center-5000502920Game Zone And Youngsters
11000065000Game Zone And Youngsters
Cardiff Metropolitan UniversityCL/BSCSD/16/44Professional and Ethical Issues in IT8/19/20184950045000Kamila Gnanasegaran
Cardiff Metropolitan UniversityCL/BSCSD/16/44Professional and Ethical Issues in IT8/19/2018445003559175590005769610
AcknowledgementThe subject called “Professional and Ethical Issues in IT” is a most important subject in the present world. To complete this work every one of my circle helped a lot on completing the course work. This successful completion won’t be holding in my hand without the people who supported me. So by this particular page I’m trying to thank everyone.
First of all, I would like to thank the almighty god for giving me the strength and good health to do the course work until it done. I have not forgotten my family and friends for supporting me for doing the assessment work. Even Internet, books, computers and all that has been my sources was a great support to complete the assessment work. They made me to do the work without delaying the work.
Then I would like to thank my Lecturer Ms. Upeka Wijesinghe, for guiding me in a proper way to conduct the course work and for encouraging me throughout this assessment. We had some difficulties while doing this task, but she taught us patiently until we knew what to do. She tried and tried to teach us until we understand what we supposed to do with the research work as well.
Last but not least, my friends who were doing this assessment with me for making me clear with the above tasks and I think I was able to mention all the people who were the bridge blocks for me to come across this challenge in a successful way.
TOC o “1-3” h z u Acknowledgement PAGEREF _Toc521057289 h 1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc521057290 h 3Game Zone/Console and Youngsters PAGEREF _Toc521057291 h 4Ethical and Social Issues With Ethical Frameworks PAGEREF _Toc521057292 h 5?Violence PAGEREF _Toc521057293 h 6?Rating PAGEREF _Toc521057294 h 7?Education PAGEREF _Toc521057295 h 9?Stereotypes PAGEREF _Toc521057296 h 10?Addiction PAGEREF _Toc521057297 h 11Social Effects PAGEREF _Toc521057298 h 12
IntroductionToday’s teenagers spend a lot of time playing video games. These games are fun and attractive and young people often want to play, which is a great task in their free time. However, they should not spend too much time playing and there are a number of reasons for this: they are not healthy, they should spend more time studying and they need to socialize more. Because of these basic reasons, I chose Game Zone and Youngsters as a research topic.
In 1972, the first video games were introduced as home entertainment for children and adults called Magnavox Odyssey. The popularity of video games with children is enormous and continues to attract their time and attention. A survey found that 92% of children aged 2 to 17 play video games and video games. According to parents, children, aged between two and seventeen, spend almost 6.5 hours a day in front of video games and computers. One study also found that 83% of children between the ages of 8 and 18 have at least one videogame player in their homes, 31% have more than 3 video game players in their homes and 49% have video game players in their homes own rooms.
In 1993, video games began to receive an entertainment software rating board (ESNB) based on video game content, like everyone else, teenagers, adults and adults. With the steady progress of video game technology, the growing variety of video games available and the growing interest of children and adolescents in video games, it is difficult to control what is available to minors.
The purpose of this study emphasizes the positive and negative impact of video games on adolescents. In the last 30 years, video games have had an impact on the way teenagers spend their free time. This research hypothesizes that social interaction, psychological, particularly aggressive behavior, health and school performance are strongly influenced by the extensive use of video games. The research proposal is supported by the literature review of several articles, including an article by Brandon T, which states that video games influence children’s beliefs and self-esteem. In another article by Steven J Krish, it has been shown that a positive relationship between video games and self-aggression prevails, between groups aged 11 to 17 years.
Game Zone/Console and YoungstersA video game is an electronic game that involves human interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. It was one of the most perennial leisure activities of teenagers. The history of videogames dates back to the 1940s, when in 1947 Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr and Estle Ray Mann filed a US patent application. For an invention they described it as an entertainment device with cathode ray tube.
This patent, issued by the United States Patent Office on December 14, 1948, describes in detail a machine in which a person uses knobs and buttons to manipulate a ray of cathode ray tube to simulate “target” target shooting. Video games would not have reached the dominant popularity until the ’70s and’ 80s, when arcade video games, video game consoles and home computer games were presented to the general public. Since then, video games have become a popular form of entertainment and a part of modern culture in the developed world. Currently, eight generations of video game consoles are considered.
The most common consoles used by teenagers today include Xbox, Game Boy, Play Station and Nintendo Game Cube. There are numerous genres of video games that have been available to consumers over the past 30 years. One of the oldest genres of video games is the classic shooter. Shooters are games that require the player to defeat enemies or objects to survive and continue the game. Another of the early genres of video games, especially computer platforms, was the game of adventures.
Another favorite genre is tactical strategy or games. These games try to capture a sense of realism that the player can try. However, these titles are often based on shifts rather than real-time and give the player a greater sense of specific control over a situation. Video games are a unique form of entertainment that encourages players to be part of the game’s script. My research will focus on the following topics:
Ethical and Social issues in video games
Legal issues in video games
Professional issues in video games
Video game Industry and IT professional
Ethical and Social Issues With Ethical FrameworksEthics:
The science of morality in human behavior is called ethics. The moral concerns the goodness or the wickedness of the character. The principles of what is right and what is wrong are called moral.
Video games are very popular for entertaining and having fun; Furthermore, they can act as an aid to relieving stress. Because of the advancement of technology, video games have evolved and have become a great empire that affects those in this field. Therefore, due to this development, we are referred to many ethical questions. As a result, we need to recognize how new videogames affect people who interpret them in an ethical way.
The ethical problems of video games that affect many people include: violence, education, stereotypes against women, communities and addictions. At the end of the day, each topic is related to the violence involved in video games.
It is the participant’s responsibility to be aware of the negative effects of video games. However, the gaming industry should also take part in some social responsibilities. What they develop and sell can affect people positively or negatively. For this reason, both players and the gaming industry must recognize ethical issues related to video games, and both must face the need to address these ethical issues accordingly.
Although video games can have many positive aspects, they can also affect players in a harmful way. The ethics of the game consists in following the following ethical problems:
ViolenceViolent video game is a mass debate, often focuses on issues such as video game graphic violence, sex and sexism, violent and bloody scenes, partial or complete nudity, description of criminal behavior, racism and other provocative and questionable materials. Video games have studied for links to addiction and aggression. It can be accepted to participate in video games has many ethical concerns. With violence, there are many games that include violence and other violence-related content. This can lead people to believe that playing this type of game can make a person more violent.
Violent Video Game Effects for Children and Adolescents is an indispensable tool for parents and professionals who want to have important knowledge to make informed decisions about the use of video games in the lives of children and adolescents. One of the most exasperating to try to connect the negative effects of video games violent challenges is that well-meaning adults often say: but the verdict is not yet if violent video game play is very harmful. Video games are too new to have acquired convincing data.
Douglas A. Paul J. Lynch et al (2004) Gentile, in his article “The effects of violence habits of video games on adolescent hostility, aggressive behavior and academic performance” discussed the effects of videogames adolescents His research indicated that in the 2000 the turnover generated by the gaming industry was $ 20 billion. Teenagers were the ones who contributed most to the consumption of gaming consoles.
54 independent tests on the relationship between violence and the aggression of video games were also carried out five consistent results of games with violent content were obtained through this research: violent games increase aggressive behavior, aggressive cognitions, aggressive feelings, physiological excitement and decreases behavior pro-social. In the article “perceived influence of the negative and positive video game,” Shu.F.lin (September 2010) established the perceived self and others in terms of the effects of negative and positive video games. According to the researcher, the games have been promoted through media entertainment modes in a variety of content such as sports, struggles, stimulation and role playing, etc. Positive impacts include greater socialization, control and cognitive abilities, while the negative effects were depression, anxiety and psychological disorders among adolescents.
Steven J.Krish (1992) in his article “The effect of violent video games” found a positive association between videogames and me and the assault informed by the teacher in the 11-17 age group.
In their study, Anderson and Dill (2008) demonstrated a link between violent video games and laboratory aggression university students. It has been found that children and adolescents play video games on average between 1.2 and 7.5 hours per week. It has also been suggested that psychological and biological factors are also related to aggression. Furthermore, the general model Aggression (GAM, its acronym in English) by Anderson and Bushman (2002) has been successfully developed to continue to underline the effects. GAM can be used to explain the emergence of aggression in adolescents and the difference vulnerable to the influence of violent games for each individual.
In the United States, the current video game classification system is entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB). The ESRB is a non-profit self-regulatory body established in 1994 by the Entertainment Software Association (ESA). ESRB independently assesses computer and video game content, enforces industry-wide advertising guidelines, and helps ensure online privacy practices that are responsible for the interactive entertainment software industry. The ESRB classifications have two equal parts: the classification symbols suggest the suitability to the age of the game, while the descriptions of the contents indicate elements in a game that could have triggered a particular qualification and / or may be of interest or concern. There are currently six ESRB rating categories:
Early childhood (3 years or more),
All (6+ years),
All those over 10 years (over 10 years),
Teenager (over 13 years),
Mature (over 17),
Only for adults (over 18).
An area of ??particular interest concerning the subject of video game evaluations is the accuracy of degrees, or lack of this. In one study, researchers at Harvard School of Public Health in Boston took a random sample of video games currently on the market and found that many of the games are not consistent with the content descriptors assigned to the games.
Based on their findings, the researchers said an improvement in the classification system is needed and suggest that the gaming industry provides people with clear, complete and consistent information when selecting a video game.
As for videogame ratings, Senator Sam Brownback (R-Kansas) reintroduced his Video Game Truth Rating Act in February 2007. Brownback introduced the bill for the first time in September 2006 and referred to the Commission for the Senate trade, science and transport. The bill was not voted and then denied by the United States Congress. However, with the start of the New Year and the start of the new congress, Senator Brownback feels comfortable reintroducing the proposal for further consideration.
The Law of Truth Rating in Video Games aims to eliminate the way video games are sold the United States is currently qualified. The bill requires that video game classification organizations play all games “in their entirety” before issuing labels and prohibiting game developers from keeping any content “hidden” from the evaluators. It would also punish rating groups that “rudely characterize” any of the games. With the current video game classification system, Brownback says “it is not as accurate as it could be because the reviewers do not see the whole content of the games and do not even play the games they qualify”.
Entertainment Software Association, owner of entertainment software, the evaluation committee issued a disagreement and claimed that the existing qualification process is sufficiently reliable and “extraordinarily useful”. Senator Brownback’s legislation is directed at the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and requires that they prescribe rules to prohibit “deceptive” conducted in the qualification of videos and computer games and for other purposes. “The bill also insists that the FTC examines the effectiveness of the ESRB together with the recommendation of a “universal classification system” applicable to all films, televisions and games.
With the current debate on the current rating system, one might ask whether it is really sufficient. As mentioned, inaccurate classifications are common, which poses a problem. Sensitive content, such as violence, is not appropriate for children and should not be available to them. Violent video games teach children concepts that were not intended for them. Therefore, strict regulations are required to be included in the current rating system to prevent inappropriate material from being obtained from unintentional material.
A problem that arises in an educational aspect is whether video games are ethical or not. The game has taught many adults and children; some are beneficial, while others are considered immoral. Some players and developers claim that video games are better at teaching logic and solving problems than many school programs. While others say that video games teach people to be more violent because of violence in the game. To determine whether video games are good or bad compared to education, we must evaluate the positive and negative results.
One might ask: “How can videogames teach us the logic and problem-solving skills?” As you may have noticed, there are many different types of video games. Like games for children, problem solving games, fighting games, adventure games, strategic games and games for adults only. Because each individual plays different games with their own judgments, there are some types of games in which players agree to acquire the same type of skill. For example, adventure games will tend to teach logic because players need to find out where to go and what to do at all times to move on to the next level. A puzzle game will teach those involved in their problem solving skills, being able to solve different puzzles is a way to improve these types of skills.
On the other hand, one might ask, “How can the players who participate in video games be more violent?” Like the classification for movies, there are also ratings for the games. One of the main features of the Entertainment Software Review Board (ESRB) is to evaluate the games based on the content of the game. Evaluations are designed so that buyers know what to expect before buying a specific game. There are many levels of violence that can be used to qualify a “violent” game. Games that involve a lot of violence always have a mature “M”. Can a game that shows violence to teach a mature person to be violent? Violence within a game will cause a person to be violent but not to violate it. An example is a person who plays a game of racing in which he can accelerate and crash into what he wants or what he wants, but nothing will happen because it is just a game. As a result, this game will cause the individual to think it’s fantastic and fun to imitate the game.
However, the chances of the individual reproducing what he does in games are very unlikely because the consequences in the game are different from the real ones. Is it like saying that dealing with video games teaches logical skills and problem solving, but at the same time does not make them more violent? No. So the answer depends on the person who is playing. Different people have different opinions and different reactions in this matter.
Regardless of their levels of intelligence, some people participate in puzzle games and get problem solving skills, while others do not acquire any ability to play video games. Some play violent games and become aggressive, while others do not suffer because they know it’s just a game for entertainment.
StereotypesCurrently, video games attract the male population. Only 7-8% of video game developers are women. Does this mean that game developers only hire men to design video games? Similarly, about 12% of the players are women and women are generally not the protagonist of the games. With these facts, video games are really just for men? And are women excluded from this sector? Over the years, people continue to supply the video game industry with more and more money, knowing that women players occupy only a small percentage. Is this for males to be dominant? Or is it just a coincidence that video game companies produce revenue independently?
Mark.D. Griffiths, in 1998, claimed that video game play is a recreational activity for most teenagers. He said that the literature provided by Loftus and Loftus (1983) and Griffiths (1991, 1993) clearly indicated that adolescents viewed video games as a source of entertainment. In addition, he also began by saying that boys play more video games on average than the girls.
In general, most women are not fascinated by video games. Video games are not attractive to women, as they are for men. For most women there is nothing tempting to anchor in front of a television screen and play a video game that can be seen as “meaningless”. This is one of the main reasons why many women do not have a profession in the design or development of the game, because this is not what most women like. It can be said that companies do not want to hire women to develop games for them, because a significant number of women do not play video games, so they know nothing about the games. However, this may not be the case. The main goal of a company is to make a profit and to do so they need to produce video games with the best ratings that people want. When a popular video game is produced, a company does not care about who produces it, it is the final product that worries you. So, if there is a woman who can produce a video game better than a man, that woman will surely be taken in the place of man.
AddictionVideo games can be considered social activities because “A survey of the Kaiser Family Foundation found that almost all the children interviewed played video games with friends, brothers or other relatives”.
Recently, BBC News reported a man who “… played a computer game for fifty hours at a time, with some pauses, and then collapsed and died of heart failure and exhaustion.” This shows how serious the damage of video games can be and suggests that it should pay more attention to the negative effects of video games, especially to its addiction. In 1994, Fisher conducted an analysis of addiction to recreational machines. This study was conducted in a small tourist town, where gaming machines are available for tourists and teenagers. “The teenagers were interviewed in the study and the researchers used pathological measures. The study found out that some teenagers were pathological gamblers and found that not only did they play more, but they also spent money from their lunch more take in. loan, steal and sell their things to play. Brain reward system is partly responsible for the powerful addictive properties of a drug, and according to Koepp and his colleagues, video game players seem to experience the euphoria induced by a stroke equal to methamphetamine dopamine.
Kimberly Young (2004), Peter Laurie (1981), researchers Jennifer Seter Wanger (2008) conducted an investigation and discussed the concepts of digital games and their application forms and forms. Being interested in their research, they illustrated the history, symptoms, dependency, secondary effects (physical, social) and prevention against digital gambling. Then they discussed addiction theories and how they influence the brains of young people. The study showed that addiction could be of many types and that the games charge negatively, the symptoms of addiction are young people feel depressed, anxious and lacking self-control among them, further backing up the side effects of becoming victims of carpal tunnel syndrome, weight gain and migraine, social problems that occur are abstinence, loss of contact with reality and improper use of money, in the form of overtime play.
Finally, through addiction, participation in a large amount of time in a video game has caused people to be addicted to it. As a result, they waste valuable time within their communities and lose opportunities for other activities that may be more beneficial to them. This is a major concern is the video game industry, the problem is that they want people to enjoy much more than their games, but then comes the addiction and do not want to, otherwise, raises many health claims, then the game ideal is fun, but not compelling.