ARMED CONFLICT IN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO AND CHILDREN`S RIGHTS IN REFUGEE CAMPS IN RWANDA
A Case Study of Kiziba Refugee Camp
LAKO DEUGOU RUTH
A Research Proposal Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Award Of A Degree In Master Of International Relations And Diplomacy Of Mount Kenya University
DECLARATIONThis thesis is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other University or for any other award
Students Name:Lako Deugou Ruth
Reg. No. MIRD/2017/65586
Sign ____________________Date _____________
Declaration of Supervisor (s)
I confirm that the work reported in this thesis was carried out by the candidate under my supervision
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DEDICATIONI dedicate this proposal to all children in Africa whose rights was violated. I encourage them saying there is still hope to end this child right violation.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe current work is the outcome of combined energies of behalf on numerous people to whom I express my deep and honest appreciativeness towards their faithfulness.
At the outset, am humbled to lift my thanksgiving to the almighty God for his Endless love, grace and protection all along my academic period and more particularly in this realization of this work. My deepest appreciation goes towards my lecturers in MIRD and to my supervisor
(DR Yobes Makosi) for his kind assistance and guidance of my work and showed his great availability and devotion to help me achieving tasks and the duties I was assigned to accomplish.
I appreciate also my relatives, brethren, friends and classmates who enormously assisted me in various sectors that helped me to achieve goals in this academic journey without them I would be nowhere. Finally my sincere thanks goes to you once again, loads of love.
Lastly but not least, I appreciate with my whole-heart the efforts made by my Parents
(Jean and Charlotte DEUGOU) and our ministry CMFI, they never gave up supporting me financially and morally, with love and co values of life that made me to stand strong in the different aspects of life. With my recognition of my lovely sister Esther Deugou who expressed love and backing me up when life is getting harder with encouragement as a fuel of life at all times.
ABSTRACTThis research proposal is about the armed conflict in DRC and child rights in refugee camp in Rwanda the purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of this armed conflict in Congolese children living in refugee camp in Rwanda (Kiziba camp) and to analyses how their rights that are violated. The specific objectives will be to assess the role of various stakeholders in protecting the rights of Congolese child refugee in Rwanda, to analyze the impact of armed conflicts on Congolese children living in Kiziba camp and to explore the challenges in protecting the rights of the refugee children in Kiziba camp. This study aims will be to make a research of how children’s rights are protected in this Kiziba camp developed, so that the researcher may be able to evaluate how adolescent are exposed to violence, different ways of abuse and being neglected, exploitation, psychosocial wellbeing, knowledge, attitudes regarding the system and the activity of protecting children. These measures will be used to evaluate some of the main aspects that can impact child’s rights protection activities that are part of the key research objectives in this study such as knowledge of services, attitudes towards child protection resilience and empowerment. Consequences of conflict on children and the society is a pertinent issue to the existence of armed conflicts and children’s rights and is examined in the work of other scholars with a view to highlighting the terrible negative effects war has had on children and the society and emphasize the need to find a solution about it. The sampling techniques that the researcher have used here is simple random sampling where each population element with a known equal chance to be selected and purposive sampling where people with a particular characteristics will be purposively selected and the tools that have been used here for data collection is documentation, the instrument will help the researcher to get information from other researchers. Questionnaires also will be used, the researcher will set questions on the questionnaire and it will be given to targeted people to respond. A face to face interviews also will be used, the researcher will have a conversation with people living in Kiziba refugee camp in other to get information. The last instrument that will be used is observation where the researcher will discover things or get information through observing.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc519510314 h iiDEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc519510315 h iiiACKNOWLEDGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc519510316 h ivABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc519510317 h vLIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc519510318 h viiiLIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc519510319 h ixDEFINITION OF TERMS PAGEREF _Toc519510320 h xiiCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc519510321 h 11.6 Limitations of the Study PAGEREF _Toc519510322 h 61.7 Scope of the study PAGEREF _Toc519510323 h 61.7.1 Content Scope PAGEREF _Toc519510324 h 62.0Introduction PAGEREF _Toc519510325 h 72.1 Theoretical literatures PAGEREF _Toc519510326 h 72.1.1 Armed Conflict PAGEREF _Toc519510327 h 72.1.2 Child Rights PAGEREF _Toc519510328 h 82.1.3 The African charter on the Rights and welfare of the child PAGEREF _Toc519510329 h 82.1.4 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 1989 PAGEREF _Toc519510330 h 92.1.5 Consequences of armed conflict on children and the society PAGEREF _Toc519510331 h 102.2 Empirical literature PAGEREF _Toc519510332 h 112.2.1 Education PAGEREF _Toc519510333 h 112.3 Critical Review and Research Gap PAGEREF _Toc519510334 h 122.4 Theoretical Framework PAGEREF _Toc519510335 h 132.4.1 Constructivism Theory PAGEREF _Toc519510336 h 132.5 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc519510337 h 152.5 Summary PAGEREF _Toc519510338 h 163.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc519510339 h 173.1 Research design PAGEREF _Toc519510340 h 173.2 Target Population PAGEREF _Toc519510341 h 173.3 Sample design PAGEREF _Toc519510342 h 183.3.1 Sample Size PAGEREF _Toc519510343 h 193.3.2 Sampling techniques PAGEREF _Toc519510344 h 193.3.2 Simple Random Sampling PAGEREF _Toc519510345 h 193.3.3 Purposive sampling PAGEREF _Toc519510346 h 203.4 Data collection Methods PAGEREF _Toc519510347 h 203.4.2 Documentation PAGEREF _Toc519510348 h 203.4.3 Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc519510349 h 203.5 Data Analysis Methods PAGEREF _Toc519510350 h 213.6 Reliability and validity of data collection PAGEREF _Toc519510351 h 223.8 Ethical Consideration PAGEREF _Toc519510352 h 22
LIST OF TABLES TOC h z c “Table” Table 1. Children required in education, Kiziba Camp, February 2014 PAGEREF _Toc519510429 h 12
LIST OF FIGURES TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 1:Figure 2.1:Conceptual framework PAGEREF _Toc519179660 h 16
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
ADRA: Adventist Development and Relief Agency
ATT: Arms Trade Treaty
AVSI: Association of volunteers in International Service
CRC: convention on Rights of the child
DDRR: Disarmament Demobilization rehabilitation and Reintegration
DRC: Democratic Republic of Congo
ECD : Early Child Development
FARD : Armed forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo
IDPs : Internally Displaced Persons
MIDIMAR : Ministry of Disaster Management and Refugee Affairs
MONUSCO: United Nations Organizations Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic
UNICEF : United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund
UNHCR : United Nations High Commissioner for Refugee of Congo
WFP : World Food Programmer
DEFINITION OF TERMSArmed Conflict: is a political conflict in which armed combat involves the armed forces of at least on state (one or more armed factions seeking to gain control of all part of the states), and in which at least thousand people have been killed by the fighting during conflicts.
Child: biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty. The legal definition of child generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority.
Constructivism: according to the constructivist theory, norms culture, customs and interests can change the behaviors of a country’s citizenry
Humanitarian: pertaining to the saving of human lives or helping the alleviation of suffering
Legacy: legacy is something that is handed down from one period of time to another period of time
Refugee: a refugee is someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of persecution, war, natural disaster or violence.
Children Rights: are the human rights of children with a particular attention to the rights of special protection and care to minors.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTIONIntroduction
This chapter focuses on the background of the study and statement of the problem, objectives of the study as well research questions, the significance of the study, limitations of the study, scope of the study and organization of the study are also in.
1.1 Background of the study
Twenty years after a ground-breaking report on the impact of armed conflict on children brought the issue into focus at the united nations, young people around the globe were still being tortured, maimed and killed, recruited by armed groups and exposed to numerous threats as a result of massive displacement, stressed delegated today as the security council held and open debate on the matter. Many of the more than 70 speakers noted that, despite limited progress including the conclusion of a number of national action plan to end violations against children, many of the grim realities outlined in the 1996 Graca Machel report continued unabated or had even worsened in the face of deteriorating global security landscape.
Ban Ki-moon the secretary general of the united nation, said that, while the global security landscape continued to change, one grim reality remained the same and children still paid the highest price in wartime. Young boys and girls were directed, targeted, conscripted, tortured, maimed, imprisoned, starved, sexually abused and killed. In Places such us Iraq, Nigeria, Somalia, south Soudan, Syria and Yemen, children suffer through a living hell. The secretary general of UN noted that, while his appeal to every member state and every conflict party: «if you want to protect your image, protect children”. In 2016 marked the twentieth anniversary of the office of special representative on children and armed conflict, he underscored his full support for the present special representative of the secretary general for children and armed conflict Leila Zerrougui. We need resources much more than we need political will. The ultimate goal was to end grave violations of the human rights of children, which demanded ending conflicts and establishing peace (Zerrougui, 2016)
Within the framework of its civilian protection and stabilization mandate, United Nations stabilization mission of Congo (MONUSCO) has been working closely with the Democratic Republic of Congo government providing support to its forces (FARDC) to curb negative forces and restore security in the areas affected by the recent resurgence of violence. Over 40 nations of the world are experiencing some form of armed conflict; these conflicts create instability and expose children to unfavorable environment. In recent cases of armed conflict, children have been increasingly victimized as both targets and agents of violence. International organizations, policy-makers and humanitarian actors have raised the issue of children that are forced to join the army, making it one of the most debated humanitarian issues. Recent conflict in Democratic republic of Congo began in 1996, which was two years after the Rwanda Genocide which is sometimes referred to the «African World War» because it involved nine African nations and twenty armed groups. Despite the signing of peace accord in 2003, fighting has continued in the east of the country up to now; the missing of Measurement method that can help to evaluate the capacity of child protection system in humanitarian settings. Creating an evidence base for protection programming for children is difficult, a lack of rigorous and robust methods and tools to measure the outcomes associated with child protection programming in humanitarian setting limits the ability to measure the results of UNHCRs programming, human rights and the impact of its new strategies. Children’s are increasingly victims of armed conflict, a child is defined as every human being under the age of eighteen as defined by the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the child and the African charter of the organization of African Unity on Human Rights and the wellbeing of the 1990 child. The use of children in army is clearly a violation of international law, customary international law draws from humanitarian law, the law of the child, and the practice of states. Among the basic rules now applying to international and internal conflicts is that knowingly to allow or to require the participation in conflict of children under fifteen years of age is a violation of their human rights under customary International law, no matter that the child volunteers. There are four kinds of international law in relation to children that joined the army: international human Rights law, International Humanitarian Law, International Criminal Law and International Labor Law. Using children in armed conflict is clearly a violation of all the above law. (Justino, 2009)
1.2 Problem Statement
Several actions have been taken in the past to end violation of child’s right in armed conflict in the DRC. As a result, nearly 300003 children have been released from the ranks of armed forces and groups and recruitment levels have progressively reduced.
The recruitment of children in armed forces is a violation of international law, children used in armed conflict are often treated brutally, suffering severe physical, emotional and sexual abuse. As soldiers, children’s miss out on Education and a social structure necessary for a healthy growth. These children are spread across the world where they will grow up and will not have been rehabilitated as children and will in turn engage in more conflict and unless the cycle is broken, the word will not be a desirable and a safe place to live in.
UNHCR started to roll out new strategies in 2012 on child protection, sexual, gender based violence and Education in a selected number of target countries; these strategies was intended to inform UNHCRs interventions at country level for five to five years period and reflected in country based strategies. Measurement and assessment of the impact of these strategies on child protection outcomes in an important aspect of implementation of the strategies.
The 2013 participatory assessment in Kiziba Camp was conducted as part of UNHCRs approach to age, gender and diversity mainstreaming, has identified some concerns in the refugee population relating to child protection, including lack of opportunities for secondary education resulting in delinquent youths in the camp forming gangs, lack of trust in the volunteer security team in the camp, parents imposing hectic work, such as gathering firewood on children, impunity of perpetrators of violence and abuse. Research conducted in Kiziba Camp in Rwanda in 2013 identified four issues in this camp related to youth: children out of school delinquency, early pregnancies, prostitution and robbery. The research intends to analyze how armed conflict in DRC affect children rights in refugee camps in Rwanda.
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.3.1 General Objectives
The general objective of this study is to investigate the impact of armed conflicts in DRC on children rights who are living in Kiziba Refugee Camps in Rwanda.
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
To assess the role of various stakeholders in protecting the rights of Congolese child refugee in Rwanda
To analyze the impact of armed conflicts on Congolese children in Kiziba Camp.
To explore the challenges in protecting the rights of the refugee children in Kiziba Camp.
1.4 Research Questions
What are the role of various stakeholders in protecting the rights of Congolese refugee children?
What are the impact of armed conflict on Congolese children in Kiziba Camp?
There are challenges in protecting the rights of children in Kiziba Refugee camp, what are they?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study aims was to make a research on how children’s rights are violated in this Kiziba camp, in order to evaluate the adolescents exposed to violence, exploitation, abuse, neglect, current psychosocial wellbeing, knowledge and attitudes towards child protection systems and activities. These measures helps the researcher to evaluate some of the key area of impact of child rights protection activities such as violence, exploitation, abuse, neglect and psychosocial wellbeing as well as intermediary outcomes that are part of the key research objectives in this study such as knowledge of services, attitudes towards child protection resilience and empowerment. Consequences caused by conflict on children and the society is a pertinent issue to the existence of armed conflicts and children’s rights. The society is examined in the work of other scholars with a view to highlighting the terrible negative effects war has had on children and the society and emphasize the need to find a solution about it.
1.6 Limitations of the StudyOne of the major limitation anticipated is fear of responded disabling to give adequate information related to Kiziba Camp, people will to talk but most of them are busy with work (looking for water and firewood), the youth that the researcher have managed to talk to didn’t know how to read and to write, in this case the researcher used Interview but some of them also have responded. Language problem is anticipated and this will be solved using the interpreters
Language problem is anticipated, this will be resolved through using the interpreters.
1.7 Scope of the study1.7.1 Content ScopeThis study will focus on role of armed conflict in DRC in violating rights of children who are at refugee camp in Rwanda.
1.7.2 Geographical Scope
Geographically this study will focus on Kiziba Camp located in Rwankumba sector Karongi district in Western province
1.7.3 Time Scope
This study focused on the period starting from 2013 to 2015 the period when children in Kiziba camp were out of school for delinquency, there was early pregnancies, and prostitution, robbery were also identified.1.8 Organization of the study
This study is divided into three chapters as follows: chapter one provide a general introduction, chapter two provide a literature review which explains the work of others who have carried out similar research in the past, in chapter three the research methodology and research design will be discussed in details.
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
IntroductionThis chapter explains the work of others who have carried out similar research in the past. It comprises of the theoretical review, literature review, conceptual and theoretical framework, critical review and summary of the literature.
2.1 Theoretical literatures2.1.1 Armed ConflictInternational humanitarian law distinguishes two types of armed conflicts, international armed conflicts, opposing two or more state, and non-international armed conflict, between governmental forces and non-governmental armed groups, or between such groups only. Legally speaking no other type of armed conflictexist.it is nevertheless important to underline that a situation can evolve from one type of armed conflict to another, depending on the facts prevailing at a certain moment. International humanitarian law does make it clear what an international armed conflict is. According to the article 2 of Geneva convention (1949), states that “all cases of declared war or of any armed conflict that may arise between two or more high contracting parties, even if the state of war is not recognized, the convention shall also apply to all cases of partial or total occupation of territory of a high contracting party even if the said occupation meets with no armed resistance” art 2 Geneva Convention (1949)
2.1.2 Child RightsThe convention states that everyone under the age of 18 (the definition of a child), regardless of gender, origin, religion or possible disabilities, needs special care and protection because children are often the most vulnerable. There is four fundamental principles of children’s rights;
A non-discrimination: children should benefit nor suffer because of their race, color, gender, language, religion, or national, social or ethnic origin, or because of any political or other opinion; because of your caste, poverty or birth status or because they are disabled. The best interests of the child: laws and actions affecting children should put their best interests first and benefit them in the best possible way. Survival, development and protection: the authorities in your country must protect them and help ensure their full development; physical, spiritual, moral and social. Children have a right to have their say in decisions that affect them, and to have their opinions taken into account.
2.1.3 The African charter on the Rights and welfare of the childThe organization of African unity (OAU) adopted the African charter in 1990. It states; stated parties to the present charter shall take all necessary measures to ensure that no child shall take a direct part in hostilities and refrain in particular from recruiting any child. It also makes it clear that a child is anyone below the age of 18years
As Van Bueren acknowledges, ‘the potential protection offered by the African Charter is more comprehensive and coherent. This is in reference to the age of the child. The African Charter makes it clear that no human being under the age of 18 shall be conscripted into any army. It has no exceptions like the CRC has but then it is arguable that this charter does not have much effect on the African States that have signed it as most of the child soldiers come from Africa. Experts on child soldiers confirm that most child soldiers come from Africa. Up to half of the world’s child soldiers are in Africa despite the entry into force in 1999 of the African charter on the rights and welfare of the child there is argument that the charter may have not been ratified and there do not appear any signs of it being ratified in the near future. African charter is more comprehensive than the CRC in that the African charter extends to situation of internal armed conflicts, tension and strife the duty of states parties to protect children. The CRC merely says in Article 38 that states parties shall ensure that no child shall take a direct part in hostilities and refrain in particular from recruiting any child. The African charter, belonging to a regional organization is arguably able to develop International Human Rights Law in ways that are appropriate to the region. As Van Bueren rightly observes ‘regional treaties theoretically have better prospects of being implemented amongst a smaller number of cohesive states.
(Van Bueren 1995)
2.1.4 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 1989The CRC was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 20thNovember 1989 and entered into force on 2nd September 1990. By January 2000 the convention had been ratified by 191 states. Only Somalia and the United States of America remain outside the treaty regime. Article 1of the convention on the rights of the child states for the purpose of the present convention, a child means any human being below the age of eighteen years unless, under the law applicable to the child majority is attained earlier.
The CRC in this instance has failed to protect the child from the harm caused by being a child soldier, it has been criticized that many of the rights listed down in the convention are very vague and difficult to be translated into international and domestic law. Fortin argues that “by listing forty substantive legal rights, the convention certainly contributes to this process of rights devaluation”. The CRC has further been criticized for giving universal solutions without recognition of local complexities in which it is applied. It can be argued that this criticism resonates with the human security theory used in this research which argues that states should provide preventive measures that will guard against legal frameworks that not apply to particular situations but are instead much generalized.
2.1.5 Consequences of armed conflict on children and the societyThe number of youth who have witnessed or experienced violence in DRC is arguably high, they are left traumatized and psychologically affected. More than 90% of child soldiers in Goma and Bukavu had witnessed severe violence and murder. Acts of sexual abuse applied to almost one-third of them, while nearly 80% had been seriously beaten. Furthermore 64% claimed they had personally killed someone. Children who were involved in killing are considered a threat even when demobilized and reintegrated.
They are brutalized, violated and raped, often contracting diseases such as HIV/aids. They are sent to massacre others and are themselves massacred. Those who survive lose their child hood irredeemably. The involvement of children in conflict has severe consequences on the children and the society. The brutality on children are exposed to affects them for the rest of their lives, they suffer physical and psychological trauma which if not addressed turns them into dysfunctional members of the society, a cycle which eventually destroy a the value of the society
A society and child that are ravaged by war need healing, the process of healing has not been given the attention it requires by international community. Some healing process especially the western ones cannot be afforded by communities in rural Africa where some of the most forms of conflict involving children are experienced. Some healing are administered by the church while others in hospitals. The aim of the healing is to rid the children of the horrific things they underwent during the war. The war scene, graveyards and homes a cleaned by traditional African who take it upon themselves to carry out the exercise that requires assistance of the international society.
2.2 Empirical literatureA recent study of knowledge and attitudes towards child protection in refugee camps in Rwanda included findings from Kiziba Camp, which showed high level of communal knowledge of the main child protection concerns, as well as knowledge of the child protection committees and international protection (AVSI 2013)
The study identified a number of direct and indirect risks for violence and abuse against children, including use of physical violence and punishment, lack of access to adequate, quality education and food insecurity. Lack of access to basic needs was identified as a potential cause for protection risks, for example lack of income generating activities resulting in use of child labor and lack of adequate space in the home resulting in violence against children in the home.
2.2.1 EducationIn Kiziba camp there are the following educational structures supported by the education implementing partner, Adventist development and relief agency (ADRA): 1nursery school, 3 primary schools and 1 secondary school (secondary level 1-3)
Table 1. Children required in education, Kiziba Camp, February 2014Level Male Female Total Location
Nursery school 374 385 759 Kiziba Camp
Primary School 1.988 2.089 4.077 Kiziba Camp
Senior 1 to 3 659 632 1.291 Kiziba Camp
Senior 6 0 35 35 Outside the camp
TOTAL 2.463 3.141 6.127 Source: ADRA, February 2014 (Nursery, Primary and Secondary Education)
There are 4 early childhood development center with a total of 49 boys and 91 girls that attend its activities. The Lilian foundation supports eight children with disabilities in Kiziba Camp. In addition to those recorded in the data above, children study outside the camp in various Rwandan public and private secondary schools especially those who are in final years of secondary school and these children are not supported through the formal system and are therefore not captured in the table above.
2.3 Critical Review and Research GapIn this session the researcher assess the strength of child protection systems in humanitarian settings are lacking and creating an evidence base for protection programming for children is not easy. A lack of rigorous and robust methods and tools to measure the outcomes associated with child protection programming settings, limits the ability to measure the results of UNHCRs programming and the impact of its new strategies.
In response to these challenges and the recognition of the need to develop assessment approaches and measurements methods for child protection in humanitarian settings, UNHCR and AVSI Rwanda have helped the researcher. This report present the methodology, findings and key learning of study in Kiziba refugee Camp in Rwanda. This refugee camp in Kiziba was established in December 1996 and has a current population of 16,314. The specific research objective that was addressed in this study is how children’s rights are protected in Kiziba camp and how their life has changed after living Congo because of armed conflict that was happening there. While going through the research of other researchers the researchers has discovered the Gap which was that the majority focuses on the right of children at their home or school but this study has focuses on how armed conflict affects child’s rights.
2.4 Theoretical Framework2.4.1 Constructivism Theory Constructivism theory holds that social facts are creations of human beings and the social structures are manifested by material structure and international community. Social structure has three component; the shared knowledge, material resources and practices.
Constructivism stresses the function of ideas, human activities are conducted through sharing of ideas, and it believes that norms, culture, customs and learning can change the behaviors and interests of a country’s citizenry.
This theory asserts that the process of International politics alters interests and identity in the international system, it emphasizes that identities may change through interaction. The children rights violations in DRC are a result of social structures constructed by human beings, these structures are conducted at the local, national and international levels. At the local level broken families, abusive parents and family values affect children and determine what they will be.
At the community and national level, civic groups, religious groups, schools, peers and government can contribute to a child joining an armed groups. Government institutions, social norms and the ethnic factor have a correlation with the children’s participating in armed conflict; at the international level, weak legal framework cross border flows and existence of arms industries and greed for resources such as conflict diamonds will fuel the growth of child’s right violation. According to the constructivist theory, norms, cultures, customs and interests can change the behaviors of a country’s citizenry. This research will use the theory to argue that the practice of violating the rights of children can be eliminated with proper adaptation of the tenets of the theory. This theory will be applied at the national and local levels by adopting norms, culture, customs and learning what can change the country’s citizenry. These include protecting children from abuse at home, which is a reason why some became street child or other join the army. This can be done by counseling and sensitizing the society and cultures that indoctrinate children into joining armed groups are curtailed. At the international level, the theory of constructivism is applied through the strengthening of legal frameworks. This can be done where the international community pays great attention to countries violating international norms and organizations such as the International Criminal Court placing punitive measures on leaders who violate laws such as the CRC.
International politics, according to constructivists, alters interests and identify in the international system. This can be applied to phenomenon of children involved in armed conflict by using international regimes to control cross border flows and reduce if not eradicate the existence of small arms industries. International regimes like the UNHCR work with states to ensure cross border flows of refugees are controlled. The Armed Trade Treaty(ATT) can work with stated parties to eradicate small arms and weapons. One of the arguments for the emergence of child’s rights violation is because of the production of small and light weapons that can be carried, assembled and used by children. Making these weapons unavailable to armed groups would reduce the existence of child involved in armed conflicts especially as combatants.
2.4.2 An emerging theory of children’s Rights
Worsfold identifies three essential features which are necessary in any scheme justifying children’s Rights. These features were first proposed by Maurice Cranston in justifying general individual rights. The first feature says that children’s rights must be practicable, which means it must be theoretically possible or acceptable within some larger conception of the good society.
The second feature, they must be genuinely universal in other words appropriate for all children everywhere. However there can be misunderstandings about the implications of this characteristic for different age groups, it may also argue that preschoolers should not have rights while adolescent should or that in any event the rights of the two groups should not be the same. All persons do not enjoy the same legal rights, but all are presumed to have the same capacity for rights.
Thirdly, children rights must be of paramount importance, when fair treatment is accorded to children as a right, it must override all other considerations in society’s conduct towards children, an example, the consideration that children should have fun; this feature serves to override the utilitarian objection that when we act in children’s best interests we should be concerned less with their protection and more their pleasure or satisfaction.
2.5 Conceptual FrameworkThe purpose of this study will be to expose how children’s rights are violated especially in armed conflict, to investigate the impact of armed conflicts on children and how their rights are protected in Kiziba refugee camp. The researcher will be showing what causes this and what impact it has on the society and also on the children whose rights are violated in Africa. Based on the review of literature the aim is to add more emphasis on the legal frameworks in existence regarding children’s rights and how effective they are.
Figure 2.1: Conceptual frameworkArmed Conflict
Child Right Violation
Child Right Abuse
Lack of education
Child Sexual abuse and prostitution
Delinquent youths in the camp
Independent VariablesDependent Variables
Government and International policy
Source: Field Data
2.5 SummaryThis chapter focused on exploring in brief the literature that guided this research. Armed conflict in DRC and protection of children’s Rights in Kiziba refugee camps are the core of this study and that is why this chapter examined the different aspects that are connected to this topic.
The study was developed based on conceptual framework which was important to explain the entire path that led to the interpretation of findings; in this chapter the researcher tried to explain and show the conceptual framework to guide the whole work. The literature review indicates the consequences of conflict on children and society; its pertinent issues to the existence of children’s rights and it is examined in the work of other scholars with a view to highlight the terrible negative effects war had on children and emphasize the need to find a solution about it.
CHAPTER TREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.0 IntroductionThe purpose of this chapter is to present the methodological approach, the techniques and tools used in conducting the research study, analysis and its presentations to meet the objectives of the study. It emphasizes on the population survey.
3.1 Research designThe research design that adopted a cross sectional descriptive research design. Descriptive research design emphasizes detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships. On case study research designs, Mugenda (2003) indicated that, the investigation makes a detailed examination of a single subject, group or phenomenon. The researcher employed both quantitative and qualitative research methods.
3.2 Target PopulationThe population of this study was 400 respondents all of them were refugees in Kiziba camp which is located in Rwankuba sector, karongi district in western province. The sample size was drawn from this target population. This population consisted of youth both male and female having the age from 18 to 30. .The aim why the researcher choose this age simply they are grown and can give adequate information needed from what they passed through in DRC and a current life.
Table 3.1: population and sample size distribution
Gender Population Sample Size Sampling Techniques
Youth Male 250 150 Simple Random Sampling
Youth Female 15O 50 Purposive sampling
TOTAL 400 200 Source: Field Data
3.3 Sample designThe ideal situation is to obtain information from the entire study population, the parents of children’s, population living in Kiziba camp. This will ensure maximum coverage concerning this research. In Nigel (1999) observations he said if “if we had sufficient and resources we might study the whole population rather than just a sample taken from that population”. The sample size depends on both the nature of population and the objectives of the study.
3.3.1 Sample SizeA sample of respondents will be computed by a formula for Slovene’s formula (Guilford, to be considered and be divided depending on the type of business in which the respondents are in.
QUOTE Where n = is sample size,
e= level of Precision or margin of error
N= 400 persons, e= 5%=0.05
Then, we substitute in the above formula by the number of the population (400persons) in order to find out the sample size of the study:
3.3.2 Sampling techniques Stratified sampling technique was used in this research since it helps in grouping the population into relatively homogenous Standardized subgroups and avoids overlapping of the strata before sampling. Stratified sampling was also used because it ensures better coverage of population, always achieves greater accuracy and the results from each stratum can be analyzed separately.
3.3.2 Simple Random SamplingAccording to cooper (2006), simple random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling since all probability samples must provide a known none zero probability of selection for each population element. It is also considered as a special case in which each population element has a known and equal chance of selection.
3.3.3 Purposive samplingBailey (1978) explains purposive sampling as a method of sampling that requires the researcher to use their own judgments about which participant to pick for the research to be meaningful. William (1982) defined purposive sampling as a general term for judgment sampling in which the researcher purposively choose certain groups or individuals for their relevance to the topic being studied”. Grinnell (1990) defines purposive sampling as a sampling technique in which people with particular characteristics are purposively selected. By the purposive sampling, the researcher selected 20 refugees that are more informed about the topic understudy for instance, especially the refugees who were in Kiziba camps for long.
3.4 Data collection Methods3.4.1 Data collection Instrument
The techniques which were used to collect the data in this study are the following;
Documentation, questionnaire, interview and observation.
3.4.2 DocumentationWilliam (1982) asserts that, “analysis of available records can be the only way to obtain qualitative data”. And Bailey (1979) argues another sources of data is the analysis of document. This instrument will help the researcher to get information from other researcher which includes official document, textbooks and reports.
3.4.3 QuestionnaireThis techniques is preferred because all the respondents know how to read and write. So it avoids pressures and fear brought about the presence of the researcher. The respondents will have enough time to think and put their ideas together before responding to the question. A questionnaire, according to Kendall and Buckland (1960) is a group of sequence of question designed to elicit information upon a subject or sequence of subjects from an informant. Mbaga (1990) defines a questionnaire to mean a set of questions which are self-administered. What is quite noticeable in this study is that this technique allows a respondent time and space to answer the questions which assure the free flows of data, and in addition to that respondents are assured of anonymity in case of questions which are considered politically sensitive. The questionnaire in this case will be administered to the displaced people living in Kiziba camp from DRC
An interview is a face to face conversation between an interview and the chosen respondent for the purpose of obtaining information. Ker linger (1964) says that an interview is a conversation in which the researcher tries to get information from the interviewee. The researcher has interview youth living in Kiziba Camp with a purpose of getting information.
3.5 Data Analysis MethodsAccording to Rogers and Carlo (1991), quoted by Mbabazi (2007) data processing refers to the transformation of respondent view into a meaningful text; once a data is edited and coded, they put it together in tables and may undergo some forms of statistical analysis. After collecting Data it is duly processed to get meaningful results. Causley (1987) assets that data collection is not an end in itself unless the data is processed, analyzed and converted into information in a format that can be helpful to the user. During data processing, relevant data to the objective of the study will be considered and transformed into meaningful information for easy interpretation and understanding.
In analyzing and processing data, the researcher group the data together and process it through categorizing and editing in order to show what it means and to facilitate its interpretation (Roth1977). Data analysis will be used and prepare for tabulation and chart presentation, analyze and interpret the data. Editing, coding and tabulation will be done in order to scrutinize for completeness and errors.
3.6 Reliability and validity of data collectionThis part study the population, sample design, how data was collected and analyzed and which method have been used. In this study a case study of Kiziba Camp was used as a field experiment in order to get reliable information on the assessment of child’s rights protection in refugee Camps at Kiziba. The researcher have observed , she has use the face to face interview because many were too busy they couldn’t have time to read and respond and some people did not know how to read and write. In analyzing and processing data, the researcher group the data together and process it through categorizing and editing in order to show what it means and facilitate its interpretation.
3.8 Ethical Consideration The researcher coded respondent instead of reflecting their name during data collection in order to insure the confidentiality of the information they will provide and to ascertain the practice of ethics in this study. The researcher stipulated that any information obtained from the respondents had to remain confidential and used for academic purpose only.
The researcher designed a questionnaire and interview guide which helped to gather information, permission was solicited through a written request to the officials concerned by the study.
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Appendix 2: Survey Questionnaire
Part I: Respondents Bio Data
Direction: Please tick any which applies
7 and above
Part II: Questionnaires Related to Armed conflict in DRC and also related to Refugees living in Kiziba Camps
Respondent made Rating Description
Agree 1 You agree with some Doubt
Disagree 2 You disagree with some Doubt
Do you see any commitment of these international peacekeepers visavis human rights protection
Is only use of armed forces better way to stabilize the conflict zones of DRC
What are the causes of this armed conflict in DRC?
As for you what can be done to have this armed conflict totally resolved to reduce the number of people migrating
When are you planning to return to your homeland?
When there is security
Never return back
Give the reason that support your answer
In your opinion who protect child rights in conflict areas
Appendix 3: Interview Guidelines
How have been in this region of DRC beforecoming to Rwanda as refugees.
What was the reason for displacement of refugees from democratic Republic of Congo
What are the cause of children rights violation in DRC
What requests or recommendation do you have to make regarding how the right of children must be protected definitely
What are the strategic and policy implications for resolving these problems
What is the role of these peacekeepers? Do you think these will succeed?