4.5 Musharrafs Four point Formula on Kashmir:
On December 5, 2006, President Musharraf solved Kashmir issue of his four-point solution during the interview of Indian Television Network NDVT. This formula is included:
1) Soft or wheat borders in Kashmir without changing the borders.
2) Autonomy or self-rule within every region of Kashmir
3) All areas are required
4) Joint supervisor mechanism (Misra & Clarke, 2013:94).
As Musharraf, it was that the Indian leadership should be convinced to end the dispute of Kashmir. Pakistan wants a quick solution to the problem of Kashmir. Indian leadership agreed to review Musharraf’s suggestions on Kashmir. Later the Indian Minister acknowledged that India and Pakistan have reached the draft of Kashmir dispute resolution. In order to implement Musharraf’s suggestions, both the governments were in contact with China in the back door.
4.6 Samjhota Express incident and After Effects over Indo-Pakistan Relations:
Indian Foreign Minister visited Pakistan on January 13, 2007. They signed a contract to promote mutual peace and cooperation in many fields of interest. The mutual security process was going smoothly, and both countries were engaged in a number of measures for mutual peace and security. On February 18, India and Pakistan, a co-operative Express, was targeted by terrorism when a sudden increase of violence and environment increased in the train accident. The bomb blast was planted in the train which causes blast and fire. There were 757 passengers in the train and majority of Pakistani. Train blasts proved to be a major disaster and nearly six hundred people were killed, many were injured and three days later they entered the hospital. This passenger was burnt very badly even though his identity was very difficult. The bombs were conducted well in a systematic manner and the terrorists also included heavy pollution equipment, which included the Kerosene bottles. The police suspect that the attacker had complete information about the arrival of the train and they examined the entire environment before the implementation of their plan. The eye witness also stated that he saw many Hindi speaking people coming out of the train 15 minutes before the blast. The train blasts largely condemned India and Pakistan leaders. The time of this terrorist activity was very astonishing because it was time when Foreign Minister Khursheed Mahmood kasuri visited India for a two-day peace talks on February 21, 2007. Both countries agreed to immediately hold responsible elements for their trails (Chalk, 2013:1).
In March 2007, two people had caught by the police, who sold the invaders to keep Swat bombs. In this investigation, the Islamic Militant Organization comprises the celebration of Jaish- e -Muhammad and Lashkar-e-Taiba student Islamic Movement of India (SIMI). However some Indian officials claimed that the inter service intelligence (ISI) board was involved in terrorist activities. However, Pakistani authorities accused India(Chalk, 2013:1).
Despite the attack on the majority of Pakistani passengers in Samjhota Express, the two countries continue peace measures. India and Pakistan signed a contract to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons related incidents in February 2007. In other initiatives, many CBMs were involved in building mutual confidence. Both sides focus on the need to promote trust for relief and misconceptions. Two-way economic relations improved, and both the countries took a number of measures for economic cooperation. In May 2007, a major deal between the representatives to establish Reserve Bank of branches and State Bank of Pakistan branches in other countries. The State Bank has suggested that three Pakistani banks will open in Delhi and Mumbai, while Reserve Bank of India has proposed to open two Indian banks in two major Pakistani cities. Meeting of Commerce Secretaries of the two countries in August 2007. Commercial issues include basics of trade obstacles and liberalization mainly. Important decisions were made to promote trade between the two countries. They decided to increase bilateral trade by $ 10 billion from 2010 to $ 1.7 billion. The second round of joint anti-terrorism system in New Delhi in October 2007, but JATM failed to reach any results and India continued to demand. It should take over Pakistan’s responsible institutions and start a trial against them.
President General Pervez Musharraf began to end his political position at the end of 2007 and at the beginning of 2008. Many of his decisions proved against Pakistan in Pakistan’s Lal Masjid operation. The proceedings against the judiciary were against General Musharraf against the country and political interests. The Indian leadership started losing confidence in Musharraf especially in 2006 after the terrorist attacks in Pakistan in 2006. The struggle for peace processed and the relations between the two countries were uncertain. Political setup was moving towards the democratic transition in Pakistan in 2008. The people of Pakistan won the elections and Asif Ali Zardari established his government. After the long-term military rule, the democratic government came into existence. With the policy of establishing a new government, Pakistan’s policy of policy on terrorism, nuclear strategy and matters relating to India was very worried.
Since independence, Pakistan-India has made several controversial conflicts that last for a long time. Kashmir has been the bone between the two leaders since 1947. William E. Brown and Robert Windrem mentioned in his controversial book “Critical Mass” that South Asia is the most dangerous place on earth in terms of Kashmir. Kashmir problem was encountered when the rulers of Kashmir announced their awareness with India. Pakistan has always handed over Kashmir issue to Kashmir, where India always expresses injustice on Kashmir issue. Basically, every government in India tried to close the issue of Kashmir. The leaders came and the time passed and relations between the two countries were sometimes improved and sometimes worsened. The Pakistan-India primarily depends on the leadership of both the states. Since independence, Pakistan’s foreign policy remains in many challenges. The country went under political instability and democratic institutions can never be strengthened in Pakistan. Military intervention was always an important feature of Pakistani politics. However, military rulers tried to improve bilateral ties with India, but they were never wanted to participate in friendly relations with Kashmir. Apart from this, the military rulers of Pakistan always urged the religious groups to remain firmly on India’s policy of Kashmir. The Indian leadership has never trusted most of Pakistan’s military governments.
The talks between India and Pakistan started several times, but they were never successful due to the reservations of both sides. Although negotiations were important, but in terms of India and Pakistan it proved to be a sport. On different occasions, leaders of the two countries agreed on several steps of mutual cooperation, CBM, peace and security, but all the efforts were temporarily proven to end new conflicts.
After getting the status of nuclear powers, India and Pakistan made changes in their policies towards each other to avoid nuclear disputes. Both the countries have signed a deal with each other using nuclear weapons. The biggest danger is that any of them can use nuclear technology to quickly eliminate their major conflicts on Kashmir. Therefore, completely change the pattern of policy of both the states of India and Pakistan. Pakistan always had Kashmir claiming that as its jugular vein and India faced the threat that Pakistan could use nuclear power to resolve this issue. Talks between India and Pakistan have finally been closed because of the beginning of Karl crisis. Kargal was another war due to the Kashmir issue, which was fought between India and Pakistan and was the result of the control of the two countries.
The 21st Century saw a new dimension of conflict between India and Pakistan. Pakistan was under the military rule of Musharraf, which was considered as a master mind for the 1999 census episode of India. The relations between Pakistan and India are still in place and India was not ready to interact with any ruler of Pakistan. Musharraf tried to rebuild the image of all Pakistan. After 9/11 the nature of conflict between the two rivals also changed the nature of conflict when India tried to convince the world that Pakistan was involved in terrorism in the cross border in India. India was blamed that Pakistan was supporting militant groups in Jammu and Kashmir against India. They demanded the international community to take serious action against Pakistan. Pakistan emphasized India’s resolve against border terrorism. Pakistan on the other hand refused Indian accusations and asked to take action against any institution from Pakistan that India is involved in terrorism in border in India.
India-Pakistan came to reconciliation and the relationship between the two countries started a new session by 2001. Both the countries agreed to cooperate with mutual security, peace and development of CBMs. They agreed to discuss all the bilateral disputes including Kashmir issue. However, the minor proceedings did not last long and both the Parliament reached the end of the war due to the attacks on the Indian Parliament. India blamed Pakistan for the involvement of Pakistan in the attacks on Indian Parliament. However, relations between the two countries can not move forward due to lack of mutual confidence.
After the restoration of a comprehensive dialogue, India-Pakistan agreed on a number of suggestions for resolving disputes. Several major issues including Kashmir issue were discussed. There was four points formula’s importance on Kazakhstan. Although they have raised Kashmir’s issue for many occasions, their four-step formula was unique on which the Indian leadership also showed positive attitude. However, due to domestic political disadvantages, no solution was found on Kashmir. When joint negotiations connect to terrorist activities in Mumbai in 2006, its significance ends. The Indian government illegally blamed Pakistan’s Intelligence Agency ISI behind these attacks. However the peace process was not completely eliminated. The minor proceedings between the two countries continued till 2008 when the relations between the two states were going to the right direction. However, things were changed with the 2008 democratic transition in Pakistan and measures taken by the Musharraf government were not fully implemented by the next democratic government. Apart from this, peace process became a victim of Mumbai attacks or 26/11 events due to the control of the two states.