A student on parental effects on education

This chapter gives an overall picture of the design of the study research tools used for the study, nature and selection of the sample, analysis and interpretation of the data in the light of other research studies.

Academic achievement is one of the aims of education. A child’s academic achievement is highly improved by parent-child relationship. It is also enforced by the nature of the school and teachers, student’s socio – economic status, attitudes, motivation, personality factors, cognitive styles and intelligence which is indulged with the parents. The parent-child relationship is a good key factor for a child to have adjustment in environment and to perform well in academics also.

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The need for undertaking this research study is to replicate the parent-child relationship and how it enhances the child’s adjustment ability. The friendly motivation given to the child enables him/her to empower concentration and boost them to explore in academics.

The educational capacity of the student is judged by his achievement in the school. The academic performance in school subjects will lead them to choose the future course of life. In the high school level itself the basic things will be known by the students. This is an important stage not only for studying habits influencing the academic achievement, but also to bear on the whole personality of the school students.

The investigator would like to know, ‘Is there any relationship between parent’s behavior on the child’s adjustment and academic achievement of the School students?’. The knowledge of the relationship between these variables under study would help the parents and students to make the needed changes.

Understanding the relationship between parent’s behaviour on the child’s adjustment and his academic achievement will be of great importance in determining the interrelation between the variables under study.

The results of the present study will be useful to understand the fact, whether parent – child relationship has greater impact on the child’s adjustment and academic outcome of the students. The findings can be utilized in the field of education to develop remedial measures, favorable relationship between the parent and the child which in turn will help the high school students. As a result healthier school community, society and the nation will be formed.

The prime focus of this project was to examine developmental changes in parent-child relationships, and their associations with child adjustment related to academic achievement of them as students.

3.03 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The present investigation entitled “A study on the effects of parent – child relationship on the child’s adjustment and academic achievement” has been undertaken keeping in view the importance of explicating the effect of parent-child relationship on child’s adjustment and academic achievement of high school students.

3.04 MEANING OF THE PROBLEM

In the process of learning, Motivation is the central factor to get a perfect result. Adjustment is the process by which a person tries to strike a balance between his requirements ((i.e.) needs, desires, drives & urges) and varying life situations. Adjustment is a continuous process by which a person varies his behaviour to produce more harmonious relationship between himself and his environment.

Parent’s involvement is critical in facilitating children’s development and achievement and in preventing and remedying educational and developmental problems. Substantial evidence exists to show that children whose parents are involved in their schooling have significantly increased their academic achievement and cognitive development. Academic achievement is an important predictor of adjustment and has been associated with several factors such as parenting styles and parental involvement

The present study is intended to study the following objectives.

3.05 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To find out the effect of Parent-child relationship, Parent-child adjustment and Academic achievement of students.

2. To find out the significant difference in the mean scores of the

a) Gender

b) Medium

c) Types of School

d) Types of management

e) Locality

3.06 HYPOTHESES:

Based on the objectives of the present study the following hypotheses were framed.

1. Gender does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to their different dimensions of Parent-child relationship.

2. Gender does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to their different dimension of Parent-child’s relationship.

3. Gender does not show significant difference between the father-child’s adjustments with regard to their different dimension of child’s adjustment.

4. Gender does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s adjustments with regard to their different dimension of child adjustment.

5. Gender does not show significant difference between the child’s relationships with regard to Parent-child’s relationship.

6. Gender does not signify difference between the child’s adjustments with regard to Parent-child’s adjustment.

7. Gender does not show significant difference between the Academic Achievement with relation to Parent-child’s relationship and Parent-child’s Adjustment.

8. Medium of instruction does not show significant difference between the father-child relationships with regard to their different dimension of Parent-child’s relationship.

9. Medium of instruction does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to their different dimension of Parent-child’s relationship.

10. Medium of instruction does not d show significant difference between the father child’s adjustments with regard to their different dimension of Parent-child’s adjustment.

11. Medium of instruction does not show significant difference between the mother child’s adjustments with regard to their different dimension of Parent-child’s adjustment.

12. Medium of instruction does not show significant difference between the child’s relationships with regard to Parent-child’s relationship.

13. Medium of instruction does not show significant difference between the child’s adjustments with regard to Parent-child’s adjustment.

14. Medium of instruction does not show significant difference between the Academic Achievement with relation to Parent-child’s Adjustment and Parent-child’s relationship.

15. Type of School does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of protecting behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

16. Type of School does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Symbolic Punishment Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

17. Type of School does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Rejecting Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

18. Type of School does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Object Punishment Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

19. Type of School does not show significant difference between the father-child relationships with regard to dimension of Demanding Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

20. Type of School does not show significant difference between the father-child relationships with regard to dimension of Indifferent Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

21. Type of School does not show significant difference between the father-child relationships with regard to dimension of Symbolic Reward Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

22. Type of School does not show significant difference between the father-child relationships with regard to dimension of Loving Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

23. Type of School does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Object Reward Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

24. Type of School does not show significant difference between the father-child relationships with regard to dimension of Neglecting Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

25. Type of School does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to Parent-child’s relationship.

26. Type of School does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of protecting behavior of Parent-child’s relationship.

27. Type of School does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Symbolic Punishment Behavior of Parent-child’s relationship.

28. Type of School does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Rejecting Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

29. Type of School does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Object Punishment Behavior of Parent-child’s relationship.

30. Type of School does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Demanding Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

31. Type of School does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationship with regard to dimension of Indifferent Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

32. Type of School does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Symbolic Reward Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

33. Type of School does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Loving Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

34. Type of School does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Object Reward Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

35. Type of School does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Neglecting Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

36. Type of School does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to Parent-child’s relationship.

37. Type of school does not show significant relationships between the father-child’s adjustments with regard to their different dimension of child adjustment.

38. Type of school does not show significant relationship between the mother-child’s adjustments with regard to their different dimensions of Parent-child’s adjustment.

39. Type of school does not show significant difference in child relationship with regard to Parent-child’s relationship.

40. Type of Schools does not show significant difference between the child adjustments with regard to Parent-child’s adjustment.

41. Type of Schools does not show significant relationship between the Academic Achievement with relation to Parent-child’s relationship and Parent-child’s Adjustment.

42. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of protecting behavior of Parent-child’s relationship.

43. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationship with regard to dimension of Symbolic Punishment Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

44. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Rejecting Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

45. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Object Punishment Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

46. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Demanding Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

47. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Indifferent Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

48. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Symbolic Reward Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

49. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Loving Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

50. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Object Reward Behavior of Parent-child’s relationship.

51. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Neglecting Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

52. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to Parent-child’s relationship.

53. Type of Management does not show difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of protecting behavior of Parent-child’s relationship.

54. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the mother-child relationships with regard to dimension of Symbolic Punishment Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

55. Type of management does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Rejecting Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

56. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Object Punishment Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

57. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Demanding Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

58. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Indifferent Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

59. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Symbolic Reward Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

60. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Loving Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

61. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Object Reward Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

62. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to dimension of Neglecting Behaviour of Parent-child’s relationship.

63. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to Parent-child’s relationship.

64. Type of Management does not show significant relationship between the father-child’s adjustments with regard to their different dimension of child adjustment.

65. Type of Management does not show significant relationship between the mother-child’s adjustments with regard to their different dimensions of Parent-child’s adjustment.

66. Type of Management does not show significant difference in child relationship with regard to Parent-child’s relationship.

67. Type of Management does not show significant difference between the child adjustments with regard to Parent-child’s adjustment.

68. Type of Management does not show significant relationship between the Academic Achievement with related to Parent-child’s relationship and Parent-child’s Adjustment.

69. Locality does not show significant difference between the father-child’s relationships with regard to their different dimension of Parent-child’s relationship.

70. Locality does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s relationships with regard to their different dimension of Parent-child’s relationship.

71. Locality does not show significant difference between the father-child’s adjustments with regard to their different dimension of child adjustment.

72. Locality does not show significant difference between the mother-child’s adjustments with regard to their different dimension of child adjustment.

73. Locality does not show significant difference between the child relationships with regard to Parent-child’s relationship.

74. Locality does not show significant difference between the child adjustments with regard to Parent-child’s adjustment.

75. Locality does not show significant difference between the Academic Achievement with related to Parent-child’s relationship and Parent-child’s Adjustment.

76. There is no significant association between parent child relationship and parent child’s adjustment.

77. There is no significant association between parent child’s relationship and academic achievement.

78. There is no significant association between parent child’s relationship and academic achievement.

79. There is no Correlation between Parent child’s relationship and Parent child’s adjustment.

80. There is no Correlation between Parent child relationship and Academic achievement.

81. There is no Correlation between Parent child’s adjustment and Academic achievement of students.

3.07 METHOD OF STUDY

Survey was made as per the present study among the Standard XII students in high schools of Chennai, Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur districts in Tamil Nadu to identify parent-child relationship, child’s adjustment inventory, academic achievement and other related variables.

3.08 VARIABLES OF THE STUDY

The variables selected for the present study are given below:

3.08.01 RESEARCH VARIABLES

Parent-Child Relationship (independent variable)

Child’s Adjustment Inventory (dependent variable)

Academic Achievement (dependent variable)

The dimensions of parent-child relationship are given below:

Protecting

Symbolic Punishment

Rejecting

Object Punishment

Demanding

Indifferent

Symbolic Reward

Loving

Object Reward

Neglecting

The dimensions of child’s adjustment inventory are given below:

Emotional

Social

Educational

3.08.02 OTHER VARIABLES

Gender

Medium

Type of Schools

Type of management of the schools

Locality

3.09 TOOLS USED IN THE STUDY

The investigator used the following tools in this study

Parent child relationship scale (PCRS)

Author: Dr.Nalini Rao (1989)

Adjustment inventory for school students (AISS)

Author: A.K.P.Sinha and R.P. Singh (1993)

3.09.01 PARENT-CHILD RELATIONSHIP, CHILD’S ADJUSTMENT INVENTORY AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT

To test the hypothesis framed for the present investigation, parent-child relationship scale and child’s adjustment inventory has been used to collect information of the high school students.

3.09.02 Description

The description of the parent child’s relationship is given below:

It is a 5 point scale. The tool contains 100 items categorized into 10 dimensions namely, protecting, symbolic punishment, rejecting, object punishment, demanding, indifferent, symbolic reward, loving, object reward and neglecting. Items of the scale are arranged in the same order as the dimensions and they rotate in a cycle through the scale. Each respondent score the tool for both Father and Mother separately. Items are common to both parents.

The description of the child’s adjustment inventory is given below:

It is a 2 point scale. The tool contains 60 items categorized into three dimensions namely, emotional, social and educational. Items of the scale are arranged in the same order as the dimensions and they rotate in a cycle through the scale.

3.09.03 Administration

Before administering the test, necessary instructions and directions were given to the students. No time limit is given to the students were asked to complete the inventory as early as possible.

3.09.04 Scoring Procedure
Parent child relationship scale (PCRS)

Respondents are asked to rate statements as to their own perception of their relationship with either father or mother on a five point scale ranging from ‘Always’ to ‘very rarely’ weighted 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 on the scale points. The scale is scored separately for each of the parent thus every respondent obtains ten scores for ‘father form’ and ten for ‘mother form’ on the ten dimensions of the scale. Each sub-scale yields a score found by summing the scores of the ratings on each item of the sub-scale.

Table 3.1
Dimensions, Item of Number of Parent – Child Relationship Scale
S.No.
Dimensions
Item Numbers

1

Protecting

1,11,21,31,41,51,61,71,81,91

2

Symbolic Punishment

2,12,22,32,42,52,62,72,82,92

3

Rejecting

3,13,23,33,43,53,63,73,83,93

4

Object Punishment

4,14,24,34,44,54,64,74,84,94

5

Demanding

5,15,25,35,45,55,65,75,85,95

6

Indifferent

6,16,26,36,46,56,66,76,86,96

7

Symbolic Reward

7,17,27,37,47,57,67,77,87,97

8

Loving

8,18,28,38,48,58,68,78,88,98

9

Object Reward

9,19,29,39,49,59,69,79,89,99

10

Neglecting

10,20,30,40,50,60,70,80,90,100

Adjustment inventory for school students (AISS)

The questions were to be answered in ‘Yes’ or ‘No’.

The use of designer letters A, B and C corresponding to Emotional adjustment, Social adjustment and Educational adjustment enables the test user to discover readily questions relating to each measure. The total score indicates the general adjustment status.

Table 3.2
Dimensions, Item of Number of Child’s Adjustment Inventory
S.No.
Dimensions
Item Numbers

1

Emotional

1,4,7,10,13,16,19,22,25,28,31,34,37,40,43,46,49,52,55,58

2

Social

2,5,8,11,14,17,20,23,26,29,32,35,38,41,44,47,50,53,56,59

3

Educational

3,6,9,12,15,18,21,24,27,30,33,36,39.42,45,48,51,54,57,60

3.10 PILOT STUDY

As pilot study was conducted to determine the suitability of the tools used in the present investigation, Random samples of 240 students were selected for the pilot study comparing 80 from Government school, Government-Aided 80 and 80 from Private school, out of which 120 were boys and 120 girls and the reliability and validity were computed.

3.11 ESTABLISHING RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY:

The reliability of the parent-child relationship was found out by correlation method and the obtained suitability co-efficient of 0.91 (N = 240) suggest that the parent-child relationship are valuable for using the standardized tools.

Table 3.3
CORRELATION:
S.No.
Dimensions
Father
Mother
Boys
Girls
Boys
Girls
1

Protecting

2

Symbolic Punishment

3

Rejecting

4

Object Punishment

5

Demanding

6

Indifferent

7

Symbolic Reward

8

Loving

9

Object Reward

10

Neglecting

3.12 MAIN STUDY:

The validated tool was used for the main study to collect the necessary data; the study was carried out in six schools in Chennai, Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur Districts in Tamil Nadu. In this investigation, the main aim is to study the effects of parent-child relationship on the child’s adjustment and academic achievement of high school students.

3.13.01 SELECTION OF THE SAMPLE

Random sampling technique has been adopted to choose the samples. Random samples of 1129 students from Standard IX were selected from Chennai, Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur Districts in Tamil Nadu.

Table 3.4
Distribution of Sample

S.No.

Name of the School

Government/ Aided/ Private

Boys

Girls

Total

1

2

3

4

5

6

3.13.02 SAMPLE DISTRIBUTION:
Table 3.5
TYPES OF SCHOOL
BOYS
GIRLS
TOTAL

GOVERNMENT

AIDED

PRIVATE

TOTAL

The investigator obtained necessary permission from the principal’s of the school of education, for collection of data. The willingness and co-operation of the teachers from those institutions was also sought to administer the parent-child relationship, child’s adjustment inventory and academic achievement marks. Thus the necessary data were collected during the academic year 2008 – 2010 from 1129 students of high school covering the whole taluk of Chennai, Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur Districts in Tamil Nadu.

3.15 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES:

Suitable statistical techniques were used to interpret the data to draw out a more meaningful result in the present study in the following statistical measures were used.

Descriptive (Mean, Standard Deviation)

Differential Analysis (t-test)

Relational Analysis (Correlation)

Chi-Square

3.16 DELIMITATIONS:

The study is confined to high school children (i.e) children between the age group of 13 to 15.

The boundary of the sample area is restricted to the Taluk of Chennai, Kanchipuram and Thiruvallur Districts not covering the whole Tamil Nadu.

The study is confined to the effects of parent- child relationship.

The size of the sample of high school children is restricted to 1129 for the study.

3.17 CONCLUSION:

Parent-child relationships undergo important transitions during adolescence, including a decrease in time spent with parents and a shift from dependency to mutual reciprocity. Parents play a significant role in supporting their child with providing secure attachment during these transitions. Adolescents benefit from parental support that encourages autonomy development yet ensures continued monitoring and emotional connectedness. Specific parenting skills that promote attachment security and autonomy development include psychological availability, warmth, active listening, Behaviour monitoring, limit setting, acceptance of individuality, and negotiation rules and responsibilities. Parental support during stressful periods of transition e.g., entry to high school) predicts positive adolescent adjustment

Children who have experienced chaotic and inconsistent parenting do not have the experience of regulation to guide their own efforts, nor the confidence in the caregiver (and consequently in themselves) required for self-regulation. Additionally, children who have been pushed to independence at too early age because of their parent’s emotionally unavailable condition or too strict to tend or to adopt rigid regular strategies, which they attempt to use on their own. They do not learn to turn to parents or others to help them with regulation.

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