This Chapter is begins with a brief introductory of E-banking. The section 1.2 provides overview of the E-banking. Next, for the Section 1.3 problem statement which is fully elaborates. Following that, Section 1.4 states the research objectives. In section 1.5 which is definition of term. Lastly, Section 1.6 underlies the organization of chapters.
1.2 OVERVIEW OF THE E-BANKING
E-banking is term which means the process by a customer who may perform banking transactions via automated delivery banking products and services through electronic delivery channels. The development of service delivery channels such as E-banking, have created a new type of economy it also increasing knowledge strength in areas of business, and new forms of business (IGI Global, 2009). The growing of internet and telecommunication system at a global level has enabled E-banking services in bank sector. E-banking services are becoming an important part for business environment for the bank industry. The development of E-banking changing the lifestyle of banks customers towards financial transaction process. E-banking services found that the available time which is extend for normal business hour. Based on the speech of Tan Sri Zeti Aktar Aziz, (2003) concluded the differentiating banking products and services provided the new banking environment increased of choices, control security and accessibility. Thus, the most efficient and effective manner will be the key to determined performance of the financial institutions’ ability to deliver products and services. Hence, the E-banking carry out the regular activities to individual and corporate customer its now becomes a virtual banking. (Chai Lee Goi, 2005). Even those E-banking services can consider as more electronic-based, but it still strongly supports banking activities, such as communication, transaction and distribution (Peterson, Balasubramanian and Bronnrnberg, 1997). The system includes for E-banking to enable financial institution customers, individuals or business, to access accounts, transact business, or obtain information on financial products and services through a public or private network, including the internet. (Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, n.d). The following figure 1 show the available of E-banking system.
According to The Star online (2006) the electronic devices offered to access E-banking services using an electronic device, such as personal computer (PC), automated teller machine (ATM), telephone, or mobile phone. By using these electronic devices bank customers can access their banking accounts, such as internet banking, telephone banking and mobile banking. A bank’s customers can request information and carry out most retail banking services via computer, television or mobile phone which is the several types of E-banking services.
Since 1st June 2000 Malaysia Bank has been offering E-banking when domestic banking institution were allowed to provide a full range of banking product and services over the internet. In January 2001-2002, locally incorporated foreign banks were allowed to set up communication website and transaction website.
1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT
This paper is to develop understanding of influencing factor of Electronic Banking services adoption among youth. The study of Lewis and Bingham (1991), who can be classified as youth and aged between 15 and 24 years, this group of age people who mostly using internet and mobile services. The youth are more likely adopt the new technologies. On the other hand, youth shows more interest at using the E-banking services. E-banking services is rapidly using by customer for the personal transaction purpose. More recently, young people under the age of 25 have been identified as the group showing the strongest preference for personal banking technologies and innovations (Bednar et al., 1995). This recent of year the usage of technology base service system such as internet are fully use by youth compare to older generation, but certain of them they are unnoticed to the easier of e-banking. So in this survey would like to improve the usage of e-banking with analyze the factor influencing the adoption of E-banking by younger customer.
According the survey of SKMM (2008) the percentage share of the household user base across age groups is under 15 to 50 and above. The range of age group of youth around 15-19 and 20-24 resulted the percentage is higher than other age group. The age of 15-19 maintains around 17.9 percent to 18.7 percent in the 2005 to 2008. The other group of age 20-24 the usage of internet around 15.7 percent to 17.2 percent.
A successful adoption of E-banking to public the most important is the service quality that delivers to customers. Hence, without a good quality of services will affect the profitability of financial institutions and the future development. According Jun and Cai (2001) most of the customers expectations through internet are still lagging, in order to increase customer loyalty are required to put a strong highlighting on their customer quality services, which are steadily growing competition in internet banking industry .Thus, Long term profitability is crucial for the loyalty of customer (Jun and Cai, 2001). According to the study of Kotler,P.R (1994) good service is referred to as service which creates satisfied customer, thus the remaining loyal and talking favorably about the bank and its online services.
The most of the E-banking services need upgrade of the level of security, since the level of customer being attack is high by hackers. How the bank sector can across to the security factor if it is always problems occur? According to a survey by Siddharth Agarwal (2009), that main problem found customer have a fear of hacking of account and thus do not go for internet banking, and hence bank are trying their best by proving the best security options to the customer.
1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The objective of this study is to let youth customer more understanding the key factors that influence their adoption towards E-banking services. There are three major objectives of this study, namely:
To understand the adoption of youth consumer towards E-banking services
The main purpose of the study is to obtain the view, adoption of youth consumer towards E-banking services as nowadays E-banking plays an important role in bank sector. It examines the views of youth towards e-banking and identifies the responses of youth to these E-banking services.
To identify the factor which youth consumer consider important in adoption of E-banking services
The objective of the study is also identifying the factor towards E-banking services through youth opinion. A greater awareness for the important factor that youth consumer as important of E-banking services might be achieved through the study and banks sector are improve the services to run professionally.
To investigate what are the main factors influence the adoption towards E-banking services among youth and to enhance the services quality.
The study also provides the different factor influence among youth adoption E-banking services. By analyze the factor influence youth towards E-banking services bank sector might know the needs of youth to increase the usage of E-banking services.
In this study, will define the types of E-banking and determine the influencing factor of E-banking services adoption among youth. In this study for one of the factor will adopt the technology acceptance models (TAM) as one of its research instrument.
The main advantage of E-banking to customer is convenient and time-saving. Customer may access to their account information and conduct specific transactions through E-banking from a remote location, such as home or available at anytime. This study reflects upon opportunities to understand the E-banking services to gain more knowledge about E-banking. Other than this, this study might expose the factor influence towards youth adoption among E-banking and increase the awareness of youth through E-banking services. Lastly, this study would provide growth in E-banking services and meet the needs of customers to reach long term profitability.
E-banking (electronic banking): An umbrella term for the process by which a customer may perform banking transactions electronically.
Youth: is the period between childhood and adulthood, the age of 15 and 24 years.
Internet banking: can also called online banking, is an outgrowth of PC banking. Internet banking allows customer uses internet as the delivery channel to conduct banking activity.
Mobile banking: a financial transaction conducted by logging on to a bank’s website using a cell phone.
Telephone banking: a service allows customers to perform transactions over the telephone.
ATM: an automated teller machine computerized telecommunications device that provides the customer by inserting a plastic card with a chip to access financial transactions in a public space.
Primary Data : Data gathered for the research form the actual site of occurrence of event or from the respondents.
Secondary Data: Data collected from existing sources like, company annual reports and others.
1.7 ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTER
This study wan elaborately organized into three chapters shall to address the overall objective of this research study. Chapter One begins with an introductory part which provides overview of E-banking, problem statement, and research objectives, definition. Following that, Chapter Two is to support the study by providing the reader with relevant literature review from various journals and articles. The E-banking in Malaysia and the types of E-banking will illustrate in chapter two also. In addition, the dependent varies of convenience, security, friends’ and relatives influences, perceived usefulness, and personalization. Lastly, Chapter three is the research and methodology. Theoretical Framework is explained in this chapter.
Studies of Olga Lustsik, (2004) discuss the role of e-channels in the banking sector as Electronic banking (E-banking). Automated E-banking service offer a perfect opportunity for minimizing costs thus, the goal of any company is to maximize profits for its owners and banks are no exception.
According to Newman and Cowling (1996) believes that profitability and survival in a business is the excellent service quality to customers. The study of Jane, (2004) E-banking marketplace resulted that the consumer adoption with the success of E-banking products and services. The study of Bob Batchelor (2009) the term of E-banking or Electronic banking that describes all transactions among companies, organization, and individual and their banking institutions. The financial institutions that develop the online banking such as bill payment, money transfer and mobile E-banking, trough this services E-banking allow customers using more services.
The E-banking can offer an enhanced range of services at a low cost to customers, such as cash withdrawals and cash-back transaction, deposits, payment and transfer. Therefore, in the early of electronic banking initiatives were designed reduce cost of transaction to delivery value to the customer. The low cost of E-banking services is good news for the customers on low incomes who may affordable through transaction. The system provided by E-banking should be standardized because the customer may use familiar with the procedure followed.
The banks have already started focusing on increasing the E-banking services to enable the customer to perform various functions on-line, hence E-banking can be succeed if the basic features can handled well. Most of the banks have established an internet as a new distribution channel. By using the internet for the financial services it may improve the potential of customer. Thus, the banks may extend their market. However, in this study suggest that financial institution management should choose the level of E-banking services provided to various customer needs.
Increasing of E-banking prevalent in the study of Shih and Fang (2004) explained that E-banking adopted by many financial institutions, E-banking functional to reduce costs, customized, short processing time, speedy and improved the flexibility of the business transaction. E-banking services offer effectively for twenty-four hours a days, seven days a week allow the customer can do their daily banking activities.
2.1.1 TYPE OF E-BANKING
E-banking is the newest delivery channel of banking services. E-banking has separate in the variety types of the following, Internet banking (or online banking), telephone banking, mobile phone banking, and ATM (Automated Teller Machine). (Olga Lustsik, 2004) E-banking has transformed traditional practices in banking and explosive growth.
The new age banking system used the new term of internet banking, also called as online banking and it is an outgrowth of PC banking.( Divya Singhal and V.Padhmanabhan, 2008) The delivery channel of internet banking to conduct banking activity such as transferring funds, paying bills, viewing checking, savings account balances and certificated of deposits. (Haque et al, 2009)In the study of Diva Singhal and V.Padhmanabhan, (2008) conduct that there are many advantages of online banking. Internet banking is convenient, operation timings, no geographical barriers and services at low cost charge.(Gonzalez et al., 2008) Internet banking increasingly managed operation activity and an main component of a multi-channel strategy to play an important role in the new banking environment. (Black et al., 2002) Thus, financial institutions now regard the internet banking as equally important to other electronic banking transaction such as automated teller machines (ATM) and telephone banking.
Automated Teller Machines (ATM)
In the year 1980s, Automated Teller Machines (ATM) was the first E-banking product introduced. The ATM system serves customer with the simple transactions for example checking balance, withdrawing funds or depositing and transferring money. ( Rohaya Shaari and Nor Hayati, n.d.) The overall for the ATM, it easily found in various locations and its have the extended operating hours helps customers to overcome in time and the geographical constraints. ( Shanmugam et al., 2000) In the study of Leonard and Spencer (1991), found that a great majority of customers perceived banks with ATM as being successfully. Thus, the banking industry has tried gain the technology by ATM to take the advantage productivity and customer services for carry out the daily transaction.
Telephone banking is a channel for the delivering banking services, the banking industry use it as an alternative traditional way of delivering services to customer through branch networks. (Rizal Ahmad and Francis Buttle, 2002) Ramsay and Smith (1999) examined the Australian channel usage for telephone banking is employed by bank customers because its accessibility as well as convenience factors. According to Rizal Ahmad and Francis Buttle, (2002) the benefit by using telephone banking are convenience and control, enable customers privately using the services such as at home.
An analysis define the mobile banking is a form of banking transaction carried out via a mobile phone and its allows bank customers to check their account balances or perform credit card transaction as well as provide information. (Hanudin and Ricardo and Mohd Zulkifli, n.d.) Mobile banking the new banking transaction services created opportunities by the rapid technological advances in mobile-based technologies, additionally the commercial banks in Malaysia have tried to improve operations and reduce costs by introduced mobile banking system. (Amin et al. 2008) Earlier studies by Luarn and Lin (2005) showed the facilitating the transactions between banks and their customers in mobile banking usefulness.
2.2 DEVELOPMENT OF E-BANKING
According to Bob Batchelor (2009), the first conceptualized of E-banking in the mid-1970, when the year of 1985 some banks have been offered E-banking to customers, unfortunately the lack of internet users and the higher cost of electronic banking have stunted growth of online banking. However, in the year 1990 internet explosion lead customer transaction trough online banking. Since 2000, there 80% of U.S. banks offered e-banking and the following the year of 2001, the first bank become the top 3 million online banking which is Bank of America, in 2009 a report by Gartner Group estimated that 47 percent of U.S. adults and 30 percent in U.K. bank online.
The Bank Negara Malaysia on the 1st June 2001, formally allowed local commercial banks to offer Internet banking services and in the same year June 15, one of the largest bank in Malaysia, Maybank launched the first Internet banking services.
2.2.1 E-BANKING IN MALAYSIA
There is variety of services of Electronic banking (e-banking) technology, from the common such as automatic teller machine (ATM) services, phone banking, and computer banking (PC banking). (Jane M.K. and Janne M.H. and Marianne A.H.,2004). Since 1980’s, the first of the emerging electronic banking in Malaysia introducing by Automated Teller Machines (ATM) the following is the Tele-banking and PC-banking in the 1990’s.(MD. Arafat and Chaklader and Mohammad, n.d.) Information provided by Bank Info,(2007) to offer internet banking services in Malaysia only for the banking institutions licensed under the Banking and Financial Institutions Act 1989 (BAFIA) and the Islamic Banking Act 1983. There are 12 commercial banking and Islamic banks out of a total 25 in Malaysia which currently offering internet banking services
As a result, the financial institutions in Malaysia taking the initiatives to enhance the delivery channels via the rapidly growth in technologies. By the way, the important step before end-2004 of introducing the Bankcard to replace magnetic stripe ATM cards. Hence, the ATM machine is being upgraded to MEPS (MAS Electronic Payment System) Cash transactions. This is the good started program to promote to the public and improve the acceptance of E-banking services. More customers would like to select Internet banking and ATM transactions by gaining the acceptance of electronic transaction in Malaysia with now over one million. (Tan Sri Zeti Aktar Aziz, 2003; Chai Lee Goi, 2005) Studies of Chai Lee Goi (2005), Malaysian banks proper understanding and planning for appropriate develop E-banking strategies to achieve successful in the local and global marketplace.
According the result of statistic survey of SKMM (2008) showed that household use of internet average time spent around 12 hours per week. The activity on the internet such as to conduct financial delivery channel for three years, in the year of 2005 14.6 percent followed by the 2006 increase to 23.6 percent. The highest percentage compare to previous two years 2008 rise to 31.8 percent. Determined of the three year show that the usage of online transaction increasingly each of the year.
List of Banks offering Internet and Mobile Banking services provided by BNM about 24 banking industry enable for internet banking and 10 banking industry offering mobile banking. The popular banks industry by offering internet banking such as Affin Bank Berhad, AmBank (M) Berhad, Bank Kerjasama Rakyat Malaysia, CIMB Bank Berhad, Citibank Berhad, Hong Leong Bank Berhad, Maybank, HSBC Bank, Public Bank, RHB Islamic Bank, and OCBC Bank etc. The mobile banking available for: AmBank, Bank Islam Malaysia, CIMB Bank, Citibank, Hong Leong Bank, MayBank and Public Bank etc.
2.2.2 E-BANKING IN REGION
According to Parker,(1990) , the adoption of E-banking such as internet is growing in New Zealand. Auckland Savings Bank (ASB) in 1996 was the first bank to offer internet banking services, followed by the ASB subsidiary, BankDirect which was also the first and the only virtual bank. In the late of year 1999 Natinal Bank of New Zealand (NBNZ) and Bank of New Zealand also offer internet banking, followed the last quarter of 2001 there were around 480,000 regular internet users utilizing internet banking facilities to conduct their banking transaction through E-banking.(Christopher Gan et al.,2005) As predicted of Christopher Gan et al. (2005) that the usage of internet banking in New Zealand will continue to grow in the near future and the factor influenced New Zealand customer adoption E-banking such as price, user input, service product characteristics and individual.
The E-banking in the USA is one of a wide variety services used by a disparate number of consumer, around 91 percent of US households have a bank account. (Jane M.K. and Janne M.H. and Marianne A.H.,2004 ) In year of 2003, the number of ATM transaction at 902 million per month and the number of debit transaction at 495million per month (EFT Data Book, 2003). The factor determined by Jane M.K. and Janne M.H. and Marianne A.H.(2004) affect USA consumer adopt E-banking which is convenient, compatibility, simplicity, observability and trialability.
The study of Philip Gerrard and J.Barton (2003), determined the retail banks in Singapore and their internet banking activities. Retail banks are classified into either local or foreign full license banks by monetary authority of Singapore (MAS), Singapore’s central bank. The license banks of Singapore are offering the broadest range of financial services delivery through the internet. In the year of 1997 that the first local banks in Singapore namely DBS and UOB offer internet banking services, followed the bigger foreign banks HSBC, Citibank and Standard Charted Bank also provide financial services delivery through interne. There are the several factor affect Singapore adoption towards E-banking such as convenience, accessibility, confidentiality, compatibility, PC proficiency, economic benefits, complex procedures and innovativeness.
According to Ali Ahmad, (2006) show that the Pakistan has been among the late entrants into E-banking such as ATM was setup in 1999 and 2000 internet banking was introduced. Pakistani government has already to start working towards created awareness among people for E-banking services (Hanniya abid and Umara Noreen, n.d.). The Ministry of Science & Technology has been taking number of measures to promote E-commerce and E-banking in Pakistan (Dr. Shamshad Akthar, 2006). The use of ATM and E-banking products is gaining currency and most of the banks have established, offered by ATM will enhance the customer more alternatives choices to financial transaction services. In the recent years that the E-banking services such as Automated Teller Machine (ATM), Tele Banking, Internet Banking, Credit and Debit Cards etc. have growth effective delivery system in Pakistan (Hanniya abid and Umara Noreen, n.d.). Based on the study of Hanniya abid and Umara Noreen, (n.d.) found the four factors affect acceptance Pakistan customer towards E-banking follow by usefulness, intention/attitude, ease of use and external variables.
Shih and Fang (2004) study that after Taiwan enter into the World Trade Organization (WTO), it also brings foreign banks into Taiwan marketplace. Therefore, banks in Taiwan are facing the competitive in service quality and administrative efficiency. To gain the strengthen of Taiwan banks industry, Taipei Banks has establishment of new communication networks via E-banking such as internet banking, telephone banking and other digital channels. Taiwanese commercial banks have been quick to realize the competitive facing, thus in May 1999 offer E-banking services, such as fund transfer and account summary inquires. An individual’s intention to adopt internet banking in Taiwan is determined by three factors: attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control.
In Youth Market
The studies of Barry et al. (2002) show age also a significant factor to internet, the consumer which is aged 18-25 are highest preference for internet banking delivery channel. The younger consumers are more likely to adopt the delivery channels such as internet banking compare to telephone banking, because the lack of face to face contact are less important their think.
Lewis and Binghams’s (1991) research among aged 16-24 young people have an account at more than one bank. Thus, young people should consider are “most inclined to switch financial providers” (Meller, 1993). There are some banking industries tend to offer internet banking attract younger generation (Katri, n.d.). The study of Robert, (2007) youth based segmentation in the Malaysian retail banking sector concern with what values influence young consumers preference and adoption of personal e-banking product. Youth can be defining as aged between 15 – 24 years Lewis and Bungham, (1991) studies. In the paper examines of Robert, (2007) to examine young consumer’s likelihood by selection of e-banking services which have highest accessibility in Malaysia. The potential of youth in the financial services sector are seen as particularly attractive.
According the study of Thomas et al., (2009) examines the youth market as a greater potential in the financial sector. The reason of the author to research youth market is because of the young people have substantial purchasing power thus, many banks are tend to seeking young customer and targeting internet banking into their market.
Youth is the largest demographic group in many developed countries and “is a highly lucrative segment” (Josefowicz, 2003; Solomon, 2007). Thwaites and Vere, (1995) research that the basis for a relationship upon to success getting young customer at early age to introducing the services.
2.3 BENEFIT OF E-BANKING
The E-banking service such as internet banking is perfectly beneficial to customers because of the savings in costs, transaction time, and space it offers. Its service conducts quick response to complaints and delivery speed of services. Overall, benefits make easier banking system to customer. (Turban et al. 2000) The appearance of internet has had an important role on the diffusion of electronic banking and it also offers new value to customers (Sara, 2007). As a result, the basic principle of banking services such as security was the potential benefits from electronic delivery channels by increase confidence of the banking public. Consumer may realize the convenience and flexibility of E-banking in meeting their daily payment needs while the use of cash and cheque to be important. The change in consumer behaviour is reflected in the increasing of electronic transaction system in our country.
The finding of Marivic, (2009) believe that the bank offers e-banking services can recognize the benefits of e-banking as below:
A positive effect on banks profitability to launch electronic banking
To providing of bank’s distinction electronic business is a direct relation between increases of bank customer needs for banking services.
The protecting privacy of bank customer and bank by management upon providing banking services through internet.
2.4 INFULENCING FACTOR OF E-BANKING ADOPTION
The study of Rogers and Shoemaker (1971), define that consumers who before ready to adopt product or service go through “a process of knowledge, persuasion, decision and confirmation”. Adoption is the acceptance and continued use of a product or service.
Mathew and George (2003) the emerges from the present study is that the general population appears generally satisfied with the technological aspects of the banking industry and that banks in general are concentrating their efforts on security that customer feel are most important. The perception of respondents in the survey of Mathew and George showed the important feedback by the respondent on perception there are 93 percent of the most important dimension followed by security.
The study of Volkan, (2009) define that bank sector now build up a new delivery channel for e-banking services such as internet banking. The internet banking service allow customers as well as mange their transaction application, by access to the application system a set of password is require from customer. Therefore, the necessary to take a note at the “security on the eradicate fraud in electronic banking”. The security program is needed provide by the bank to launch the internet banking services. The banks are responsible to assist the customer in protecting their account safety.
Jun and Chai, (2001) identified the one of seventeen underlying dimension of e-banking service quality of customers’ expectation is security. These a critical factor for changing customer behavior is a feeling of security, and the Estonian bank have been successful in delivering user-friendly solution that is secure.
According to Marivic, (2009) have determined the new system of internet banking services is require the ease of access and the security from the new generation. In additional research, appropriate security controls of e-banking products can particularly inclined business to benefit. Overall, internet banking it needs securities.
Friends’ and Relatives Influences
In an environment in which there has been a reduction in consumer trust of both organizations and advertising, thus word of mouth (WOM) offers a way to obtain a customer perceptions or action (Bansal and Voyer, 2000). WOM is a process of personal influence, in which interpersonal communications between a sender and a receiver can change the receiver’s behavior or attitudes (Merton, 1986). Therefore,
Tan and Chua (1986) who carry out a study conducted in South East Asia found that third party influences, namely family and friends were the most important influences customer adoption bank selection. Gerrard and Barton (2001) determined the one of the factor in their study which is people influencer grouping, the people being “Family”, “Friend”. Barry et al. (2002) studies in the factor most important in encouraging and discouraging adoption of telephone and internet banking, the result showed for internet banking male respondents are more greater emphasis on recommendations from friends and family or from a newspaper.
Nima, (2008) define perceived usefulness “refer to the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance” .To test a theory of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989) and examines the factor that influence the adoption and acceptance of the information technology and system of internet; in the banking sector particularly for internet banking (Sara, 2007). “Selecting TAM was based primarily on predictive power which is makes the model easy to apply to a different information system device” ( Venkatesh and Morris2000; Kleijnen et al, 2004) Thus, TAM provides understandings of the relationship of “perceived usefulness”(Hanudin Amin,2008 ) Study on the TAM for internet banking by Guriting and Ndubisi, (2006) and the Kleijin et al. (2004) focused on TAM for mobile banking via short message services (SMS). Davis (1989) defined perceived usefulness as theory to which a person “believes that using a particular system enhances job performance”. Overall, Cheong and Park (2005) found that perceived usefulness may influence the intention of online purchase or mobile internet activity. Therefore, Luarn and Lin (2005), who determined