Domino Affonso It focuses on life-span development. Due to this fact, the study reports on the development and initial validation of an instrument. The method is composed of a scale development, subjects and a factor analysis. The sample was quite heterogeneous. The respondent had to rate 0%-100% scale, how successfully they had met each of 19 life challenges for example productive person, trusting other people or loving someone etc. The factor analysis eight meaningful factors corresponding to the eight stages: trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, intimacy, generativity and ego integrity. The evidence presented suggests that the IPB is an psychometrically reliable and valid instrument to analyze life-span to approach personality development. The IPB shows adaptive range of subjects, from college age adolescents to elderly and its reliability and validity appear satisfactory.
Moore Boldero (1991) talk about relationship between friendship variables and adolescent psychosocial development, in particular identity and psychosocial intimacy as focused by Erikson. This research includes sex differences. The aim of the present research was to investigate different styles of identity and intimacy development through examination (a) of whether the sexes differed in their relative proportions across these different styles, and (b) whether specific friendship beliefs and characteristics were associated with the different styles. The styles were defined by establishing four groups based on high and low scoring on the identity and intimacy measures used. In fact, friendship patterns are likely to be relevant to both identity and intimacy formation, although their meanings and importance may well vary for males and females. In addition the friendship during adolescence and youth has an unique and important influence in the life of the individual. The research appears that there are differences between same and opposite-sex friendships. The method is composed of a sample of secondary school students and college students. Subjects. In order to investigate the relationships between 2 sets of friendship factors and other variables of concern, factor scores on each factor were computed, using the regression method. In conclusion friendship and romantic relationships developed with psychosocial maturity, independently, but not as alternatives.
Slater (2003), he offers new concepts which are associated to old theory in term of stage 7 like a Suzanne theory they offer the new concepts that different from the old. The stage of generatively versus stagnation represents the major conflict of adulthood. The research starts with an Eriksonian viewpoint, and then, makes changes to argue for a competing conception, which could be understood within Erikson’s original proposal and placed within the developmental chart. The research appears a tentative explanation of how each major stage of development takes form during adulthood and it also shows an impression of how these conflicts fill out Erikson’s theory. 7 psychosocial conflicts are analyzed: inclusivity vs. exclusivity, pride vs. embarrassment, responsibility vs. ambivalence, career productivity vs. inadequacy, parenthood vs. self-absorption, being needed vs. alienation, and honesty vs. denial. Each conflict is connected to one of Erikson’s other stages of development. The analyze try to enlarge Ericson`s 7 conflicts. In conclusion the conflicts could be defined empirically and validated by connecting them with other measures of ego development and generativity. The conflicts and crises of adulthood could be made more clearly and at the same time more complex by using the humanities to draw out and illustrate the ramifications of each conflict. There is also a need to connect these ideas with history and broader societal issues.
Vogel-Scibilia et al (2009) offer a psycho-developmental model that parallels Erik Erikson’s theory of human development, and theorize that the process of psychiatric recovery involves a psychic reworking of these fundamental steps. In the eyes of the authors this builds an understandable, practical framework that allows transformation of traditional programs and therapeutic contacts into recovery-oriented services. They explain and compare the different recovery stages regarding to the recovery process of people. The trust vs. occurs at the onset of the disability and involves acceptance of the event of mental illness. Hope vs. shame caused by the fighting and loss of mental control. That will not cleave the past and be able to move forward but you must accept the trust acquired during the previous. The empowerment vs. guilt as disability to deal with feelings and hopes of the society. Most will have an idea of working independently. Action vs. inaction focusing on the rehabilitation of disabled seeking relaxation that do not conflict and no harmful development. New self vs. sick self change that has overlaps with the last stage manner and try to separate the individual from emotional disability. Intimacy vs. isolation about socialization the alliance may lose job due to illness or duties of fighting. The purpose vs. passivity for the strategy to life the process of learning through the use of energy in appropriate activities and goals can help to resolve the conflict within it. The integrity vs. despair about accepting changes in life from disability. In summary, this model presents a helpful schema to integrate diverse recovery precepts into a useable clinicalstrategy for providers of psychiatric care. Recovering individuals do not recover in isolation but engage others in their recovery strategy.
Kowaz Marcia (1991) This study place emphasis on the fourth stage of Erikson`s psychosocial development: industry-inferiority. Operationalization of the industry construct was begun by describing it as consisting of three components: skills and knowledge, their application, and affective experience of their acquisition and application in useful directions. The process of demonstrating predictive validity for the current measure, a step on the way to establishing construct validity for the four concepts of industry, consisted of several procedures. The first behavioral measure for example involved observation of classroom behavior, that is, on-task versus off-task performance. Four other variables were formed by items embedded in the Children’s Industry questionnaire (CIQ) and were based on Erikson’s theoretical descriptions of correlates to a sense of industry. The final subject pool of this research consisted of 187 pupils from eight classrooms in three public elementary schools. In conclusion current findings are generally supportive of the present definition of industry and this measure of it. Significant agreement between different categories of observers, making observations in a number of different ways, and the industry measure was consistently obtained. Results of the present study provide a solid beginning to the process of validating the construct of industry.
Brown Lowis (2003), they add a new stage that concern erickson’s theory from 8 to 9 stages. Because of an incerasing number of old people especially in developed countries. They used a self-report survey with individuals either completing questionnaires themselves or being assisted to do so through closed question interviews. As a result they found out that the Stage 9 scores for participants aged in their 80s/90s are significantly higher than for those aged in their 60s, but there is no significant difference between Stage 8 scores for the two age groups. But these findings can only be generalized to a wider population when they are confirmed by additional research: the present participants did embrace a range of ages, locations, and living arrangements, but comprised females only, and numbered just 70 individuals in total. Nevertheless the authors produced an instrument that has reliably measured a variable that reaches its ascendancy at an age beyond that normally ascribed to the developmental stage of ego integrity versus despair. And if confirmed, the existence of a Stage 9 would suggest that human beings remain in a situation of potential psychological growth throughout their life span.
Munley (1977) describe Erikson’s Theory of the eight life stages but it’s not all. He selects just only initiative, industry, identity, generativity, and integrity that all seem to be especially relevant to career development behavior. The theory offers a framework for integrating career development with overall human development. Furthermore Erikson’s theory recognizes the role of social and cultural factors in relationship to life cycle development and provides a theoretical framework for integrating research findings on the sociology of career behavior which was already shown by several researches. In particular, a next contribution of Erikson’s theory is that of the identity crisis and ego identity. Making a vocational choice or commitment is often the first important decision marking the transition from adolescence to adulthood. That’s the reason why one of the major tasks through which identity concerns are expressed in adolescence is the process of making a vocational choice. At the end the author concluded that from both a theoretical and empirical point of view, Erikson’s theory seems to provide a promising perspective for viewing career development. He said that the theory offers a framework for integrating career development with overall human development and makes a contribution toward offering a perspective for integrating social factors and personality development with career development.
Waierman (1988) The author says that there is basic agreement regarding the construct of identity itself. Erikson, Marcia and other authors using the identity status paradigm are all grasping for the same phenomenon. Furthermore they are the same opinion regarding to the domains in an individual’s life that provide the context within which a person’s sense of identity is formed. These include vocational choice, religious beliefs, political ideology, sex-role attitudes, and spousal and parenting roles. These are only two communalities of seven which the author claims. But there are also differences between these two theories. First he says that There is a wide divergence between Erikson and the identity status theorists using the identity status paradigm, regarding the viability and utility of the psychoanalytic framework within which the construct of ego identity was originally developed. The next difference is that the identity status paradigm explicitly addresses the more conscious aspects of the task of identity formation which is related to the rejection of psychoanalytic theory by many identity status theorists and researchers and in contrast to Erikson. There are five more differences which the author figures out in his article. And the end of his article he gives a forecast on identity research.
Boeree (2006) Oglala Lagota, Among the Oglala Lagota, it was traditional for an young teenage or adolescent to go off on his own. Everybody got a dream, you got a dream and I got a dreams. In some case, the dream would lead us into the realm of controlled deviations among the everybody. Eight states start from infancy on the oral sensory state, the second is the anal muscular stage, third state is genital-locomotor stage or play age, fourth state is the latency stage or school age child from 6-12, five state is adolescence. Its beginning with puverty and ending around 18 for 20 years old, six I don’t know what stage name, writer not giving it. Which lasts from about 18 to about 30. The ages in the adult stage are mush fuzzier than in the childhood stages. And people may differ dramatically. 7 stage is that of middle adulthood. The middle life crisis, if you success at this stage, you will have a capacity for carring that serve you through the rest of your life. Reffered to delicalely as late adulthood or maturity, or less delicately as old ages of last stage, begins sometimes around you retirement after the kids have gone say somewhere around 60. It’s the stage just see the good thing and bad.
According to the article, it’s talk about the using Erickson’s theory to tech young mothers. DeJong (2003), gives the idea that it can help teacher understand teenager parent emotion and the need of them. He selects the stage 1 to 5 because it concern about teenager ages. Stage1 is talk about infancy. If the teenager lacking a trust in the world, it will effect to her baby, she will reject advice of teacher. Stage2-Toddlerhood, if young mother grow without responsibility, she may reprove about her difficulties. May be she won’t take care of her child. Stage3-Preschoolyears, without the positive guide line in this stage, an adolescent may luck in basic sense of inquisitiveness, ambition, and empathy, she may not interest in her child. Stage4-School-ageyears, if teenager fails in success in this stage, she may feels incompetent and inferior. And the last-Adolescence, everything depend on the past if they didn’t get trust, autonomy, initiative, and industry, they may show behavior that hazard for positive identity development. After the effect of Erickson’s theory of teenager parent, a writer gives the suggestion for developing trust; autonomy, initiative, and industry such as find the way to indentify teenager, train teenagers show and manger responsibility, and etc. If adolescence mother have a good personality development technique, she will care about her responsibility to take care her child. It’s very important to consider because every stage have a meaning in term of them, if it lack or gone, it will affect to feeling of the mothers and the problem will on children.
Sneed et al. (2008) argued the erickson theory that could be veiwed taht repeats twices, once from Stage 1 to Stage 5 and again from Stage 5 to Stage 8. They use hypotheisis for prove their theory that concern about erickson. They examine the last investigations on the RALS that results are as follow: Stage1 is stable from ages 20 to 42, increasing in stage5 for ages 20 to 31 but stable in ages 31 to 42 and the last stage8 decreases in ages 31 to 42. After they use multilevel modeling testing, writers found the difference development trajectories across child and middle adulthood in each core stage. The first stage, writers predict endure stable over adult but after testing, the value increases in trust over a 34-year period. And next is stage5 follow Erikson set the time of the Identity ages 20 to beyond, but the present test show that substantial not occur until the late of ages 20 and early ages 30. And the last is stage8 that it value is decreasing. But in fact it will increase that affect from environment on personality.
Eccles (1999) This article summarized stage 4 of Ericson, the major developmental change from 6-14 years old. Both article provide an overview of the kind of biological, psychological, and social changes that characterize between 6 to 14 year for article from Eccles to facilities the our research. For children years in stage 4 is a critical period to knowing themselves. And during this time, children will grow to adults who have the power, have a freedom, and feel free to participate in family. Physical insight will change the mental condition. A social role will change and pass quickly when they enter the school or doing activities with other outside the family. During mid-childhood,, they will begin to compare themselves with other, they expect success and failure, they might develop and transition to other challenges in many years. During early adolescence is they will confuse with physical and the social threat change from the start. They have a freedom and distance between the families. Meanwhile, the problem may occur. They may lose of confidence and have a negatives behavior such as abandonment of duty or resigned from the school.
Zucker et al. (2002) The researcher study the different between the perception of women in each age groups. Procedures and level of personality development in social change. And they recognize that confidence in each age range. The specific timing and different forms in adults and children. Research to look for reasons and what limits to reflect the development of personality in the beginning to the end of life. Characteristics of personality development in the next phase of maturity We use the information for the study of the College of Education to consider the possibility that adults are better developed. The development will be personality kick picture pros and cons are different. Women are more concerned than men. Concerns that arise are the future, career, financial, and family. Even maternity Developed differently in each generation. Women age 40-60. Will develop faster in women age 20. State conditions because of different concerns of people in each generation. A group of teenagers are relatively private world is much less likely to develop their own personality to fit the outside world. Development must have their own ways to develop the correct principles of personal.
Rosenthal et al. (1981) Trust to intimacy is related to the six stages of Erikson’s the researcher development the theory from each stage of Erikson’s stage adolescent. It is differentiation thought in each stage have a comparison of thought and use moral for decision making of the human of each stage. They have consistent and distinctive for supporting the theory of them self. The researcher have multi function to test and to find the result of each stage on the EPSI. They use the differences of age between older and younger of students the result is related to the score older students achieve by higher scores than younger students, they use the difference of sex between males and females the result is no significant between scores and sex and they use the sex and grade level to find the different the result is no significant between the grade level and sex. The theory relatively little to the research on many aspects of Erikson’s theory have influences to the adolescence, adulthood and aging in the future to understanding the theory.
Pickar Tori (1986) concerns the disabled adolescents on three variables: stages of psychosocial development, self-concept, and delinquent behavior. The researchers focus on the affective and motivational. The development of an adequate feeling of competence is the critical task of a sense development and the effective in interactions with the environment. The result of significant of the comparison group of the self-concept of learning disabled adolescents showed that these youngsters self-concept was not significantly different than nondisabled but learning disabilities are significantly related to juvenile delinquency. Hypothesized that learning disabled adolescents would demonstrate more negative self-concept and report more delinquent behavior than their nondisabled peers. The hypothesis that learning disabled adolescents would engage in more delinquent behavior than nondisabled adolescents was not supported. The self-report delinquency data indicated that learning disabled and nondisabled adolescents participated in the same kinds and amounts of delinquent behavior. The results of this study to provide more understanding of the psychosocial development of adolescence on different variables.
Crawford et al. (2004) focus on personality disorder in adolescents have been related with developmental patterns of behavior measured with dimensional symptom scales. How it reflect to developmental processes in long-term risks for personality development. Personality disorders would impact on the prescriptive tasks of adolescence and young adulthood: in term of developing an internal sense of well-being and intimacy. Provide the real opportunity to develop a sense of adolescence and young adulthood. Identity the capacity to do well based on self-acceptance and self-esteem. Disorder symptoms are related with increases in well-being during adolescence and interpersonal intimacy during adulthood to focus on borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic symptoms (Cluster B symptoms). Two groups of sample were investigated to determine if age-related declines in Cluster B symptoms are associated with the level of well-being and interpersonal intimacy in adolescence and young adulthood. The result of this study related with Erikson’ idea, there are inverse relationship between Cluster B symptoms and intimacy. An indicator of successful identity consolidation, well-being was significant associated with intimacy in female adolescents and young adults.
Capps (2007) focuses about Melancholia that related with Erik H. Erickson’s Childhood and society. He Interpret the different the two case “Mourning and Melancholia” of children’s play is the issue of the mother’s absence. He studies on Jean (5 year-old schizophrenic girl) that focus on the child’s relationship with the mother and related with Erickson’s stages. Children with a schizophrenic tendency in early childhood repudiate their own organs and functions as hostile and external to them. The first case centers on the theme of maternal rejection and the second concerns the theme of maternal absence due to circumstances beyond her control. The conclusion is the important motivation of these is mastery. In term of “Sending Power” of play. Ability is the suggestion of Erikson to the primary in the sending power was in the child. He conclude that Jean’s ability to play- didn’t have an effect to solve the any problem about her. In term of Absent Mother. The case of Jean focus to childhood situation that related to Beyond the Pleasure Principle.
(Gray Polman, 1955) tell about Erikson’s development play a role to focus on the talent development in football and identity formation in sport that are in order to develop the skill of individual football player, the Erickson’s theory suggests the following childhood which the healthy personality develops positive balances between trust and mistrust, autonomy and doubt, initiative and guilt. There are 3 stages of development of talent in sport. Another about article, tell about the possible that are increase the performance in British sport. In addition, it is likely that many individuals will invest heavily in sport identity only to find themselves. Erikson in place for people to develop their own personality in terms of health and social fulfillment capabilities will be allowed to explore many industry before adhering to the basic nature of the self-expression. The next is due to lack of player begin the show this demonstrates the negative impact of trying to maintain self-identity is not realistic in the face of real sports.
Kroger (1994) In this study, said identity of adolescents. Caused by changes in adolescent behavior and look for the appropriate personality to the role myself. That is an important turning point in life personality to develop themselves forward. And it is said to the personality to match races, religions, gender. So family is one factor of change in adolescent behavior. Parents need to closely control the behavior of adolescents and liberating to work. Get in learning something new, more self-esteem, confidence and optimistic. Survey found that most parents would discourage the expression of the idea of teenagers; teenagers make the state of tension in the planning and decision-making failures. After the process identification of adolescents who have complex. Demonstrated the extent of teenage life changes until adult, that have diversity of life in time period the adolescent. It conclusion in five stage of Jane Kroger’s similar with Lorraine DeJong; discourage the expression of the idea of teenagers make the state of tension in the planning and decision-making failures. In adolescent behavior that is an important turning point in life personality to develop themselves forward.
Nolan Kadavil (2003) Vaillant’s Contribution to Research and theory of adult development of Robert E. Nolan Nishin Kadavil is related to the stage osf Erikson’s. His development the theory from the Erikson’s stages adulthood stage. His research for adulthood to health care. Physical activity and avoidance behavior that is harmful to health such as alcohol, smoking. Which affect both men and women. The inquire about mental health assessment and check health of the adulthood. The sport activity , how to living with a family, marriage and divorce. Every occupation and every action all of which have result in health and aged. The theory to learn and for used in caring for adult today. Personality Theories of Erik Erikson are related to Vaillant’s article is about the human behavior is about the adulthood stage the activity and the behavior of human is affect to adulthood. How to living with a family, marriage and divorce ,every occupation and every action all of which have result in health and aged.