Textbook Summary PortfolioBUS206Principles of Management Table of Contents TOC o “1-3” h z u 1Summary Chapter 1: Introduction Business & Management PAGEREF _Toc497390279 h 61.
1What are the four basic principles/functions of management and how are they defined? PAGEREF _Toc497390280 h 61.2What are the levels of management and how can they be characterized? PAGEREF _Toc497390281 h 61.3What are the areas of management and how can they briefly be described? PAGEREF _Toc497390282 h 61.4What are the managerial skills and for what is each skill important? PAGEREF _Toc497390283 h 61.
5What characterizes a manager’s work? Explain each item briefly. PAGEREF _Toc497390284 h 62Summary Chapter 3: The Manager’s Changing Work Environment PAGEREF _Toc497390285 h 62.1Explain the Triple Bottom Line in brief. PAGEREF _Toc497390286 h 62.2Is profit the only important goal of a business? PAGEREF _Toc497390287 h 62.3Who are the stakeholders important inside the organization? PAGEREF _Toc497390288 h 62.
4Who are the stakeholders important outside the organization? PAGEREF _Toc497390289 h 62.5What is the difference between internal stakeholders and external stakeholders? PAGEREF _Toc497390290 h 62.6What does the successful manager need to know about ethics and values? PAGEREF _Toc497390291 h 62.
7Is being socially responsible really necessary? PAGEREF _Toc497390292 h 62.8In which ways can you approach ethical dilemmas? Explain each approach briefly. PAGEREF _Toc497390293 h 62.9Explain the global corporate social responsibility pyramid briefly. PAGEREF _Toc497390294 h 63Summary Chapter 5: Planning PAGEREF _Toc497390295 h 73.1What do planning, strategy, and strategic management entail? Explain each one briefly and why each one is important.
PAGEREF _Toc497390296 h 73.2How does VRIO work? PAGEREF _Toc497390297 h 73.3What are mission, vision, and value statements and what are the differences between them? PAGEREF _Toc497390298 h 73.4What are the 3 types of planning? PAGEREF _Toc497390299 h 73.5Which kinds of management levels are related to which kinds of planning and related to which timeframe? PAGEREF _Toc497390300 h 73.6What are the 2 types of goals, and what are different kinds of plans? Explain Each briefly PAGEREF _Toc497390301 h 73.7Explain the concept of SMART goals by briefly summarizing each item PAGEREF _Toc497390302 h 73.
8How can SMART goals be implemented through management by objectives and cascading goals. PAGEREF _Toc497390303 h 73.9Describe the steps in the planning and control cycle PAGEREF _Toc497390304 h 74Chapter 8: Organization Structure, Culture & Design. PAGEREF _Toc497390305 h 74.
1How can organizational culture be defined briefly and what drives it? PAGEREF _Toc497390306 h 74.2How can organizational structure be defined? PAGEREF _Toc497390307 h 74.3Why is it important for managers to align a company’s vision and strategies with its organizational culture and structure? PAGEREF _Toc497390308 h 74.4What are the 3 levels of organizational culture and explain each briefly PAGEREF _Toc497390309 h 74.5What types of organizational culture are there? Briefly summarize the characteristics of each.
PAGEREF _Toc497390310 h 74.6How is Corporate Culture learned and why is corporate culture important? PAGEREF _Toc497390311 h 74.7Which Mechanisms can be used in changing organizational culture PAGEREF _Toc497390312 h 74.8Define for-profit, non-profit, and mutual-benefit organizations briefly and how are they structured? PAGEREF _Toc497390313 h 74.
9What are the common elements of Organizations? PAGEREF _Toc497390314 h 84.10Describe the 4 types of traditional organizational designs PAGEREF _Toc497390315 h 84.11What are the 3 factors to consider in designing an organizations culture PAGEREF _Toc497390316 h 85Chapter 6: Strategic Management PAGEREF _Toc497390317 h 85.1What is strategic positioning, and what are the three principles that underlie it? PAGEREF _Toc497390318 h 85.2What are the 5 steps in the Strategic Management Process? Briefly describe each. PAGEREF _Toc497390319 h 85.
3What are the characteristics of good mission, vision, and values statements? PAGEREF _Toc497390320 h 85.4What is a SWOT analysis, what are the elements and which of these are related to inside and which to outside? PAGEREF _Toc497390321 h 85.5What is Benchmarking? PAGEREF _Toc497390322 h 85.6What are the 5 competitive forces according to Porter? Explain each briefly. PAGEREF _Toc497390323 h 85.7What are the 3 main strategies in business? Explain each briefly PAGEREF _Toc497390324 h 85.8What are the 5 competitive strategies according to Porter? Explain each briefly.
PAGEREF _Toc497390325 h 85.9What is the “Blue Ocean Strategy”? PAGEREF _Toc497390326 h 85.10What is the BCG Matrix used for and how does is work? PAGEREF _Toc497390327 h 85.11What are the 3 Core Processes of Business? Describe each one briefly. PAGEREF _Toc497390328 h 86Chapter 12: Motivating Employees PAGEREF _Toc497390329 h 96.
1How can Motivation be defined and which factors relate to motivation? PAGEREF _Toc497390330 h 96.2What is the difference between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards? PAGEREF _Toc497390331 h 96.3What are the 4 major perspectives on motivation? Describe each briefly and on what points the overlap PAGEREF _Toc497390332 h 96.4Describe Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory and how it can be used in motivating employees.
PAGEREF _Toc497390333 h 96.5What is the Equity theory and how does it work? PAGEREF _Toc497390334 h 96.6What is the Expectancy Theory and how does it work? PAGEREF _Toc497390335 h 96.7What are the principal elements of the 3 process perspectives: Equity Theory, Expectancy Theory and Goal-Setting Theory? PAGEREF _Toc497390336 h 96.8what is the definition of job design, and what are 2 techniques of job design? PAGEREF _Toc497390337 h 96.9Describe the 5 job attributes of the job characteristics model PAGEREF _Toc497390338 h 96.10What are the 4 types of reinforcement? Describe each briefly.
PAGEREF _Toc497390339 h 96.11Name 6 incentive compensation plans. PAGEREF _Toc497390340 h 96.12Name 3 non-monetary ways of motivating employees. PAGEREF _Toc497390341 h 97Chapter 14: Power, Influence and Leadership PAGEREF _Toc497390342 h 97.
1How can Leadership de defined? PAGEREF _Toc497390343 h 97.2Name and describe briefly the 5 forces of power PAGEREF _Toc497390344 h 97.3What is the difference between Hard and soft influence tactics? PAGEREF _Toc497390345 h 97.4Is Leading the same as managing? Explain why or why not. PAGEREF _Toc497390346 h 97.
5How are women and men different in leadership? PAGEREF _Toc497390347 h 97.6What are the 4 basic skills a leader needs? PAGEREF _Toc497390348 h 97.7What are the 4 behavioural leadership approaches? Explain each briefly.
PAGEREF _Toc497390349 h 97.8What is Ethical Leadership? PAGEREF _Toc497390350 h 97.9What are the two Situational Approaches to leadership? Explain each briefly PAGEREF _Toc497390351 h 97.
10What is transformational leadership and what are the 4 key behaviors of transformational leaders PAGEREF _Toc497390352 h 98Plagiarism and Academic Honesty Declaration PAGEREF _Toc497390353 h 11Summary Chapter 1: Introduction Business & ManagementWhat are the four basic principles/functions of management and how are they defined?Answer: POLC = Planning (plan your goals and how to succeed your target) Organizing (organize tasks and missions to complete them) Leading (lead your workers/people to the same goal and achieve them, motivate your teammates) Controlling (you are the one leading other people to a direction, you are the one controlling them and decide what to do in each situation and correct them, find problem and solve them)What are the levels of management and how can they be characterized? Answer: Top managers long-term decisions opportunities and solve problems. Middle managers plans and make decision for top manager and check up on first-line managers.First-line managers short-term work, training, testing ideas and work directly at their jobs.
Team leader a manager who controls the team and strives for perfect results.What are the areas of management and how can they briefly be described?Answer: Functional manager is in charge of organizing one activity.General manager is in charge of multiple activities. What are the managerial skills and for what is each skill important?Answer: Technical skills being able to work with mechanics, computers specialize the field of technology.Conceptual skills visually think and solve problems, organize and understand the work. Human skills being able to get along with others, get work done professionally and great communication.
What characterizes a manager’s work? Explain each item briefly.Answer: Manager’s work is characterized by three things: Fragmentation, Brevity and Variety and here are also the roles of a manager: Interpersonal roles connect with people who they work with and without, three roles are figurehead, leader and liaison.Informational roles handling information to make smart choices, three roles are monitoring, disseminator and spokesperson.Decisional roles making decisions to solve problems and use opportunities from certain information, the roles are Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator.
Summary Chapter 3: The Manager’s Changing Work EnvironmentExplain the Triple Bottom Line in brief.Answer: The triple bottom line is a concept of sustainability and business which includes three main things, people, planet and profit. Which evaluates social, environmental and the economy.Is profit the only important goal of a business?Answer: No, because there are other important P’s contribute to profit and if you don’t have strong P then your profit will be rough.Who are the stakeholders important inside the organization?Answer: The important people contributing the internal business which are employees, owners and directors.Who are the stakeholders important outside the organization?Answer: The outer organization of stakeholders have two environments which is ” The General Environment” and “The Task Environment” an example is the economic forces ( there are several forces) and the customers.What is the difference between internal stakeholders and external stakeholders?Answer: The external stakeholders indirectly make interacts with the internal or core of a business.
The external people like customers don’t interact directly with the managers but through the business. The internal stakeholders are the core of the business and the external stake holders are there to support them. The external stakeholders are affected by the organization’s environment.What does the successful manager need to know about ethics and values?Answer: Being an ethical manager makes people like you and want to connect with you. Being too empathetic can also affect yourself so be careful. For an example if a manger gives their employees holidays, some employee may think that they don’t deserve it but the other employee does. Consequences can appear when making decisions.
Is being socially responsible really necessary?Answer: Being socially responsible doesn’t mean that people will like you or hate you but it’s all about if they will quite your job or not, the work is the important. Example if you were a manager of a jeans company and you decide to throw your waste blue jeans into the river, your blue jeans will lose it’s colour and cause environmental problems and livings in the river get diseases and die. By that action you can lose employees and customers of course. Summarizing all this, the action of your decision is important in business.In which ways can you approach ethical dilemmas? Explain each approach briefly.Answer: 1. Utilitarian approach: Comes from the word utility which means making it for many people’s benefits.
2. Individual approach: Means making everything for their own and their own benefits3. Moral-Rights approach: One approaches Moral-Right with respect to human rights.4.
Justice approach: This appears when respecting others with equally and fairly base on the law rule.Explain the global corporate social responsibility pyramid briefly.Answer: First thing to task as a priority is being a good global corporate citizen following with your profit system. Not being straightly empathy but be ethical in the country you work with or cooperate with or even be partnership.Summary Chapter 5: PlanningWhat do planning, strategy, and strategic management entail? Explain each one briefly and why each one is important.Answer: Planning = Set up goals and know how to achieve the goalsStrategy = set up long term targets and decide direction for an organizationStrategic = work together with other managers in the organization to form a plan of strategies and strategic goals.
How does VRIO work?Answer: VRIO is a tool of analyzing capability and ultimate strategic potential. Asking questions based on 4 things = Value, Rarity, Imitability and organization.What are mission, vision, and value statements and what are the differences between them?Answer: Mission = To know why you do the businessVision = To know what to become when getting the resultValue = To know if it’s worth it or not, main thing is to the profitWhat are the 3 types of planning?Answer: 1. Strategic planning 2. Tactical planning 3. Operational planningWhich kinds of management levels are related to which kinds of planning and related to which timeframe?What are the 2 types of goals, and what are different kinds of plans? Explain Each brieflyAnswer: 2 types of goals= Long-term and Short-term goals2 kinds of plan= Operating plan and action plan Long-term goals= plan a strategic goals for a long term up to 5 years.
Short-term goals= plan tactical goals within 12 monthsOperating plan: Switch long-term goals into short-term goalsAction plan = Make actions needed to achieve the goalsExplain the concept of SMART goals by briefly summarizing each itemAnswer: SMART= Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Results-oriented and Target dates.Specific= Plan specific goals in a specific timeMeasurable= To measure goals when the goals should be reachedAttainable= Goals should be realistic and attainable, the goal should be enable to achieve.Results-Oriented= Achieve important goals first with a best result of vison for the organizations.Target Dates= Goals should be achieved in a targeted date with deadlines not taking time and have a long process to achieve the goals.How can SMART goals be implemented through management by objectives and cascading goals.
Answer: Set up goals and measure the period of time taking the goals. Goals should be realistic and be available to achieve. Achieve main goals first then target to second choice of goals after.
Must achieve goals in a limited time and deadlines.Describe the steps in the planning and control cycleAnswer: Step 1= Make a planStep 2= Make the plan carry the planStep 3= Control the direction by comparing the result and the goalStep 4= Control the resultChapter 8: Organization Structure, Culture ; Design. How can organizational culture be defined briefly and what drives it?Answer: Organizational culture is defined as a group of people working together and have the same value and their own culture combining into a unique culture in the organization. These five things drives the organizational culture: 1.
Founder’s value 2. Industry and business environment 3. National culture 4. Organization’s strategies and vision 5.
Behaviour of the leaderHow can organizational structure be defined?Answer: It’s a system of mission for the leader to motivate their members in the organization to accomplish the goals of the organization. Also know who does what to achieve the goals.Why is it important for managers to align a company’s vision and strategies with its organizational culture and structure?Answer: It is important because to be a good manager you should balance both culture and structure. To align vision and strategies with the organizational culture the result is that the manager will realize how works are normally done (by culture). And to align vision and strategies with the organizational structure, the manager will know what has to be done to achieve the goals.What are the 3 levels of organizational culture and explain each brieflyAnswer: Level 1= Observable Artefacts- Physical publishing of the cultureLevel 2= Espoused Values- Clearly show the values and examples that the organization prefers.
Level 3= Basic Assumptions- heart values of the organization What types of organizational culture are there? Briefly summarize the characteristics of each. Answer: There are four types of organizational culture:Clan- focuses the inner values flexibility more than stabilityAdhocracy- focuses the outer and values flexibilityMarket- Strongly, mainly focuses on the outer and values stabilityHierarchy- focuses the inner and values stability over flexibilityHow is Corporate Culture learned and why is corporate culture important?Answer: Employees learn the culture through many ways such as symbols, stories, heroes, rites and rituals and organizational socialization. It is important because culture can powerfully shape the success of an organization’s long-term goals. Enhancing its competitive advantages.Which Mechanisms can be used in changing organizational cultureAnswer: There are 12 ways to change an organizational culture.Formal statementsSlogans and sayingsRites and ritualsStories, legends and mythsLeader reaction to crisesRole modelling, training and coachingPhysical designRewards, tiles, promotion and bonusesOrganizational goals and performance criteria Measurable and controllable activities Organizational structureOrganizational systems and proceduresDefine for-profit, non-profit, and mutual-benefit organizations briefly and how are they structured?Answer: For-profit organizations > These have the main object to make profit, make money by offering goods or services.Non-profit organizations > These offer services for customer or clients to not make money (Ex.
Governments hospitals)Mutual-benefit organizations > These are volunteers to collect interests, advance member’s interests or to enhance the members (Ex. Unions) What are the common elements of Organizations? Answer: Common purposesCoordinated effortDivision of LabourHierarchy of authoritySpan of controlAuthority, responsibility and delegationCentralization versus decentralization of authorityDescribe the 4 types of traditional organizational designsAnswer:Simple structure: The single person having the power to rule few rules and has a low work specialization.Functional structure: Putting people that have common specialties together as a formal group.Divisional structure: Putting people with uncommon specialties together but have the same purpose.Matrix structure: Putting functional and divisional structure together to have two command structures. (Vertical and horizontal)What are the 3 factors to consider in designing an organizations cultureAnswer: Environment-mechanistic versus organicEnvironment-differentiation versus integrationLink between strategy, culture and structureChapter 6: Strategic ManagementWhat is strategic positioning, and what are the three principles that underlie it?Answer: Strategic positioning is a strategy that is stable for a long period of time in the competitive world ahead or in advantage by saving the importance or unique point of a company.
The three main principles are as following:Strategy is the creation of a unique and valuable positionStrategy requires trade-offs in competingStrategy involves creating a “Fit” among activitiesWhat are the 5 steps in the Strategic Management Process? Briefly describe each. Answer: The five steps are: Establish the mission, vision and values statements: The purpose, what to become and what the organization stands for.Asses the current reality: Realize what works and what doesn’t work and compare the differences to make it more efficient and effectively.Formulate the grand strategy: Knowing how to accomplish missions by the common grand strategies such as growth, stability and defensive.Implement the strategy: Making the strategic plan real by making it effect the organization or company.Maintain strategic control: Controlling, driving, making decisions of a strategy and adjust if it has to be changed.What are the characteristics of good mission, vision, and values statements?Answer: The good characteristics of mission statement is the learning of efficient and effectiveness and engaging the purpose of an organization’s experience.
Good characteristics of vision statement is the long-term decision making or planning a strategy and directing the organization for a long-term vision ahead. The characteristics of good value statement is the description of an organizations standing for, what does your organizations stand for? Knowing the priorities, value your employees and what your product support the world. What is a SWOT analysis, what are the elements and which of these are related to inside and which to outside? Answer: SWOT is the analyzation of different situations which can be found by Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats that can affect an organization. These elements are related to two differences, inside and outside an organization. Strength and Weakness are the internal matters, Opportunities and Threats are the external matters of an organization.What is Benchmarking?Answer: Benchmarking is the process where a company compares its’ performance to the high-performing organizations.What are the 5 competitive forces according to Porter? Explain each briefly.
Answer: The five competitive forces that Porter’s has discovered are: Threats of new entrants: New competitors are the nightmares of an existing organization because these new organizations can take away customers from them.Bargaining power of suppliers: Many companies tend to quickly change their suppliers for goods and services.Bargaining power of buyers: People to using or consuming an organizations product or service these people have more power than people that don’t often buy or consume their products.Threats of substitute products or services: These days buying online products are getting more popular and for an organization to run stable is for them to switch to selling online products but not switched overall. Follow the demands of people in this generation.Rivalry among competitors: This force is depended by all forces mentioned above.
Putting all forces together to perform one force among competitors and products or services. Being adjustable between each year to compete other organizations.What are the 3 main strategies in business? Explain each brieflyAnswer: Three main or common strategies in business are:The growth strategy: Strategy involving a wide range of sales such as market share, employees or customers growing numbers.
The stability strategy: A strategy involving very less or sometimes no significant changes. Stay basic.The defensive strategy: Strategy involving reduction of an organization’s efforts and effectives.
What are the 4 competitive strategies according to Porter? Explain each briefly.Answer: The four competitive strategies mentioned by Porter are as following: Cost-leadership strategy – This strategy is to keep the costs of a product or service below the market competitor’s prices and target a wide range of the market.Differentiation strategy – Offering new products or services that doesn’t exist in the market or existing but uniquely done by your organization.Cost-focus strategy – Keep costs or price of the organization’s product or service below competitors targeting the market narrowly.
Focused-differentiation strategy – Offer products or service uniquely and is worth the price comparing to other’s and target the market narrowly.What is the “Blue Ocean Strategy”?Answer: Blue Ocean Strategy is the creation of new company’s where do one can judge in the market space making competitors don’t link or connect to yours. Creating new customers and value the product or service and reducing the price.
What is the BCG Matrix used for and how does it work?Answer: BCG Matrix is used to measure or calculate a strategic business unit which appears to use for their business growth rates and their share of market. They work as a unit to evaluate market growth rate and market share.What are the 3 Core Processes of Business? Describe each one briefly.Answer: Three core processes of a business are:1. People- Important is to know who will benefit you in the future.
Having employees that link with other talented workers to have a strong strategy for the future.2. Strategy- Viral is to consider how to accomplish success, ask the nine important questions to analyse whether the strategic is realistic or not and know how to accomplish these goals.3. Operations- To know what path will be followed, a strategic that leads the organization where to go and who has to make it done. This has to show all the majors activities which the company will engage in the future, marketing, production, revenue, sales and define short-term objectives for these activities.
Chapter 12: Motivating EmployeesHow can Motivation be defined and which factors relate to motivation?Answer: Motivation can be defined as the psychological method that inspires the goal and behaviour. Two factors that are related to motivation which is personal factor and contextual factors.What is the difference between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards? Answer: The difference is the reward between Extrinsic and Intrinsic. Extrinsic reward is the payoff such as money and sometimes the reward could be bigger such as a car. Intrinsic reward is the enjoyment such as the feeling of achieving the goals for performing a task.
What are the 4 major perspectives on motivation? Describe each briefly and on what points the overlapAnswer: Four (4) major perspectives on motivation are Content, Process, Job design, Reinforcement. Content: This is the content that interests a person and makes them want to make them work.Process: Environment, atmosphere in the organization can be the surrounding process that fits the both managers and employees.
Job design: It is the work that can be designed by the managers to be as their wanting. Reinforcement: It is defined by the team leader or supervisor to motivate an employee. Rewarding an employee for achieving the goal can be a motivation and the help they get from their bosses.
– These are all linked together to be motivation, to make a person want to do what they do.Describe Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory and how it can be used in motivating employees.Answer: The theory is the propose of work enjoyment or satisfaction and the dissatisfaction coming from the two different factors result. The satisfaction of work coming from the motivation factors and the dissatisfaction coming from the hygiene factors. The motivation factors can be used to motivate the people by achieving the goals of the organization and the responsibilities. The two factors are: Hygiene factors and motivation factor.
What is the Equity theory and how does it work? Answer: Equity theory is a form of motivation which explains how people focus on fairness and justice in society trading and exchange of relationships. This works when a person works as well as another person but the reward is not equally. Often the stress is the payment or salary.What is the Expectancy Theory and how does it work? Answer: Expectancy theory is a questioned motivation by two main things or questions, how much you want it and how they think they can achieve it. By value an employee and know what they deserve as a reward for doing their best at work.
A manager should determine the goals and objectives in order to give demand to their employees to accomplish the objectives and goals.What are the principal elements of the 3 process perspectives: Equity Theory, Expectancy Theory and Goal-Setting Theory?Answer: Three elements of Equity theory are Inputs, Outputs or reward and comparison.Three elements of Expectancy theory are Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence.There are 4 elements of Goal-Setting theory which are Specific goals, measurable goals, attain the goals/plan and know if it’s realistic/create a timeframe. what is the definition of job design, and what are 2 techniques of job design?Answer: It is the levels of an organization’s work and the motivations ways/theories to increase the organization’s satisfaction and their performances. Two techniques of job design are Fitting people to jobs and fitting jobs to people.Describe the 5 job attributes of the job characteristics modelAnswer: 1. Skill variety- To recognize which type of employees are required to your specific job.2. Task identity- T recognize which how many types of tasks are needed to accomplish the goal. 3. Task significance- The effect on the people both inside and outside the organization4. Autonomy- Allowing employees to manage their schedule to perform tasks and know how to perform it. 5. Feedback- Clear and direct result knowing and information about their performances on their work/job.What are the 4 types of reinforcement? Describe each briefly. Answer: 1. Positive reinforcement: Taking positive risks to enhance the strength of their behaviour. 2. Negative reinforcement: Strengthen a behaviour by cutting off the negatives. 3. Extinction: Making sure that the weak behaviour is ignored and doesn’t affect the main behaviour. 4. Punishment: It is the process where a person presents negative behaviour or even withdrawing positive behaviour. Name 6 incentive compensation plans.Answer: 1. Pay for performance 2. Bonuses 3. Profit sharing 4. Gainsharing 5. Stock options 6. Pay for knowledge.Name 3 non-monetary ways of motivating employees. Answer: 1. Work-life benefits 2. Flex-time 3. Vacations and sabbaticals.Chapter 14: Power, Influence and LeadershipHow can Leadership de defined? Answer: Leadership is the ability to control or make influence on employees to have their willing to work and accomplish the organization goals.Name and describe briefly the 5 forces of powerAnswer: 1.Legitimate power: it is the power which every manager has, it is the power of position which the manager is in the organization.2. Reward power: This is the power where the manager makes promises or giving rewards for their employees, giving them rewards for achieving the goals.3. Coercive power: This power is the power where the manager threatens an employee or punish them for making something wrong.4.Expert power: This is the power which one’s result changes because of other one’s specialized information r knowledge.5. Referent power: It is the power of changing someone’s behaviour by one’s own attraction.What is the difference between Hard and soft influence tactics?Answer: Soft influence tactic are more of the ay friendlier and not as harsh as the hard influence tactic than other four tactics. Hard tactics are more like an exert way rather pressure. Is Leading the same as managing? Explain why or why not. Answer: Leading and managing is two different activities, according to Bernard Bass, a leadership expert. He said that managers are more focused on the performing functions linked to planning, investigating, organizing and controlling. Where a leader focuses on influencing other people, leaders inspire other people try to develop their employees to accomplish goals.How are women and men different in leadership?Answer: Men display more task leadership and women tend to have more relationship leadership. Women use more dramatic style than men, men use more like direct style. Female leadership is more connected to the cohesion, cooperate learning and communicating with other people within the team. Women are more effective than men, but men rate themselves more effective than women rate themselves.What are the 4 basic skills a leader needs? Answer: Leaders need the following 4 basic skills: 1. Cognitive abilities 2. Interpersonal skills 3. Business skills 4. Strategic skillsWhat are the 4 behavioural leadership approaches? Explain each briefly.Answer: 4 behavioural leadership approaches are: Ask-oriented behaviour: This behaviour is to make sure that people, equipment and other resources are being used in the effective and efficient way to achieve the organizational goals.Relationship-oriented behaviour: This behaviour is the interactions between the leader and their people of relationships and emotions.Passive behaviour: A behaviour that can be characterized as a lack of leadership or no skills on these particular skills for a leadership.Transformational behaviour: Change from employees own interests to the interest of pursuing organizational goals.What is Ethical Leadership?Answer: Ethical leadership shows the behaviour that normally occurs as the focus on being a moral type of person or the role model.What are the two Situational Approaches to leadership? Explain each brieflyAnswer: 1. The contingency leadership model by Fiedler: This measures if the leader’s style is more like a task-oriented or relationship-oriented and see if the style is effective for each situations or not.2. The path-goal leadership model by House: A leader who is able to make his/her employees work effectively by rewarding them, increase the employee’s motivation by clearly explain the paths or behaviour that will help the employees to achieve the goals and be helpful to the employee.What is transformational leadership and what are the 4 key behaviours of transformational leadersAnswer: Transformational leadership is to change the employee’s self-interests to focus more on the organizational goals. The four key behaviour of transformational leaders are: 1. Inspirational motivation 2. Idealized influence 3. Individualized consideration 4. Intellectual stimulationPlagiarism and Academic Honesty DeclarationAs stated in the Stamford Student Handbook I hereby declare that I know and understand that:Any form of academic dishonesty is an offense against the Stamford Community, as well as a demonstration of a lack of personal integrity and academic rigor. Cases of academic dishonesty will be referred to the Disciplinary Committee and punished. Plagiarism Credit for any work belongs to the person who does the work. Passing off the work of another person as your own is plagiarism. Plagiarism is wrong and will be punished. For example, to avoid plagiarism: Do not copy and paste the work of others and/or from Internet. Do not retype the work of others. Do not steal another person’s PowerPoint. Do not submit work that was written by another person. List your sources in your list of references APA styleName……………………………………………… Student #……………………………………….. Signed……………………………………………. Date……………………………………