5305425-514350Chapter IINTRODUCTIONPhysics is basic for understanding the complexities of modern technology, and essential for technological advancement of a nation. This aspect of science is making significant contribution to many of the inventions that are shaping modern day, and has helped to explain many of the events being encountered in everyday life. Despite its importance, physics remains the least favoured science subject among students generally.
Compared to other science subjects, only a few students choose to study physics at O-level and, subsequently, at higher degrees (Erinosho, 2013).Over the past decade, physicists, psychologists and science educators have been conducting research that has yielded detailed information about how students learn physics. Some investigators have used physics as a context for examining cognitive processes and approaches to problem?solving.
For others, the primary emphasis has been on conceptual understanding in a particular area of physics such as mechanics, electricity, heat or optics. Regardless of the motivation behind the research, the results indicate that similar difficulties occur among students of different ages and ability, often in spite of formal study in physics. The persistence of these difficulties suggests that they are not easily overcome, and need to be addressed explicitly during instruction. Recent investigations of the difficulties that students encounter in learning physics are beginning to provide a new resource for improving instruction (McDermott, 2017). Thus, the researcher choose the e-Learning materials as a new resource for improving instruction in Physics since it is quickly becoming a media of choice for learning and information distribution throughout the world. It is incorporated into areas of education, marketing and training due to its apparent success as the medium for transfer of information at high pace in the advent of digital era. In support with this, the inclusion of multimedia elements in teaching physics serves as a convenient means of awakening students’ interest and enhances students’ self-logical thinking and conceptual understanding.
(Bednarova, 2012).Background of the StudyIn the advent of implementation of K to 12 Curriculum in the Philippines under the Department of Education (DepEd), the need to use e-learning in the classroom is important since the integration of the subject areas is emphasized. Bro.
Armin Luistro, former DepEd Secretary, envisions every child in the Philippines acquiring quality education, with every classroom having a computer. Progress in the field of computer education is very helpful in learning medium. In addition, Leonor Briones, DepEd Secretary, continue to improve ICT literacy by further improving curriculum content, teaching methods, and appropriate facilities (Pascua, 2016). In addition, DepEd has intensified the provision of ICT training to teachers of English, Mathematics, and Technology and Home Economics to deliver quality education that is accessible to all through the use of IT and other technologies.
However, the limited availability of education software and courseware has been identified and there are still reports that Filipino students are lagging in academic achievement levels in Science and Technology as proven in findings of the National Education Testing and Research Center NETRC) and Trends in the International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS). In TIMSS, Philippines revealed that Filipino school children fared poorly in the 2003 tests. The country ranked 43rd out of 46 countries with an average lower than the international survery. The Philippines ranked 23rd out of 25 participating countries in both math and science. In 2008, even with only science high schools participating in the Advanced Mathematics category, the Philippines ranked lowest among 10 countries (The Manila Times, 2014).
Students and teachers manuals have become prevalent containing the prescribed activities at hand with the advent of the K to 12 programs in the Philippines in 2012-2013. In connection, unsuccessful integration of ICT in teaching Science especially in new curriculum might be lack of confidence and competence and lack of access of teachers to resources that’s why students inside the classroom get easily bored due to sitting too long, talking too much, and everyday routine of the teacher. These are the reasons why the country is far left behind. The Department of Education implemented the DepEd Computerization Program or DCP (DO No.
78, s.2010) to answer these problems. DCP aims to provide public schools with appropriate technologies that would enhance the teaching learning process and meet the challenges of the 21st century. The objectives of DCP are as follows: (1) provide computer laboratory packages to secondary schools; (2) provide e-classroom to elementary schools; (3) integrate ICT in the school system; and (4) raise ICT literacy of learners, pupils, teachers and school heads. In this view, the researcher innovated a way of delivering the classroom instruction to cater the 21st century learners using the e-learning materials packed with all the necessary multimedia materials for enhancement purposes of the concepts.
It offered a convenient way to learn the subject at hand. Ultimately, the researcher desired to foster creativity and innovativeness among learners.Objectives of the StudyThis research study aimed to develop an e-learning material for the enhancement of conceptual understanding of Grade 9 learners in Physics at Luis Palad Integrated High School for the school year 2017-2018.Specifically, it sought to fulfil the following objectives:Develop an interactive e-learning materials for the enhancement of Grade 9 learners’ conceptual understanding in Physics.Determine if there is significant difference between the respondents in the experimental and control group in terms of:Average grades in Science 8, andPre-test scores.Ascertain if there is a significant difference between the post-test scores of the control and experimental groups.Assess the students’ level of acceptability of the e-learning materials in terms of:ContentClarityAppeal to the Target User.
HypothesisHo: There is no significant difference on the average grade in Science 8 and pre-test scores of the control and experimental groups.Ho: There is no significant difference between the post-test scores of control and experimental groups.Significance of the StudyThe use of e-learning materials for the enhancement of conceptual understanding in Physics would be significant to the following:Students. As the focal point of the study, careful rendering of necessary instructional material would cater their needs. With the advent of new curriculum, it would be beneficial to the modern learners to broaden their horizon of learning and deepening their conceptual understanding in Physics needed for spiralling on the context of the K to 12 curriculum.
The students would greatly benefit from this study because they would find the lessons prepared by the researcher relevant to the changing time, interesting and enjoyable. Furthermore, it would hook them to apply ICT in doing science activities and projects which would motivate them to learn and concretize scientific concepts.Teachers. It would help educators to deliver method of instruction parallel to the needs and capabilities of 21st century learners. Enriching what the students ought to know would be a necessity for the continuity of concepts as deemed in a spiral progression approach.
Science teachers may develop skills in utilizing ICT in teaching equipped with tools in getting an updated information. Thus, digitizing the way of teaching would further mean more innovative and creative learners.School Heads. It would serve as a factual basis in planning and strengthening the curriculum and instruction needed in the K to 12 Curriculum. Furthermore, it would signify and attest the need to address the issue of lack ICT-based instructional materials so much needed at present by the learners.
Future Researchers. The result of this study could be to reference to develop other e-learning instructional material that would possibly reinforce, motivate and enrich learner’s conceptual understanding that even a teacher who is new in conducting research can do this.Scope and LimitationsThis study is limited on the development and use of e-Learning material for enhancement of conceptual understanding of Grade 9 learners in Physics for Fourth Quarter of Grade 9 Science School Year 2017-2018. Two groups were formed, the experimental group exposed to the treatment and the control group taught using the traditional way of teaching.
Both groups were composed of 46 students selected as respondents. Respondents were grouped using matching variables such as the average grade in Science 8 and the pre-test scores. The study covered the fourth quarter using Unit 4: Force, Motion and Energy of the learning material and consisting of four (4) modules, viz: Motion in Two Dimensions; Work, Power, and Energy; Heat, Work, and Energy; and Electricity and Magnetism with their corresponding specific learning competencies. The e-learning material was designed by the researcher and an expert programmer.
It contained e-lectures, videos, e-quizzes, simulated demonstrations and e-glossary for teachers’ and students’ reference to unfamiliar Physics terms integrated in the lessons under Unit 4: Force, Motion and Energy and its modules. This experimental part was conducted in Luis Palad Integrated High School from January 22, 2018 to March 20, 2018.The study primarily focused but not limited to facilitating a 65-item multiple choice type questionnaires. The difference in the results of the post-test determined if the respondents in experimental group will perform better than those in the control group.
In addition, the likert-type questionnaire of the e-learning materials was used in order to determine the level of acceptability of the students to the materials. This study was conducted from July 2017 to April 2018. This study completed within ten (10) months starting from conceptualizing the title up to the write up of the final manuscript. Definition of TermsThe researcher defined selected terms conceptually and operationally as they will be used in this study:Appeal to Target Users refers to impact and interest of users to a presentation (Del Rio 2012), which in this study pertains to effects and impact of the material to the students as perceived by the teachers.Clarity according to Merriam-Webster it pertains to the quality or state of being clear, which in this study focused on how the lessons are well-explained in the e-Learning materials.Conceptual Understanding pertains to six facets of understanding: explanation, interpretation, application, empathy, perspective, and self-knowledge, and are assessed based on a breadth understanding (connection to a wide range of contexts) and depth of understanding (use of insights, reflection) (DepEd K12 Curriculum Report, 2012).
In this research, it is demonstrated when students grasp and enrich ideas for spiralling of concepts in Physics.Content Quality deals with the quality of characteristic of instructional material to be easily understood (Santamena. 2016) which in this study pertains to e-Learning materials. It was made interactive by including e-Glossary, Navigation, Help Features and Lesson and Topic Buttons, Video Files, e-Quizzes, e-Games, and other aspects like instruction for teachers, files to be sent to students, answers to quizzes and online links.
Control group refers to a group of subjects that is matched as closely as possible with the experimental group (Lindgren, 2012). In this study, it refers to the group of respondents who used the traditional way of teaching science.E-learning Material involves the use of a computer or electronic device (e.
g. a mobile phone) in some way to provide training, educational or learning material. (Derek Stockley, 2003). Operationally, it is the treatment used for the experimental group in order to test the enhancement of their conceptual understanding in Physics.
Experimental group refers to a group of subjects that is matched as closely as possible with the control group (Lindgren, 2012). In this study, it refers to the group of respondents who utilized the interactive e-learning materials in Physics.Grade 9 Learners refer to the respondents of the present investigation who are currently enrolled as Grade 9 students of Luis Palad Integrated High School for the School Year 2017-2018.Pretest is a preliminary test given to evaluate the preparedness of students for further studies (Merriam-Webster, 2014). In this study, it is administered before the students’ exposure to the e-learning materials.Posttest is a test given to students after completion of an instructional program or segment in conjunction with pretest to measure their achievement and the effectiveness of the material (Merriam-Webster, 2014).
In this study, it is administered upon finishing the lessons for each module. In addition, posttest results of two groups are compared to determine the difference of their conceptual understanding in Physics.5305425-473075Chapter IIREVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIESThis chapter presents the review of related readings to support the study as well as the research paradigm. A number of books, journals and publications, research studies and online resources were reviewed.
The ideas gained from these references helped the researcher to conceptualize the study.E-learning Materials E-learning is the effective learning process created by combining digitally delivered content with learning support services. E-learning includes numerous types of media that delivered text, audio, image, animation, and streaming video, and includes technology application and processes such as audio or tape, satellite TV, CD-ROM, and computer based learning, as well as local intranet/extranet and web based learning. Information and communication system, whether free-standing or based on either local networks or the internet in networked learning, underlies many e-learning processes (Waller, 2018).
According to Holmes et.al (2008) in his book e-Learning (Concepts and Practice), computer-based educational approaches, and specifically e-Learning, have the potential to impact positively on the entire spectrum of education. At present there are examples of all categories of people – students, trainees, lifelong learners, and so on – using e-Learning. Advocates of e-Learning envisage the social penetration of e-Learning in the future to be wider and deeper that is, with increasing numbers of people availing themselves of increasingly better quality learning opportunities. Hughes (2015) describes e-learning has to do with learning by technology to enhance the learner experience.
In addition, it provides the basis for a close interaction between the learner and the subject matter that the learner is called upon to respond to activity in the interaction with an instructional program at the rate in which the interaction proceeds is governed individually according to each learner’s response. An educational technique is created and aptitudes are taken into consideration in the management of the learning process which seems hardly possible in a fixed-paced instruction typical of a classroom lecture. Furthermore, Kuhlmann (2010), a blogger, stated that e-learning is hot and for good reason if done right, it can produce great results by decreasing costs and improving performance. In addition, e-learning is not only about sophisticated platforms where teachers and students can meet up in a digital space and interact. E-learning has to do with any learning that uses technology to enhance the learner experience (Gomez, 2016). E-learning, according to Markus (2010) can be defined as a learning process created by interaction with digitally delivered content, network-based services and tutoring support.
E-learning is any technologically mediated learning using computers whether from a distance or face to face classroom setting. It is a shift from traditional education to ICT-based personalized and collaborative learning based on a community of learners. E-learning is the use of Internet technologies to enhance knowledge and performance.Koohang and Harman (2005) stated that “e-learning is the delivery of education (all activities relevant to instructing, teaching, and learning) through various electronic media.” Koohang (2004) stated that appropriate instructional design that includes learning theories and principles is critical to the success of e-learning.
E-learning can be in the form of various media like the electronic books (e-books) which are becoming widespread and commonplace but with highly interactive e-books actively engage the reader and have great potential to increase student learning. Children use books, touch screens, writing instruments, and tools for studying scientific and social concepts. As digital technologies become increasingly the tools that older children and adults use in their work and home lives, children seek to emulate this usage, first through imitation and representational play and then later through mastery of the tools for their own self-expression and learning. New web-based technologies allow the child to be the producer of the tools, adding to its appropriateness, motivation, and usability (Selim, 2005).
Generally, Urdan and Weggen (2000) viewed e-Iearning as the solution to several challenges currently facing higher education. It includes a move towards lifelong learning, with its on-going demand for professional development and the drive to widen participation. Challenges come at a time of increasing pressure on resources, and the increasing diversity in student population and their modes of attendance. Including learning that is part-time, at a distance, open or flexible, and work-based e-learning can improve the flexibility and quality of learning by (1) providing access to range of resources and materials which may not otherwise be accessible, for example graphics, sound, animation, multimedia; (2) giving control to students over when and where they study; (3) allowing students to study at their own pace; (4) providing student-centred learning environment which can be tailored to meet the learning needs of individual students; (5) creating an environment that promotes an active approach to learning; (6) supporting increased communications between staff and students and among the students; (7) providing frequent and timely individual feedback through a computer-assisted assessment and positive reinforcement; (8) motivating students through appropriate use of interactive courseware; (9) supporting and encouraging collaborative learning; (10) supporting economic reuse of high quality, expensive resources; and (11) encouraging the students to take responsibility for their own learning.
In addition, lectures and experts from many institutions worldwide who already used different kinds of e-learning tools within their education processes (Lau, 2005; Maurice, 2006; Selmer 2007; Hussman, 2004; Rodrigues et.al, 2006 as cited by Krajnc 2012) think that such technology stimulates and motivates students’ interest in their subjects, improves their learning performances within the discipline of industrial engineering, and significantly improves the teaching and learning, whilst saving time and money regarding all aspects of the classroom.There are some aspects of e-learning such as e-lectures, simulations, e-quizzes, animation, videos, and virtual glossary.
Nowadays, it is normal to use electronic slides, the internet, e-mails, electronic learning environments and e-course material during lecture presentation. When using ICT at lectures, it is the lectures’ responsibilities to present students with qualitative and important information. Many lectures who use ICT say that when ICT is included within the traditional method of education, it facilitates lectures and the students’ work, and the lectures became more dynamic and interesting. Different e-activities also enrich the subject content. E-learning presents an alternative for students and helps them to find a balance between their private lives, careers, and education. It is one of the more dynamic and enriching forms of learning, and reduces dependency on space and time (Paik et al, 2004 as cited by Lukman, 2012). It offers both individual learning experiences, and opportunities for working together with colleagues (Peat, 2000 as cited by Lukman, 2012).
Another application of multimedia Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) model that brought a significant change on students learning as compared to traditional is the used of simulation. Teaching is not simply presenting ideas and insights but also a way of transmitting information. Learning is not just committing facts to memory but the ability to critique, synthesize, analyse, use and apply information (Rapada, 2014).In addition to the goal of promoting student conceptual understanding of Science, Physics Education Technology (PhET) simulations aim to engage students in scientific exploration and to increase student interest in science. PhET simulations are thus, designed to be fun and interactive, to connect to the real world, to provide multiple representations and to allow rapid inquiry cycles. Lancaster et.al.
(2013) tested each simulation using student interviews and study of the simulations in variety of educational settings.Nevertheless, Yesilyurt (2010) also stated that the computer-use software in physics, computer-use animations, and computer-use integrated experiment, simulations are leading technological applications of performing important and permanent learning. Furthermore, computer assisted instruction is a teaching method that strengthen the effectiveness of teaching and so it should be used carefully.Salomón et al. (2004) maintained that simulations constitute an alternative way to learn, which is based on discovery and experience. They are interactive programs presenting complicated phenomena in an easy way. Simulations have important role in facilitating learning process in situations and places previously not available or possible.
They represent the model of “laboratory in a classroom” and this is a unique feature ever available taking into account how difficult it is to organize and conduct live lab exercises.Another aspect in the use of ICT is in assessment. Lecturers who have one hundred or more students at their lectures know that the lecturer may well spend more time on the final assessment than on lecturing, lecture preparation, and tutorials (Hussman et.al;2004, Excell, 2004). Because assessment represents a significant part of a lecturer’s workload, computer-assisted assessment has the potential for allowing an effective assessment regime to be maintained in the case of large classes.
E-learning assessment of knowledge is also of great benefit from the students’ point of view. Rossiter et al. (2010) implemented online quizzes within a Chemical Process Principle Course in the freshman year.
Such a new method of learning improved students’ learning and success, particularly among weaker students and helped them to develop transferable skills regarding teamwork and communication. The quizzes helped them to do their homework, and to a certain extent, develop their core technical skills for problem-based learning activities.True/false questions and multiple choice questions (quizzes) are typical in computerized knowledge assessment. The learners’ progress self-assessment is an important stage of major pedagogical practices. The quizzes serve to check if the knowledge was assimilated. Thus, every chapter devoted to learning should have at least one quiz, which helps learners to monitor their memorization and understanding the material presented. Teachers use quizzes for flexible material adaptation during consequent instruction phases (Straub, Loch, ; Hill, 2001).
E-learning also includes animations and videos that extend static images with dynamics which are perceived by developers as more valuable compared to the static pictures when illustrating changes of object states or properties. In the platform animations and movies can be parts of the chapters and chapter pop-ups. Movies can be opened directly from electronic pages. Movies and animations can be also parts of other e-learning portal element, such as the glossary, a virtual study visit or a gallery.
E-learning and module-based learning combined together and applied in classroom teaching would really have a great impact on the academic performance of the students. E-learning modules are learner-centred and focused on usability. They provide an interactive, dynamic and intuitive way of improving your knowledge of a given subject, from the basic concepts to a certain degree of specialization. They are designed to make the learner an active player in the learning process. An e-learning module begins with an audio-video introduction followed by, a preliminary self-assessment test.
A final test allows the learner to evaluate the level of understanding achieved by the end of the module (Mouzakitis, 2011).Arnold (2010) said that information that helps teach or encourages interactions can be presented on computers in the form of text or multimedia formats which include photographs, videos, animation, speech and music. Arnold also added that there is a substantial evidence that computer assisted instruction can enhance learning at all educational levels.Learning with multimedia e-materials is more motivated and successful compared with live lessons or other media which enable easier learning. Such material adapts students to various learning styles and facilitates a constructive and inquiry-based approach to learning (Clark ; Feldon, 2005; Krnel ; Bajd, 2009). When students use multimedia e-text-books, they can better prepare themselves for examinations. Usually, they easily pass e-tests, oral and written exams and colloquiums.
Interactive media is the integration of digital media including combinations of electronic text, graphics, moving images, and sound, into a structured digital computerized environment that allows people to interact with the data for appropriate purposes. Calvert, Rideout, Woodard, Barr ; Strouse (2005) placed greater emphasis on the user’s role in interactive media when they defined interactivity as “an exchange of actions or ideas that builds on previous exchanges. Interactivity, embedded in human experiences, involves control, responsiveness and turn taking.”In the study Chen (2017) entitled “An Adaptive e-Learning System for Enhancing Learning Performance: Based on Dynamic Scaffolding Theory” showed that the developed adaptive e-learning system can effectively support students with personalized learning materials and successfully helps students acquired knowledge and develop cognitive abilities. Lubiano (2015) used an interactive e-learning portal that contain some hyperlinked lectures, interactive games, e-quizzes with rubrics and readily available answers, an e-dictionary in Physics, and the simulated demonstrations was developed for Grade 8 learners in Physics.
Based on the findings, it was concluded that the interactive e-learning portal can enrich the learners’ conceptual understanding of the students in Grade 8 Science-Physics.Similarly, Mothibi (2015) in his study entitled “A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between E-Learning and Students’ Academic Achievement in Higher Education”, it was revealed that use of in associated information and communication technology for enhancing e-learning enhances students’ educational academic achievement. The results therefore indicate that effective application in use of ICT tools to facilitate e-learning is an effective tool towards enhancing students’ overall academic achievement in their learning.
In addition, Piquero (2014) in his study entitled “Interactive Learning Tool for Enhancing Least Mastered Competencies in Grade 8 Science,” discovered that Interactive ICT tool may be used to increase the competencies of students on the topics in Physics focused on the supplementary e-learning material to enhance the competencies needed to improve the performance of the pupilsPabellano (2010) in his study, concluded that the students who were taught using computer-aided instruction in Science performed better than those taught using conventional or traditional method of instruction. Likewise, Rosales (2014) in his study entitled “Hypermedia as a Teaching Medium in Science for Beginning and Developing Grade 8 Students” concluded the following: (1) Hypermedia is a computer-based teaching medium which can aid learners in understanding Science through its interactive and manipulative content. (2)Utilization of hypermedia in the teaching process enhances the performance of students as they engage themselves in an innovative material for learning and can be used for the remediation for them. (3) The use of hypermedia in teaching Science uplifts the learners’ level of interest towards Science since it allows them to freely explore and manipulate parts of the material on their own.Song (2002) as cited by Evangelista (2015) described e-learning as a multidimensional and multisensory interweave of self-directed reading, viewing, listening and interacting through activities such as exploring, searching, manipulating, writing, linking, creating, posting and editing.
Researches on integrating e-learning claim some favourable outcomes in learning. As a matter of fact, findings of Gloria (2006) proved that in the field of education the use of e-learning is very acceptable. Likewise, Reynoso (2007) found out that the use of e-learning in teaching make the students more attentive and participative, thus this result to better scores during evaluation.Further researchers on integrating e-learning in conducting lessons have been found out to be helpful and effective in realizing the goals of the lesson. This is true with the findings of Racoma (2011) that the use of computer results to a high score in achievement test. Additionally, retention of lessons among the learners is easily achieved, hence, it created favourable learning outcomes.Moreover, Gano (2007) in her study entitled “The effects of Online Module-Based E-learning Approach on College Students’ Attitude and Academic Performance” was conducted to two comparable classes of College Algebra to determine the effects of the online module-based e-learning approach of teaching on students’ attitude and academic performance.
A control group is taught using the traditional (face to face) method of instruction and the experimental group is taught by using online module-based e-learning approach. Results in her study revealed that the academic performance of the experimental group is higher compared to the outcome of the control group.Veeramani (2010) on his study “E-learning: A Conceptual Framework” stated that e-learning is one of the tools used in the knowledge management to share the knowledge among groups. Furthermore, it is an approach to facilitate and enhance learning through both computer and communication technology. This study serves as one of the basis for the researcher to create an e-learning module with the same purpose of enhancing learning among students.Acceptability of e-Learning PortalThe criteria that will be used in determining the level of acceptability of e-learning portal are the following: content, clarity, and appeal to the target user. Content quality is perhaps the most salient aspect of the learning object’s quality and certainly the most relevant to the expertise of the subject matter experts.
A learning resource is of little or no use if it is well designed in all other aspects but its content is inaccurate or misleading. Indeed, in the approaches to learning object evaluation, quality is defined largely on content-related criteria. For learning materials in any medium, the importance of clear, unbiased, and accurate content is often taken to be so obvious that the detrimental effects of poor content quality are rarely analyzed. Mikk (2002), however, explained the value of conducting empirical research to measure both content quality and the impact of its absence.
While his work focused on the assessment of quality in textbooks, it is equally relevant to the content quality in other learning materials, including multimedia learning resources.Another criteria is clarity that aim to provide clear features of an instructional materials that let the target pupils to feel their connection. The purpose of an instructional material is to help the pupils clearly understand the concepts or lessons by providing self-involvement to the target lessons portrayed in the lessons. Self-involvement of the target users to the material, instructions or procedures on different activities should be understandable and connectible among the target users (Del Rio 2012). The visual clarity of your content affects the perceptual aspect of processing fluency—impacting how easy it is to use and comprehend. Much fascinating research has been done to better understand these effects, which should be of great interest to learning experience designers.
Research shows that the ease with which information is internally processed affects a person’s judgment and decision making—whether it’s a screen design, a magazine article or a page in a textbook. In other words, people have positive feelings about visuals and verbiage when they are easy to perceive and process. Furthermore, people are more likely to experience aesthetic pleasure from something when processing is easy. This has strong implications for learning, because of the impact positive or negative feelings have on motivation, comprehension and retention (Malamed, 2016).The last criteria is appeal to the target user that means attractiveness that includes drawing, appropriate heading, margin, and font size and style linkage between the texts. Clear pictures of the supplementary e-learning instructional material multiply the audience’s level of understanding of the material presented, and they should be used to reinforce the message, clarify points, and create excitement.
Attractiveness adds impact and interest to a presentation. They enable teacher to appeal to more than one sense at the same time, thereby increasing the pupils’ understanding and retention level (Del Rio 2012). Graphics can play a crucial role in promoting learning. They should not only be used to add visual interest to a screen.
In e-learning, relevant graphics can facilitate learning by drawing attention to a specific content element, suggesting analogies between new content and familiar knowledge, supporting the understanding of concepts, simulating the work environment and real situations, and motivating learners by making materials more interesting (Shapiro, 2011).Based from the related readings, the researcher felt the great need to uplift the teaching-learning process through the utilization of e-learning material. Since students of the new generation are seeking for a new ways of learning, this study can have a great impact to their needs and this could greatly affect student’s thinking through a tool where they could easily understand concept of the lessons. Furthermore, use of e-learning materials in science activities may enhance students’ participation in the discussion. Some studies showed that using e-learning materials in the classroom has positive impacts on how students process the information which are relevant to the learners. The aforementioned review of related literature and studies guide the researcher in developing the e-learning materials for enhancement of conceptual understanding of grade 9 learners in physics.
In contrast with the studies cited by the researcher, e-learning materials used in the deliberation of the lessons as to motivation, discussion and summarizing the lesson. Since most studies is focused on the effectiveness of e-learning to academic performance, this research focused to the enhancement of conceptual understanding of the lesson as well as to maintain the interest of the students to the subject. In addition, most of the content of the materials are related to the real-life situation of the students in order to captivate the students’ interest and focus to the lesson for them to be able to perform better in the classroom.Theoretical/Conceptual FrameworkThis study is anchored on the principle of constructivism that views learning as a formation of abstract concepts in the mind to represent reality. Morrison (2013) suggested that interactive activities in which learners play active roles can engage and motivate learning more effectively than activities where learners are passive.
Individuals are assumed to learn better when they discover things by themselves and when they control the pace of learning. Therefore, it is natural to expect that self-directed, interactive learning will improve learning outcome.Constructivists put more emphasis on engaging students in the process of learning than on finding a correct answer.
Many constructivists call for the richer learning environments that contrasted with the typical less interactive classroom environments relying on the instructors, textbooks, and lectures. Graphics, video, and other media could help by interesting and engaging learners. Cognitive load theory is an extension of the constructivist model, based on a model of memory.
It proposes processes and structures through which an individual receives and stores information and focuses on cognitive processes during learning; these involve processing instructional input to develop, test, and refine mental models until they are sufficiently elaborated and reliable to be effective in novel problem-solving situations. The frequency and intensity with which technologies transform pedagogy in the following ways: 1) a shift from ‘instructivist’ to constructivist education philosophies; 2) a move from teacher-centred to student-centred learning activities; 3) a shift from a focus on local resources to global resources; and 4) an increased complexity of tasks and use of multi-modal information.In addition, he also suggested that constructivism should be a basis for Web-based learning. Web based education supported by constructivist theory should thus enable learners to engage in interactive and creative activities during knowledge construction (Sweller, 2011).
With this in mind, the researcher made the necessary actions to invent teaching tool leading to the development of an e-Learning materials for enhancement of conceptual understanding of Grade 9 learners in Physics. The use of an e-learning material is a global trend. It is actively endorsed throughout the world, not only because times have changed, but more importantly, because e-Learning materials has its qualities which are helpful to student learning and improving learning effectiveness. Moreover, e-Learning linked learners with the world. With essential resources, one can obtain information around the world.
Likewise, it was collaborative, enabling students to learn with others outside classroom. Lastly, e-Learning is interactive and features the hypermedia functions, sound effects, animations, simulations and graphics engaging and motivating students. E-learning resources aid students to understand abstract concepts more readily.Thus, the abovementioned review of related literature and studies became the basis in conceptualizing and finally concretizing the study towards a novel and innovative environment taking learning to the next level for the achievement of the K-12 curriculum in the country.Research Paradigm Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1. Input-Process-Output-Outcome Model for Developing E-Learning Materials for Enhancement of Conceptual Understanding of Grade 9 Learners in PhysicsFigure 1 shows the input-process-output-outcome model for enhancement of conceptual understanding of Grade 9 learners in Physics using the e-Learning materials.
This study presented a novel way of teaching and learning Science, thus an e-learning materials has been chosen. This study revolved in four (4) major stages namely: input, process, output, and finally the outcome. For the input, the researcher identified the specific learning competencies covered in Fourth Quarter: Force, Motion and Energy. Gathering of concepts through readings related to learning competencies of the Grade 9 Science from Learner’s Material. He then, browsed and gathered online resources and used the media that is related to the learning competencies.
During the process, the researcher worked on the development of the e-learning materials with the help of an IT expert. Second, he developed the pre-test and post-test for evaluation. The validation of the e-Learning materials followed among K-12 Science teachers and Physics experts. Pre-test and post-test conducted to experimental and control groups. A questionnaire on the level of acceptability administered to students for feedback regarding the use of e-Learning materials as instructional material in Science.The output of the study is an effective and acceptable e-Learning materials especially designed to enhance the conceptual understanding in Physics.
This material used for teaching to help teachers deliver the lessons in Grade 9 Science catering the needs of 21st century learners with innovativeness that foster creative and analytical thinking.For the outcome, the use of e-Learning material as classroom instructional material led to the enhanced conceptual understanding of Grade 9 in Physics through e-learning materials. This is deemed as an innovative way to engage the learners in a novel and interactive teaching and to address both individualized and cooperative learning.
5305425-482600Chapter IIIMETHODOLOGYThis chapter includes the research locale, research design, population and sampling, instrumentation, data gathering procedures and statistical treatment.Locale of the StudyThis study conducted in Luis Palad Integrated High School where the researcher currently teaches. The school is located at Brgy. Ipilan, Tayabas City and is considered to be the largest public secondary school in the division as to population size. At most, each section is composed of 50 students for School Year 2017-2018. Luis Palad Integrated High School offering grade seven (7) to eleven (11). Since the school is consider as large class size, students are not well focus in the lesson they tend to talk to each other inside the classroom.
They get easily bored in the lesson because of the routinary activities especially if the 4th quarter comes. If they know that they are pass in the three quarters they tend to cut the subject or even do not attend the class.Research DesignThis study utilized quasi-experimental research employing the Matched-comparison group design.
According to Hanita et.al (2017), a matched-comparison group design allows the evaluator to make causal claims about the impact of an intervention without having to randomly assign participants. In this study, two equivalent groups were formed using matching variables such as their last year’s Grade 8 scholastic achievement in Science and the result of the pre-testThe experimental group used e-learning materials for enhancement purposes of the lessons while the control group used of the traditional method of teaching. Both groups took the post-test. The conceptual understanding test is the instrument used to determine the effectiveness of the e-Learning materials as teaching tool for Grade 9 learners.Population and SamplingThe study used purposive sampling in choosing the two sections for the control and experimental groups.
They are obtained from the middle heterogeneous classes of Grade 9. After careful consideration of factors involved, two groups were matched carefully using the average grade in Science 8 and their pre-test scores. The researcher chose the two section from the 25 section of Grade 9 because they are equivalent in terms of their average grade and pre-test scores. Each group was composed of 46 students so a total of 92 students participated in the study. The experimental group utilized the e-learning materials in the classroom, while the control group used the traditional method of teaching.InstrumentationThe instruments utilized in this study are the e-learning materials, pre-test-post-test and questionnaire on the level of acceptability of the material.
In order to develop them the following procedures were employed:Designing e-Learning Materials for Grade 9 Science-PhysicsThe different learning competencies for the e-learning materials covered in Science was identified. It covered the Fourth Grading Period Unit 4: Force, Motion and Energy with its four (4) modules namely: Forces and Motion; Work, Power, and Energy; Heat, Work, and Energy; and Electricity and Magnetism. The online resources such as the e-books, images, videos, and a macromedia flash applications used as part of the material. An expert computer programmer assisted the researcher to complete the design of the material. Content and face validations were done as to the correctness of content, design and other aspects of the material to the researcher’s adviser, experts in a multimedia software and Physics experts for their comments, remarks, and suggestions as guide in revising/modifying some parts of e-learning materials. Preparation of the Conceptual Understanding Test The conceptual understanding test is used as the pre-test and post-test. An important aspect in the preparation of test is construction of the Table of Specification (TOS).
It contains learning competencies in the K to 12 Science Curriculum Guide. Test items were distributed by percentage of days to determine the number of test items per module. In connection, item placement was done based on the percentage of components namely: Factual Knowledge (40%), Conceptual Understanding (40%), and Analysis/Reasoning (20%). The researcher adapt a multiple choice type of test with four (4) option. There are several sets of test items for each module: Module 1- Forces and Motion, 20 items; Module 2- Work, Power and Energy, 20 items; Module 3 – Heat, Work, and Energy, 15 items; and Module 4 – Electricity and Magnetism, 10 items, with a total of 65 items.
Content validation of the tests were done by the research adviser and Physics experts. The pre-test/post-test tried out to 25 Grade 10 students, who are not participating in the study, and an item analysis was performed, which aided in the revisions of the questionnaire. Developing Questionnaire on Level of AcceptabilityAnother instrument in the form of questionnaire was patterned and modified from the work of Lubiano (2015) which was made by the researcher. It was administered at the end of the post-test to the experimental group to determine the level of acceptability of the e-material among students in the experimental group. The questionnaire consists of the following criteria: content, clarity, and appeal to the target user. The four (4) statements in the three criteria were adopted and modified from the work of Lubiano (2015) and added one statement for each criteria having five (5) statements for each criteria.
The statements in each criteria were based to the related literature. It was validated by Science experts before it distributed and answered by the respondents in the experimental group. Data Gathering ProcedureThe researcher developed the materials within two (2) months with the help of an IT expert. The e-learning materials content are consist of the following: lectures, quizzes, videos, simulations, and e-dictionary. The researcher sought the permission of the principal before the study conducted to selected respondents. The researcher utilized two sections (2) of grade 9 students of Luis Palad Integrated High School.
The respondents were matched according to their grades in Science 8 and pre-test scores. Then, they were grouped into control and experimental groups. To control the threats that may affect the validity of the study, the two groups are placed in similar conditions: the same teacher handled the control and experimental groups. In addition, the classrooms used by the two groups are situated in the same building next to each other. Also, their classes were conducted in consecutive schedules at 8:50-9:50 and 9:50-10:50 in the morning.To gather pertinent data, respondents were given the pre-test to assess the students’ initial understanding of the topic.
The actual teaching started on January 22, 2018 and ended on March 20, 2018. It covered the fourth quarter of the school year. The researcher provided each student with the prepared instructional materials in Physics for their learning exercises. The experimental group is treated with the e-learning material as supplemental teaching tool to enhance the conceptual understanding in Physics while the control group is taught without the use of e-learning material. The use of e-Learning materials facilitated under the directive of the teacher where students were asked to manipulate and use the materials in one task or another due to unavailability of computer for each student.The post-test was administered to both groups after the e-learning material is utilized in the lesson by the experimental group. Also, the questionnaire for the level of acceptability towards e-learning material in Science 9-Physics were answered by the respondents from the experimental group.
All gathered data was tallied, tabulated, statistically treated, analysed and interpreted. Statistical Treatment The statistical treatment used in the analysis of the data were as follows:To determine the significant difference between the average grade in Science 8, pre-test scores and post-test scores between the control and experimental groups, the t-test for independent sample means was used:3524253556000where:x1 = Average weighted mean of the experimental groupx2 = Average weighted mean of the control groups12 = Standard deviation squared or variance of experimental groups22 = Standard deviation squared or variance of the control groupN1 = Number of respondents in experimental groupN2 = Number of respondents in control groupTo determine the weighted mean, the formula was shown below:13335001206500where: =Weighted mean?x= Summation of meanN=Total number of respondents To determine the standard deviation, the formula was shown below:2458720635000Where:SD=Standard Deviationx= Mean value in the data set1314450952500=Mean of all values in the data setn=Total number of respondentsTo determine the levels of acceptability of students on e-learning materials, weighted mean was applied as shown below:WM= 4f+3f+2f+fNwhere:W=Weighted meanf=FrequencyN=Total number of respondentsTo interpret the data, the scale point interval was used as shown below:Point Score Range Interval Descriptive Rating4 3.25 – 4.00 Strongly Acceptable (SA)3 2.50 – 3.24 Acceptable (A)2 1.75 – 2.49 Fairly Acceptable (FA)1 1.00 – 1.74 Not Acceptable (NA)