiar to him/her. More aware of special events like birthday, becomes more particular to the difference of people or children compared to him/herself.

b. The world – Becomes more conscious about places like where they live, talks about living things like animals and plants. Shows more understanding about environment.
c. Technology – “Knows how to operate simple equipment, remote control, CD player. Shows interest in cameras or mobile phone” (!2). Understands the mechanics of remote control toys.

B4. Expressive arts and design – It talks about explorations using media and materials and how skillful he/she is using its imagination. This stage of development includes different areas of child’s ability such as: activities in art, music, movement, dance. This process of growth continuous.

CL2A2-1.2 Explain what is the difference between rate and sequence of development? Then, explain why young children’s development may occur in different rates.

Child’s development from birth to early childhood until fifty (50) months of age generally demonstrates milestones changes considering the individual and unique process of growing up from dependency to being autonomy. These changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life and these are the reason why during this process each child develops its own “rate” although all children normally follow certain “sequence” of development.

“The RATE of development refers to the speed in which a child development takes place while the SEQUENCE of development referring to the normal sequence or particular order in which children learn different skills” (13). “The rate of development describes how quick a child takes to accomplish these milestones as the speed can vary from child to child, for example one child could learn to walk at eleven months (11) whereas another can achieve walking at fourteen (14) months. The sequence of development is a definite order of milestones that children (…) meet and accomplish” (14).

“The development rate can change considerably from one child to another because a wide range of factors can have an effect in the child development. The rate and pattern of development include PERSONAL FACTORS and EXTERNAL FACTORS…” (15) that limit a child to grow into a maximum rage of opportunity.
“The personal factors are referring to health status, disability, sensory impairment, learning difficulties while the external factors include poverty and deprivation, family environment, neglect, trauma, grief and loss, education” (16).

CL2A2-1.3 Explain what is holistic development.

Holistic development is an overall interconnected development of physical, emotional, intellectual, artistic, social and spiritual aspect of a child’s life. It refers to all areas of child’s growth in different stages. It is the whole composition of child’s development as human being that are linked together and simultaneously influenced one area to another during the growing up process. “For example: writing words requires fine motor skills, it also requires cognitive skill (language development) which is also needed for healthy social and emotional development” (17).

Understanding how important also the active collaboration of a responsible parents or an adult to child’s milestones development process in a complete perspective. Definitely the presence of familiar adults gives positive outcome along the way of the entire growth of a child.
CL2A2-2.1 Explain the importance of positive relationships and how it supports the development of young children.

Building positive relationship by parents or familiar adults has a deep impact and effective result to a growing child because it enhances sense of well-being and good social life. “A positive adult-child relationship built in trust, understanding, nutritive and caring are foundational for child’s cooperation, self-motivation and increase positive outcome in life” (18). It gives a child a stable shield like feeling of being protected and a strong sense of worth that make him/her feel of doing things following familiar voices of the person around.

Positive relationship is like a “good hook” that helps a child to grab always his/her attention to learn something good at a time because it creates positive interactions from the one who offers something and from the one who receives. “Children develop best when they have secure, consistent relationship with responsive adults and opportunities for positive relationships with peers.” (19).

“Good form of relationship is a good component for a child to be mentally healthy and to have a positive sense of well-being” (20).

What are some of the important things you can do to create a positive environment for children in the classroom to support their development?
As an assistant teacher who is working in a team environment first of all it needs to work effectively with team mates and create a type of dynamic that all members can be collaborative. The ability of brainstorming is necessary to make an idea beneficial and rewarding for a specific goal.

To make a small classroom to a positive learning environment first of all it needs to be like a “whole world” for a growing child. It should not consist only of physical setting but most of all it should be like un-ended space of exploring, nurturing and expressive enough to be socially, emotionally, cognitively and physically that encourage a child for development.
As a responsible adult, here are few simple things that I can do every day to support the children for their development.

Giving each child affection, attention and respect – saying “I love you” to a child who is affected by broken relationship in the family. Greeting “good morning” and “how are you” every day. Giving compliment and acknowledgement.
Positive room set up – Help the teacher to set up the room, organized and conducive for learning, make it spatial for children to explore that will provide the children the opportunity to have challenge, risk and safety.

Teach then to self-awareness and self-care – show them how to feed themselves, toileting, simple hygiene and personal grooming.

Adaptability – Help each child to be adaptable to situations or environment like: preparing them different kinds of toys or introducing them coloring sheet of the seasons of the year or show and tell activity. Help them to be friendly, say the word “please” if necessary and share toys to playmates.

Always get involve with children – Tracing or whatever activity they are doing and create an activity that will enhance their gross and fine motor skills during play time.

Help them to be autonomy – Give always explanation to situations that they are in to in school, give them small tasks like putting the chair under the table, keep the lunch box inside the bag, clean up the toys.

CL2A2-3.1 Identify the basic needs of young children.

Every child has personal needs to be met that make them to grow wholesomely. Here are the basic needs for young children.

Love and affection – This will help them to grow up to be confident and strong individuals and they can easily form good relationship with other people.

Stable living condition – They need a stable place to call home. This helps them to form a stable friendship with other children in the neighborhood.

Good nutrition – Every child needs to have a balance diet, in order to grow up healthy and strong.

Good learning environment – A home near to schools and other children is a positive environment for children to have more interaction, good relationship and learn more skills in life.

Plenty of sleep (22).

Time and attention – An adult who is always available to gives time and pays attention, who can stay long time with them, who will protect them from bullying or bad influence, who will prepare safety play-ground, who will sing with them their favorite rhymes, who will read a story, one whom they can actively interact at all times. One who will stay along the way of dependency to being autonomy.CL2A2-3.2 Describe the role of the adult in providing the basic needs of the young child.

Responsible parents or a responsive adult play a big role to perform in providing the basic needs of a young child. Apart from shelter and food a significant adult should be “caring and knows how to respond within the principle of SERVE and RETURN. An adult has to pay attention to the balance of things that a child want it can be “challenging but achievable which means – just right – to the need of the recipient” (23).
On the other hand, it is also necessary to include a light structured discipline like every day routines, “self-control to avoid hurting themselves and others” (24)

CL2A2-3.3 Explain how providing the basic needs of young children supports their development.

A child first of all is a human being and have human needs but apart from that each child has additional needs according to its own particular situation. Aside from basic needs he/she is subject to developmental needs to complete its growing up ability. And be a functioning or active members of the society. In this case a child needs complete attention and support to learn and develop useful skills for social, career abilities and psychological skills.

The principle of “serve and return” as an active response of an adult or parents and the balance of things which is not too easy neither too hard but “just right” approach are foundational and effective ways of support from adult.
SERVE and RETURN – This refers to active interactions between parents/adult and a child. It “shapes the brain architecture of a child. When an infant (…) babbles, gestures or cries, and an adult responds appropriately with eye contact, words or a hug, neural connections are built and strengthened in the child’s brain that support the development of communication and social skills.

If adults (…) are sensitive and responsive enough to a young child’s signals and needs, they provide an environment rich in serve and return experiences” (25).
JUST RIGTH – In ZPD (zone of proximal development) theory helps an adult/parents or teacher to asses a child between what he/she can do or can’t do. Guidance from adult is giving a child right tools at the right time. An adult can provide appropriate assistance or support at the right moment.

CFC13-1.1 Identify ways that children can learn.

Visual Learning – Learns best when they can see, read or write. Example is a group of learners who can easily follow the lesson using visual aids, charts, diagrams or maps.

Auditory Learning – Perform best when they can hear the information. Example is listening to audio materials or simply listening to a lecturer and they speak about what they have heard of.

Kinesthetic Learning – Need to have hands-on experience to perform at their best. Example is using hands-on tools like: modeling clay, abacus, wooden numbers and letters, blocks and cubes. Experiments, Field trips, games are also learning opportunities for them.

The concept of challenging but achievable for learners is an advantage to aim “newly acquired skills, advance development and learning because children are challenged beyond their current mastery” (26).

CFC13-1.2 Outline ways that children use senses to find out about the world.

A child at early age doesn’t learn yet abstractly but learns concrete things. The outside world shapes children through their senses and it’s depends on their development experiences that happen through learning, events or particular situation they are in to.
“Younger children think in a concrete way like: here and not here or now and not now. They can able to navigate their homes and classroom by memory and sensory cues (concrete). But as they grow they can use symbols such as right and left to use a map (abstract)” (27).
CONCRETE – “It helps the brain so naturally build on what it already knows” (28). It demonstrates a specific fact, tangible objects in learning and a child can absorb the information better. Example is teaching them how to count with tangibles materials like apples or blocks.

ABSTRACT – Is simply learning from flash cards or hands –off materials. It refers to general learning without referring to a specific object or action. Example: showing objects as image or picture.

CFC13-2.1 Identify some stories and rhymes for children 0-5 years.

The very hungry caterpillar
The tiger who come to tea
The snow man
Ten little fingers and ten little toes
We’re going on a bear hunt
Cycle city
The coral kingdom
You’re safe with me
They say bleu
Room on the broom
Humpty dumpty
Row, row, row your boat
Ring a ring o’ roses
5 little monkey’s jumping on the bed
Itsy bitsy spider
The wheels on the bus
Twinkle-twinkle little star
Old Macdonald
Twelve months of the year
7 day in a week
CFC13-2.2 Identify sensory aid(s) to support children’s enjoyment of stories.

Sensory bin (Room on the broom)
Sensory bottle (We’re going on a bear hunt)
Story basket (Katy and the big snow OR the Golden gleam)
Story sack (Dear zoo OR any other stories can do..)Discovery basket (Three Billy goats gruff)
Sensory story box (3 little kittens)
Exploration sensory basket
A shoal of fish (Any story about fish)
Gelli baff sensory (Dinosaur)
Sensory tubs (Any story can do..)
CFC13-2.3 State ways to encourage children to take part in stories or rhymes.

Start a discussion with children
Take the first move then encourage them to participate with pair up of close friend or brother/sister.

Choose their favorite stories or songs because children love repetition
Start to read the story slowly and show up props so that it will be easy to understand especially to those who are not keen on participating.

Offer them “praise” and let them know how proud you are and talk up about the good side when they participate.

Give them time when they start saying something and don’t insist if they say no to anything else but instead it’s better to encourage them to try it again after their friends. This idea might help them to participate later.

CFC13-3.1 Identify objects of interest from the natural world.

It is obvious that natural world can give a child endless opportunity to grow and stimulate its imagination and creativity much more than with toys inside the room. We all know that every child is design to move, grow and explore as its pattern of development and natural environment is the perfect place to make it possible and discover more.

We can impress a child in different ways but to get his/her attention is always a challenge. Parents or an adult should find a strategy to achieve a specific end. In this case I might be doing an exploratory play. Here are some examples that can be objects of interest for children.

Rocks – rocks in the pool or in the sea shore, coaching the child to touch the rocks build anything a child can do through it and say something about it.

Plants – plant seeds, show different kinds of plants with different colors of flowers and explain the life cycle.

Mini beasts – hunting small animals living under the rocks like: snails, ants looking for food, snails moving slowly and any small species busy with their own life.

Soil – mark making, create a digging pit, planting seeds, adding water to soil to create its different consistency.

Sand – immersing the hands or feet in the sand or the whole body that will make a child excited and retain its focus for a long time while exploring it.

Water – sink and float, pushing the inflated balloon on the surface of the water while feeling the resistance of it. It will easily help a child it imagine and investigate while he/she is playing.

CFC13-3.2 List natural environments which may be used to extend children’s experiences.

Ponds or rivers
Farms or grasslands
Climate composition
CFC13-3.3 Give an example of how outdoor experiences can develop children’s curiosity.

Family outings OR Field trips – A child together with the family or schoolmates learns about self and environment at the same time during an outdoor activity. Aside from physical development a child has to push their limits and learn more and it can be done in an open wide environment.
Park – how high a child can do to swing, to slide, to climb? Does it make sense if he/she will slide on the sand or on the grass?
Pool – what happen if he/she will throw a piece of paper or wood into the pool or maybe its
A kind of experiment to him if he will float or sink?
Zoo – it might be a question of how he/she can fit in with different kinds of animals, begins to learn his/her emotional capabilities.

Weather – how does it feel when it’s rainy or sunny day, when its winter or summer?
Outside world has many information to offer to a growing child because natural world has its own natural order of things and we can feel it how it works according to its own system like: the smelling flowers, the weather composition, the natural colors around, the air, the soft and hard ground we step on and so on.

(1) Arabian Child, Development statement for babies – 11 months/handout
(2) Arabian Child, Holistic Development/handout
(3) Arabian Child, Development Statement for 16 – 26 months/handout
(4) Child Development Institute, Ages and stages of Child Development
(5) Arabian Child, Development Statement for 16 – 20 Months/handout
(6) Arabian Child, Development Statement for 16 – 20 Months/handout
(7) Arabian Child, Development Statement for 16 – 20 Months/handout
(8) Arabian Child, Development Statement for 16 – 20 Months/handout
(9) Arabian Child, Development Statement for 22 – 36 Months/handout
(10) Arabian Child, Development Statement for 22 – 36 Months/handout
(11) Arabian Child, Development Statement for 22 – 36 Months/handout
(12) Arabian Child, Development Statement for 30 – 50 Months/handout
(13), Task 2, CYP 3.1 (1.2)
(14) Silky Steps Forums – Early Years Resources and Online
Community/hevkemp post, 10-30-2012, 10:26 AM
(17) Arabian Child, Holistic Development/handout
(18) 5.pdf
(19) Arabian Child, Interactions/handout
(20) Mental Adult Foundation/May 20, 2016 by Paula Lavis(21) Voices of Youth, Basic Needs of Children/post/Shine Education
(22) Arabian Child, Needs/handout
(23) Arabian Child, Zone of Development, Serve and Return/handout
(24) Daily News-Miner, 10 basic needs of children from parents by Marla
Lowder, January 14, 2015
(25)Center on the Developing Child, Harvard University
(26) Arabian Child, Challenging but Achievable/handout
(27) Arabian Child, Concrete – Abstract/handout
(28), December 13, 2012
Al Tawun Branch

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