A pool of 208 items that survived a clinical analysis was administered to 528 subjects and then factor analyzed. It focuses on life-span development. Due to this fact, the study reports on the development and initial validation of an instrument, the Inventory of psychosocial balance (IPB). It was designed to measure all eight stages, with a primary focus on its implementation to adult subjects. The method is composed of a scale development, subjects and a factor analysis. The analysis of Ericson`s eight stages resulted in an initial pool of 346 items, written to reflect both positive and negative aspects of the eight stages. Each item was five-point Likert response format ranging from “strongly agree” (1) to “strongly disagree” (5). In addition the pool was administered to 528 subjects. The sample was quite heterogeneous. The respondent had to rate 0%-100% scale, how successfully they had met each of 19 life challenges for example productive person, trusting other people or loving someone etc. The 528 IPB protocols were submitted to a factor analysis using a principal component and a correlational analysis with self-ratings of life challenges. The factor analysis eight meaningful factors corresponding to the eight stage: trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, identity, intimacy, generativity and ego integrity. The total variance accounted for by the eight factors is 72,34 %, with the trust factor having the largest percentage of variance (17,46%) and the Ego Integrity factor having the smallest (5,47%).
The evidence presented suggests that the IPB is an psychometrically reliable and valid instrument to analyze life-span to approach personality development. The IPB shows adaptive range of subjects , from college age adolescents to elderly and its reliability and validity appear satisfactory. The IPB represents a vertical translation of Erikson`s psychosocial stages.
2. Article: “Psychology Development and Friendship Functions in Adolescence”
Source: Sex Roles, Vol. 25
The articles is about the relationship between friendship variables and adolescent psychosocial development, in particular identity and psychosocial intimacy as focused by Erikson.
This research includes sex differences. Erikson rather did not explicitly postulate differentepigenetic charts for males and females, nor did he suggest different processes for males and females in terms of movement through the experiences of “crisis” and “commitment” at each stage of development. The aim of the present research was to investigate different styles of identity and intimacy development through examination (a) of whether the sexes differed in their relative proportions across these different styles, and (b) whether specific friendship beliefs and characteristics were associated with the different styles. The styles were defined by establishing four groups based on high and low scoring on the identity and intimacy measures used. In fact, friendship patterns are likely to be relevant to both identity and intimacy formation, although their meanings and importance may well vary for males and females. One hypothesis tested in the present study, therefore, was that females and males would be unequally distributed across developmental style, with relatively more males choosing the High Identity road tomaturity and relatively more females the High Intimacy style. In contrast to this hypothesis the research shows that there were no differences between the sexes in their choice of developmental style. But those in the high-identity-high-intimacy and the high-identity-low-intimacy groups were more satisfied with their friendships, which appeared affectively richer. In addition the friendship during adolescence and youthhas an unique and important influence in the life of the individual. The research appears that there are differences between same- and opposite-sex friendships. Sex differences showed that while friendship variables were more strongly chained with development for boys, girls viewed their relationships as closer and imputed more importance to this closeness. The method is composed of a sample of secondary school students and college students. Subjects were drawn from two secondary schools and two colleges, each ofthese institutions serving students from middle to lower middle class areas. The attendant were asked “friendship questions”, which were divided in four sections: Section A–Demographic variables; Section B–Intimacy and Identity scales; Section C–General friendship information; Section D-Specific best friend information. The total questionnaire took about 30 minutes to complete. For example in section B, the identity and intimacy measures administered were subscales of the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory. The EPSI is a self-report inventory that measures resolution of the conflicts associated with the first six of Erikson’s psychosocial stages. Items are rated on a 5-point scale ranging from almost always true to hardly ever true.
In order to investigate the relationships between two sets of friendship factors (General factors and Specific Close Friendship (Same Sex)) and other variables of concern, factor scores on eachfactor were computed, using the regression method. In conclusion friendship and romantic relationships developed with psychosocial maturity, independently (as far as can be judged by this research), but not as alternatives.
3. Article: “Generativity Versus Stagnation: An Elaboration of Erikson’s Adult Stage of Human Development”
Source: Journal of Adult Development, Vol. 10, No. 1, January 2003
This research focuses on the adult stage of generativity vs. stagnation by Erikson`s psychosocial development. The research offers new concepts which are associated to Erikson’s theory of development in the form of 7 psychosocial conflicts. The stage of generativity versus stagnation represents the major conflict of adulthood. The research starts with an Eriksonian viewpoint, and then, makes changes to argue for a competing conception, which could be understood within Erikson’s original proposal and placed within the developmental chart. The research appears a tentative explanation of how each major stage of development takes form during adulthood and it also shows an impression of how these conflicts fill out Erikson’s theory. 7 psychosocial conflicts are analyzed: inclusivity vs. exclusivity, pride vs. embarrassment, responsibility vs. ambivalence, career productivity vs. inadequacy, parenthood vs. self-absorption, being needed vs. alienation, and honesty vs. denial. Each conflict is connected to one of Erikson’s other stages of development. The analyze try to enlarge Ericson`s 7 conflicts. In conclusion the conflicts could be defined empirically and validated by connecting them with other measures of ego development and generativity. The conflicts and crises of adulthood could be made more clear and at the same time more complex by using the humanities to draw out and illustrate the ramifications of each conflict. There is also a need to connect these ideas with history and broader societal issues.
4. Article: “Development and Validation of a Measure of Eriksonian Industry”
Source: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1991, ‘Col. 60, No. 3, 390-397
This study place emphasis on the fourth stage of Erikson`s psychosocial development: industry-inferiority. Operationalization of the industry construct was begun by describing it as consisting of three components: skills and knowledge, their application, and affective experience of their acquisition and application in useful directions. These components span the cognitive (Component 1: skills and knowledge), behavioral (Component 2: Application of Skills and Knowledge) and affective domains (Component 3: Attitudes Toward and Experience of the Acquisition and Application of Skills and Knowledge).
The process of demonstrating predictive validity for the current measure, a step on the way to establishing construct validity for the concept of industry, consisted of several procedures. The first involved determining the conceptual validity of the current definition of industry by correlating each componentscore both with each other and with the overall mean industry score. Second, children’s own industry scores were correlated with those provided by two categories of observers, teachers and parents. Third, seven variables were selected in order to assess the predictive validity of the new industry measure. Three of these were behavioral and four were based on test responses. The first behavioral measure for example involved observation of classroom behavior, that is, on-task versus off-task performance. Four other variables were formed by items embedded in the Children’s Industry questionnaire (CIQ) and were based on Erikson’s theoretical descriptions of correlates to a sense of industry.
The final subject pool of this research consisted of 187 pupils from eight classrooms in three public elementary schools. There were 101 boys (54%) and 86 girls (46%). The age range was 8.6-12.8 years. The CIQ as a measure consisted of 47 items assessing the three components of the industry construct and 22 items measuring the expected correlates of industry. Three response modes were used with the CIQ. The most prevalent form (54 items) was the “structured alternative format” developed by Harter (1982). The child is asked first to decide which kind of child he or she is most like by choosing the child described on the left or right. Once the choice is made, the child is required to decide the extent to which the description is true for him or her on a scale ranging from 1 to 4–that is, sort of true or really true, and so forth–a score of 1 indicating the lower levels of the industry construct.
The second response mode on the CIQ was multiple choice. The third CIQ response mode was open-ended questions. In addition there were used a Teacher Industry questionnaire (TIQ) and a Parent Industry questionnaire (PIQ).
In conclusion current findings are generally supportive of the present definition of industry and this measure of it. Significant agreement between different categories of observers, making observations in a number of different ways, and the industry measure was consistently obtained. Results of the present study provide a solid beginning to the process of validating the construct of industry.
5. Article: “Psychosocial development in the elderly: An investigation into Erikson’s ninth stage”
Author: Cynthia Brown, Michael J. Lowis
Department of Psychology, University College Northampton, Park Campus, Northampton,
Source: Journal of Aging Studies 17 (2003) 415-426
In their article “Psychosocial development in the elderly: An investigation into Erikson’s ninth stage” the authors Brown and Lowis want to figure out the exist of a ninth stage regarding to Joan Erikson’s suggestion. Because of an increasing number of old people especially in developed countries like Germany or Japan it is necessary to do a research about this. In the end an older society provide new demands, reevaluations and daily difficulties. Even Erik Erikson saw personality as a lifelong developmental process but his theory ends with the eight stage ego integrity versus despair at the age of 65. For their research the authors used a self-report survey with individuals either completing questionnaires themselves or being assisted to do so through closed question interviews. The responses were suitable for coding and subsequent quantitative analysis. Additional qualitative data were obtained through open questions.
As a result they found out that the Stage 9 scores for participants aged in their 80s/90s are significantly higher than for those aged in their 60s, but there is no significant difference between Stage 8 scores for the two age groups. But these findings can only be generalized to a wider population when they are confirmed by additional research: the present participants did embrace a range of ages, locations, and living arrangements, but comprised females only, and numbered just 70 individuals in total. Nevertheless the authors produced an instrument that has reliably measured a variable that reaches its ascendancy at an age beyond that normally ascribed to the developmental stage of ego integrity versus despair. And if confirmed, the existence of a Stage 9 would suggest that human beings remain in a situation of potential psychological growth throughout their life span.
6. Article: “Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development and Career Development”
Author: Patrick H. Munley, Veterans Administration Hospital, Lyons, New, Jersey
Source: Journal of Vocational Behavior 10, 261-269 (1977)
In this article the author figures out some of the contributions of Erik Erikson’s theory of the eight stages of development in providing a developmental perspective on career behavior. First he describes Erikson’s Theory of the eight life stages. In his opinion the development of basic senses of initiative, industry, identity, generativity, and integrity all
seem to be especially relevant to career development behavior. The theory offers a framework for integrating career development with overall human development. Furthermore Erikson’s theory recognizes the role of social and cultural factors in relationship to life cycle development and provides a theoretical framework for integrating research findings on the sociology of career behavior which was already shown by several researches. A third contribution of Erikson’s theory is that of the identity crisis and ego identity. Making a vocational choice or commitment is often the first important decision marking the transition from adolescence to adulthood. That’s the reason why one of the major tasks through which identity concerns are expressed in adolescence is the process of making a vocational choice. For example A person who is undecided in terms of career may not just be undecided about a vocation. He may be in the midst of an overall identity crisis. On the other side a person who has a sense of ego identity is probably more able to make appropriate vocational decisions and choices.
At the end the author concluded that from both a theoretical and empirical point of view, Erikson’s theory seems to provide a promising perspective for viewing career development. He said that The theory offers a framework for integrating career development with overall human development and makes a contribution toward offering a perspective for integrating social factors and personality development with career development.
7. Article: “The Recovery Process Utilizing Erikson’s Stages of Human Development”
Author: Suzanne E. Vogel-Scibilia, Kathryn Cohan McNulty, Beth Baxter, Steve Miller, Max Dine, Frederick J. Frese III
Source: Community Ment Health J (2009) 45:405-414
The authors offer a psycho-developmental model that parallels Erik Erikson’s theory of human development, and theorize that the process of psychiatric recovery involves a psychic reworking of these fundamental steps. They integrated all the following fundamental components of recovery which were identified by the United States Department of Health and Human Services (2005) into this developmental model: self-direction, individualized and person-centered, empowerment, holistic, non-linear, strength-based, peer-support, respect, responsibility and hope. In the eyes of the authors this builds an understandable, practical framework that allows transformation of traditional programs and therapeutic contacts into recovery-oriented services. The authors propose eight opportunities to resolve conflict in the service of personal growth and development, which parallels Erikson’s eight stages. The eight stages are: Trust versus Doubt, Hope versus Shame, Empowerment versus Guilt, Action versus Inaction, New self versus Sick self, Intimacy versus Isolation, Purpose versus Passivity Generativity and Integrity versus Despair. Based on these eight stages and on Erikson’s stages of development they explain and compare the different recovery stages regarding to the recovery process of people.
8. Article: Identity Status Theory and Erikson’s Theory: Communalities and Differences
Author: Alan S. Waierman, Trenton State College
Source: Developmental Review 8, 185-208 (1988)
In this article the author outline the critique of Cote and Levine on the identity status theory developed by James Marcia and he compares the theory with Erikson’s theory of the eight stages of development. Marcia’s theory provides four statements: Identity Diffusion (the status in which the adolescent doesn’t have a sense of having choices), Identity Foreclosure (the status in which the adolescent seems willing to commit to some relevant roles, values, or goals for the future), Identity Moratorium (the status in which the adolescent is currently in a crisis, exploring various commitments and is ready to make choices) and Identity Achievement (the status in which adolescent has gone through a identity crisis and has made a commitment to a sense of identity) , which differ in some important respects from that used by Erikson.
The author says that there is basic agreement regarding the construct of identity itself.
Erikson, Marcia and other authors using the identity status paradigm are all grasping for the same phenomenon. Furthermore they are the same opinion regarding to the domains in an individual’s life that provide the context within which a person’s sense of identity is formed. These include vocational choice, religious beliefs, political ideology, sex-role attitudes, and spousal and parenting roles. These are only two communalities of seven which the author claims. But there are also differences between these two theories. First he says that There is a wide divergence between Erikson and the identity status theorists using the identity status paradigm, regarding the viability and utility of the psychoanalytic framework within which the construct of ego identity was originally developed. The next difference is that the identity status paradigm explicitly addresses the more conscious aspects of the task of identity formation which is related to the rejection of psychoanalytic theory by many identity status theorists and researchers and in contrast to Erikson. There are five more differences which the author figures out in his article. And the end of his article he gives a forecast on identity research.
9. Article : Personality Theories – Erik Erikson
Author : Dr.C George Boeree From Shippensburg University
Source : Original E-Text-Site: [ http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/perscontents.html ]
Oglala Lagota, Among the Oglala Lagota, it was traditional for an young teenage or adolescent to go off on his own. Everybody got a dream, you got a dream and I got a dreams. In some case, the dream would lead us into the realm of controlled deviations among the everybody. Eight states start from infancy on the oral sensory state, the second is the anal muscular stage, third state is genital-locomotor stage or play age, fourth state is the latency stage or school age child from 6-12, five state is adolescence. Its beginning with puverty and ending around 18 for 20 years old, six I don’t know what stage name, writer not giving it. Which lasts from about 18 to about 30. The ages in the adult stage are mush fuzzier than in the childhood stages. And people may differ dramatically. 7 stage is that of middle adulthood. The middle life crisis, if you success at this stage, you will have a capacity for carring that serve you through the rest of your life. Reffered to delicalely as late adulthood or maturity, or less delicately as old ages of last stage, begins sometimes around you retirement after the kids have gone say somewhere around 60. It’s the stage just see the good thing and bad.
10. Article : Using Erikson to Work More Effectively with Teenage Parents
Author : Lorraine DeJong
Source : www.naeyc.org/resources/journal.
According to the article, it’s talk about the using Erickson’s theory to tech young mothers. If we see in article, we’ll know more of quantity of teenager parent in U.S.A. It’s very big problem because of the rate of pregnancy in teenagers become higher and it will be a social problem. But how Erickson’s theory concern with this article? The writer gives the idea that it can help teacher understand teenager parent emotion and the need of them.
The writer selects the stage 1 to 5 because it concern about teenager ages. Stage1 is talk about infancy. If the teenager lacking a trust in the world, it will effect to her baby, she will reject advice of teacher. Stage2-Toddlerhood, if young mother grow without responsibility, she may reprove about her difficulties. May be she won’t take care of her child. Stage3-Preschoolyears, without the positive guide line in this stage, an adolescent may luck in basic sense of inquisitiveness, ambition, and empathy, she may not interest in her child. Stage4-School-ageyears, if teenager fails in success in this stage, she may feels incompetent and inferior. And the last-Adolescence, everything depend on the past if they didn’t get trust, autonomy, initiative, and industry, they may show behavior that hazard for positive identity development. After the effect of Erickson’s theory of teenager parent, a writer gives the suggestion for developing trust; autonomy, initiative, and industry such as find the way to indentify teenager, train teenagers show and manger responsibility, and etc.
If adolescence mother have a good personality development technique, she will care about her responsibility to take care her child. It’s very important to consider because every stage have a meaning in term of them, if it lack or gone, it will affect to feeling of the mothers and the problem will on children.
11.Article : Trust, Identity, and Ego Integrity: Modeling Erikson’s Core Stages Over 34 Years.
Author : Joel R. Sneed, Susan Krauss Whitbourne, Michelle E. Culang
For this article, Writers study in Erikson development stages in term of core stage that consist of stage1, stage5, and stage8. Stage1-Trust that study in term of continuity and wholeness in the self and in another. Stage5-identity that study in the self and social. And the last is Ego integrity that study about exceeds of individual lifecycle. They take a hypothesis to examine the last investigations on the RALS that results are as follow: Stage1 is stable from ages 20 to 42, increasing in stage5 for ages 20 to 31 but stable in ages 31 to 42 and the last stage8 decreases in ages 31 to 42.
After they use multilevel modeling testing, writers found the difference development trajectories across child and middle adulthood in each core stage. The first stage, writers predict endure stable over adult but after testing, the value increases in trust over a 34-year period. And next is stage5 follow Erikson set the time of the Identity ages 20 to beyond, but the present test show that substantial not occur until the late of ages 20 and early ages 30. And the last is stage8 that it value is decreasing. But in fact it will increase that affect from environment on personality.
12.Article : Eccles Development of Children Ages 6-14.
Author : Jacquelynne S. Eccles
Source : The Future of Children WHEN SCHOOL IS OUT Vol. 9 aˆ? No. 2 – Fall 1999
This article summarized stage 4 of Ericson, the major developmental change that take place from 6-14 years old. Both article provide an overview of the kind of biological, psychological, and social changes that characterize the years between 6 to 14 for article from Eccles to facilities the our research.
For children years in stage 4 is a critical period to knowing themselves. And during this time, children will grow to adults who have the power, have a freedom, feel free to participate in family. Physical insight will change the mental condition. A social role will change and pass quickly when they enter the school or doing activities with other outside the family. During mid-childhood,, they will begin to compare themselves with other, they expect success and failure, they might develop and transition to other challenges in many years.
During early adolescence is they will confuse with physical and the social theat change from the start. They have a freedom and distance between the family. Meanwhile, the problem may occur. They may lose of confidence and have a negatives behavior such as abandonment of duty or resigned from the school.
13. Article : College-Educated Women’s Personality Development in Adulthood: Perceptions and Age Differences
Author : Alyssa N. Zucker et all
Source : Journal of Adult Development, 8, p. 28.
The researcher study the different between the perception of women in each age groups. Procedures and level of personality development in social change. And they recognize that confidence in each age range. The specific timing and different forms in adults and children. Research to look for reasons and what limits to reflect the development of personality in the beginning to the end of life.
Characteristics of personality development in the next phase of maturity We use the information for the study of the College of Education to consider the possibility that adults are better developed. The development will be personality kick picture pros and cons are different. Women are more concerned than men. Concerns that arise are the future, career, financial, and family. Even maternity Developed differently in each generation. Women age 40-60. Will develop faster in women age 20. State conditions because of different concerns of people in each generation. A group of teenagers are relatively private world is much less likely to develop their own personality to fit the outside world. Development must have their own ways to develop the correct principles of personal.
14. Article : From Trust to Intimacy: A New Inventory for Examining Erikson’s Stages of
Author : Doreen A. Rosenthal, 1.4 Ross M. Gurney, 2 and Susan M. Moore 3
Source : Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 10, No. 6, 1981
Trust to intimacy is related to the six stages of Erikson’s is the relationship of each stage the adolescent ,adulthood the adjustment of adolescents in terms of differences in race thought and attitude comparison of thought , maturity , moral and the decision of the human of each stage. The some information from researchers, other who have. Both the consistent and distinctive have a reasons for supporting the theory of them self. The attitude, ethics of each stage is different. The problem of behavior or personality of human and experienced is effect on the cause of the research or evidence that the theory is accepted six stage of Erikson
15. Article : The Learning Disabled Adolescent: Eriksonian Psychosocial Development,
Self-Concept, and Delinquent Behavior
Author : Daniel B. Pickar and Christopher D. Tori
Source : Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 15, No. 5, 1986
This journal study about disabled adolescents on three variables: Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, self-concept, and delinquent behavior. It was predicted that learning disabled adolescents would show significantly less resolution of Erikson’s fourth stage, “industry versus inferiority” The researchers focus on the affective and motivational and use Erikson’s psychosocial theory to understanding the social and emotional difficulties of learning disable adolescence. The development of an adequate feeling of competence is the critical task of a sense development and the effective in interactions with the environment.
The researcher use statistical standard of Two-way ANOVA concern with the EPSI data, The Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale and Delinquency Checklist. To find to result of significant of gender effect between learning disable and non-learning disable groups. Measure the significant of group and gender interaction. The comparison group of the self-concept of learning disabled adolescents showed that these youngsters self-concept was not significantly different than nondisabled but learning disabilities are significantly related to juvenile delinquency. Hypothesized that learning disabled adolescents would demonstrate more negative self-concept and report more delinquent behavior than their nondisabled peers.
The hypothesis that learning disabled adolescents would engage in more delinquent behavior than nondisabled adolescents was not supported. The self-report delinquency data indicated that learning disabled and nondisabled adolescents participated in the same kinds and amounts of delinquent behavior. The results of this study to provide more understanding of the psychosocial development of adolescence on different variables.
16. Article : The Course and Psychosocial Correlates of Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence: Erikson’s Developmental Theory Revisited
Author : Thomas N. Crawford,1 Patricia Cohen,2 Jeffrey G. Johnson,3 Joel R. Sneed,4
and Judith S. Brook5
Source : Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 33, No. 5, October 2004, pp. 373-387 ( C _ 2004)
Researchers focus on personality disorder in adolescents have been related with developmental patterns of behavior measured with dimensional symptom scales, personality disturbances are age-related trends in personality development. How it reflect to developmental processes in long-term risks for personality development. To understanding of how personality disorders impact on normal psychosocial development, this study used longitudinal data from a community sample to track declines in personality disorder symptoms from early adolescence to young adulthood. They used it to formulate hypotheses about how personality disorders would impact on the normative tasks of adolescence and young adulthood: (1) developing an internal sense of well-being through the consolidation of identity and (2) establishing intimacy in the form of lasting and committed romantic relationships.
Although researchers now agree that identity formulation is a life-long process, adolescence and young adulthood provide the first real opportunity to develop a sense of continuity with the past, meaning in the present, and direction for the future. Identity consolidation thus emerges as the cornerstone of the capacity to do well and forms the basis of self-acceptance and self-esteem. Identity diffusion is known to share many characteristics with personality disorder symptoms according to a community-based sample of adolescents to determine whether age-related declines in Axis II symptoms are related with increases in well-being during adolescence and interpersonal intimacy during adulthood to focus on borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic symptoms (Cluster B symptoms).
Two groups of sample were investigated to determine if age-related declines in Cluster B symptoms are associated with increases in well-being and interpersonal intimacy during adolescence and early adulthood. To the extent that personality disorder symptoms reflect identity diffusion in Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, we expected Cluster B symptoms would inhibit identity consolidation at least insofar as it manifests in well-b