Human beings have inherited three types personality which are Id, Ego and Superego. The fundamental one is Id where anatomical desires, wants needs are of in need of immediate attention. For example food, water, sex is in need if this is not obtained one can be restless and annoyed. Secondly is Ego, its aim is to fulfill desires of the id with a balance which is morally cultivated in the society. This will take some time as it will analyze to make balance and try not to be senseless and selfish. Lastly is Superego rationalizing things with more morale values. It knows how to decide what is right and wrong? It has clearer precise decisions and very firm. Id Ego and Superego creates the final output of our behavior. Id has an immediate need, Ego as reality and of what others think and Superego as in conclusive of morality. (Wallerstein, 2002)
Defense mechanism is a process of the mind which is unreachable to the conscious mind but which affects behavior and emotions such as denial or distort. In real situation it tries to protect from feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease about something with unresolved issues during development can cause psychological upset. Psychological problems are linked to the unconscious. There are various ways which we suppress unwanted feelings into the unconscious mind which are through repression, reaction formation, projection, regression, sublimation, denial and Rationalization. (Bowins, 2004)
Different therapist may work differently depending on the needs of the individuals that are seeking help from them. They however, will work on the following assumptions and concepts to surface repressed conflicts so that individuals can deal with It. Secondly manifest symptoms are caused by latent/hidden disturbance. Unresolved issues during development can cause psychological upset. Psychological problems are linked to the unconscious.
The unconscious is where majority of the work of the mind gets fulfilled. It’s the store of instinctive skills the search for gut feelings and dreams, the tool of much information activated. Temporary instincts computes on the unconscious mind way before one can realize. The unconscious mind is not some lock-up of insupportable motives waiting to catch one’s foot on something, but it can be the origin of unrelieved thoughts, fright, and approach that hinder with daily activities. Common sources of psychotherapy have goals to cultivate into conscious knowledge much of these delayed barriers, so that we can analyze them and choose how to gear them. (Joseph, 2012)
Psychosexual developments which consist of five stages, as the following are Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent and Genital. At each stage, satisfaction is identified on a certain part of the body. The variation of satisfaction in any one of these stages caused an obsessive interest, which would lead to disposition or psychological conditions. Firstly, in the oral stage new born baby are engrossed and seek a pleasure in sucking with the mouth lips and tongue at the mother’s breast, the mouth is a very active source. Babies are very dependent, if these needs are fulfilled then there already for the next stage. No satisfaction in this stage would lead to not trusting and very demanding in character and very dependent as an adult.
This is followed by the Anal Stage, where the main focus is on anus which is defecating or retaining faces. Parent focus on toilet training for toddlers from the age of 1-3years. The baby has to control urges and also in behavioral terms. If this sense becomes too controlling or relaxed, it will lead to anal retention or anally expulsive which also focus character on orderliness and messiness. The third stage is the Phallic Stage, where a girl or boy between the age of 3- 6 focus on genitals which of majority gain satisfaction developed from resolving Oedipus/Electra complex, and cultivate an arousal for the opposite sex father or mother. The fixation for this would be deviancy and sexual dysfunction.
Social morale values impose that these unfitting desires to be subdued, and when done with accomplishment, is followed by the Latency Stage which does not have any focus anatomically but develops defense mechanisms. Activities connected with physical attraction rest asleep until the next stage. The last stage is the Genital Stage is which occurs at the age of 12 onwards the focus is genital where an individual is reaching full sexual maturity. When sexual desires reawaken and is directed towards peers of the opposite sex. At each stage, conflicts must come to a successful resolution. Otherwise, it results in fixations that may cause psychological problems in the future. (Fritsch, 2013)
Construction Personal theory sees a human in all angles, dismissing the difference between perception and verbal aspect. The sentimental value is seen as the realization of a transformation in analyzing. In warning, this change is in basic form, that midway to one’s self. Self-reproach is the realization of behaving in a way which is incompatible with one’s fundamental role, the establishment determining one’s usual ways of communicating with another person. Anxiety is the realization that one’s form does not prepare one to foresee events. Aggression is the active elaboration of construing, while hostility is the attempt to extort evidence for a prediction rather than revising it when invalidated .Other strategies used to cope with invalidation and inconsistencies in construing include constricting one’s world to exclude unpredictable events, and, conversely, dilating in an attempt to develop a way of construing the new experiences which one confronts. One may also loosen construing, making one’s predictions less precise, or tighten, and more clearly define these predictions.(Kelly, 1955)
The optimally functioning person is characterized by interplay of such strategies while formulating and revising constructions. However, in psychological disorder the person continues to employ a certain construction despite consistent invalidation. Over time, the practices in psychoanalysis have evolved since Sigmund Freud tinkering theories. Some of the basis of his theories has remained but there are others which were evolved and mutated, leaving a pluralistic diffusion of psychoanalytical viewpoints.
Contemporary psychoanalysis provides inclusionary focus to include all current psychoanalytic theories together with the perceived relevant concepts from classical psychoanalysis. It also displays an interest in the self-person relations and person-cultural and social developments. In comparison, it dwells on what co-created between people, how individuals adapt to whom and where they are and also include negotiation relations of self to the internal and external factors of ongoing developments.
There are without a doubt, limitations to psychoanalysis. The approach may lack a theory of interventions, often not focus on techniques which will render it difficult to replicate by other psychologist. The use of jargon seems rather to confuse than to serve as a means to clarify concepts which makes fundamentals tricky to understand. Terminologies such as Oedipus complex, electric complex may be outdated and irrelevant. (Rapaport & Gill, 1959)
Despite its limitations, psychoanalysis has the potential to offer an in-depth perspective of a person.Its holistic approach of considering developmental stages can allow further insights on an individual’s current behaviors. Besides clinical uses of psychoanalytic therapy as mentioned earlier, it can also be used for individuals who want to explore themselves. They can understand why they are the way they were, it can bring forth a sense of self and well-being.
A single psychoanalytical therapy will not suffice as it requires multiple and long term therapy. As such, it may be a lesser option for those who are seeking quickly and problem based solutions therapy. Psychoanalytical therapy takes time and if adhered to, may provide a life changing results. (Plaut, 2011)
Psychoanalytical therapy takes time and if adhered to, may provide a life changing results. According to (Great Ideas in Personality), one of the plus points of psychoanalytic theory is that it can be to explain the nature of human development and all aspects of mental functioning. Critics of psychoanalytic theory claim that it grossly exaggerates and generalizes human behavior.
The best part of psychoanalytic theory is that it provides clients a chance to talk about their confusion with a therapist, who could help relieve signs of psychological stress. Even with this theory, most psychoanalytic theories are tough to conclude and most of the time it is overstress to the unconscious mind, sex, aggression and childhood.
McAdams (2003) states that, “In conclusion, I believe there will not be one size that fits all treatments when it comes to human physical or mental health.” (pp.10-11).It should be complimented with evidence based theories and practices, medications if possible and if needed be, traditional intervention if it makes the individual comfortable and more confident in their overall treatment process. Sigmund Freud believes that an affected individual can be cured by making conscious of their unconscious thoughts and motivations to gain insights. Psychoanalysis therapy aims to release repressed experiences and emotions. It has many clinical applications especially in humanistic counseling to help patients / clients to bring about a positive change in their perspective towards life. Conditions such as depression and anxiety disorders can be treated effectively with psychoanalytic approach to a great extent. (Wilma ,2005)