This research paper identifies the cause and effect of bullying. All the articles and books that are cited here define bullying as an abuse. This also discusses the composition of bullying which are the different kinds of abuse. Upon exploring this research paper, one may be able differentiate the types of bullying which includes young and adult people. This research paper expounds the reasons why bullying is being done. Also, this enumerates the effects of bullying that are really bad for those victims of it. One may be able to identify the possible effects of bullying that are really serious. The sources that are found here all agreed that bullying should be stopped. This is the reason why this research paper also includes the possible ways to stop and make a solution to this big issue. A number of possible ways to reduce or minimize the incidents of bullying are also enumerated here.
Victims of Bullying Suffer Severe Depression
Numerous studies have been conducted regarding the effects of bullying to those victims of it. Being the victim of bullying is a big issue in real life. The effects of it may affect the entire life of the victim if he could not move on with it. Nobody actually knows how it feels being bullied unless they become a victim. On the other hand, people also wondered why bullies attack other people especially those who are weak and unable to fight back. There might be something that makes them feel they have to do it. There might be reasons why they do it. This research paper elaborates the causes and effects of bullying.
According to an etymology dictionary:
The word “bully” was first used in the 1530s meaning “sweetheart”, applied to either sex, from the Dutch boel “lover, brother”, probably diminutive of Middle High Germanbuole “brother”, of uncertain origin (compare with the German buhle “lover”). The meaning deteriorated through the 17th century through “fine fellow”, “blusterer”, to “harasser of the weak”. This may have been as a connecting sense between “lover” and “ruffian” as in “protector of a prostitute”, which was one sense of “bully” (though not specifically attested until 1706). The verb “to bully” is first attested in 1710 (Online Etymology Dictionary, n.d.).
What is bullying?
Griffin and Gross (2004) stated that “bullying is an act of dominant individual or group deliberately tries to humiliate or upset a less dominant individual or group, causing physical pain or emotional distress (as cited in Caprez, 2004, p.2). Bullying can take different forms, from teasing and exclusion to being forced to hand over money or being physically attacked. Bullying involves the abuse of power.
Mishna (2012) also made a statement that “bullying refers to a form of aggression that can be direct or in direct which includes physical, verbal, or psychological and relational acts, that is intentional, and happens in a relationship that has imbalance power and is repeated over and over”(p.5).
Studies from a nonprofit organization (A safe place, n.d.) stated that bullying has different kinds of abuse. These types of abuse are detailed below.
Verbal abuse. This includes name-calling, telling you that you are worthless, that you are a bad parent, shouting, constantly interrupting, telling other people that you are crazy, and blaming you for the abuse.
Emotional abuse. This includes threats, isolation, manipulation, insults, destruction of property, public humiliation, and accusations of affairs, threats of suicide, self injury, or homicide if you leave
Financial abuse. This includes controlling all income, not letting you work or keep a job, making you ask for money, giving an allowance, taking your money, or running up debt under your name.
Sexual abuse. A forced or coerced sex with your partner, another person, or an object.
Physical abuse. This includes any forceful behavior such as hitting, choking, slapping, using weapons, driving recklessly, holding you down, and preventing you from leaving (¶ 1).
According to Shaheen Shariff (2008), there is a current research that identifies a broad consensus that the following general factors contribute to bullying.
There is always a power imbalance that favors the perpetrator(s) over the victim.
Group of peers often support the perpetrators, some of whom actively encourage the bully and others who watch, but do nothing to help the victim.
Victims draw the negative attention of their peers and actively pushed out of the group and isolated (as cited in Bukowksi and Sippola, 2001, Crick et al., 2002 and Schuster, 2001).
Exclusion and isolation from the larger group fortify the power of the perpetrators.
The perpetrators’ actions are deliberate, repeated and often relentless (p.16 ).
Bullying can be done anywhere. Whenever there is a group of peers, there is a possibility that bullying might occur. No one can actually tell that who will be the perpetrator or the victim. But, if there is an abuse of anything, we can assure that there is bullying. People usually think that bullying occurs only at school and that children are the only one involve. In fact, bullying happens not only in schools and among children but also among the lives of adults. It usually happens in their workplace, in prison, in government, and even in the cyber space. Here are the types of bullying.
Cyber bullying. This kind of bullying can be done though internet or what is so called the cyber space. According to Smith, Mahdavi, Carvalho, & Tipett, (2006) cyber bullying is a form of bullying that makes use of electronic devices such as computers and mobile phones by people.
Disability bullying. Children with disabilities are the most at risk victim of bullying. The number of factors which are physical vulnerability, social skill challenges, or intolerant environments, may increase the risk of being bullied. A government organization (Stop bullying, n.d.) suggests that some children with disabilities are being bullied by normal kids and other kids with disabilities as well. Children with special health need may also be at higher risk of being bullied. Bullying can include making fun of kids because of their allergies or exposing them to the things they are allergic to.
Gay bullying. According to Bullying Statistics (2009), gay bullying pertains to the abuse among homosexual individuals. It reported that the reason why they are being bullied is because of their actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender expression as well as the appearance.
Military bullying. Dr. Rene Robichaux said that, “Hazing, a type of bullying that is usually tied to organizational initiation rituals that can be both physical and mental” (as cited in Vergun, 2012).
Prison bullying. Ireland (2002) describes that:
The bullying behind bars which are due to the environmental characteristics of prisons is not on their own to supply sufficient explanation of why bullying occurs. In addition prisoners must be predisposed to be aggressive towards others if bullying is to take place. This has been supported by research suggesting that bullies hold more positive beliefs about the use of aggression (e.g. believing that other prisoners would respect you if you were aggressive) have more negative attitudes towards victims, and are more likely to respond aggressively to conflict situations involving bullying. In addition, prisoners must also be capable of bullying others in terms of possessing the social, physical or verbal skills necessary to bully successfully, and they must also possess an ability either to create or recognize an opportunity to bully others (p.130-132).
School bullying. School bullying pertains to all types of bullying done inside the school premises, whether it is one on one bullying, bullying of older children to younger children, or bullying in which a teacher is either a victim or a perpetrator (Bullying Statistics, 2009). Field (n.d.) elaborated that school bullying is a psychological, emotional, or physical harassment of a student to another inside the school or within the school community. This the desire of a student perpetrator to hurt another student just to be happy or get what he wants.
Sexual bullying. Sexual bullying includes spreading gossip or rumors of a sexual nature. This also includes body parts, sexual orientation and physical appearance. Sexual harassment and sexual bullying are very similar. They both involve unwelcome or unwanted sexual comments, attention, or physical contact (The Nemours Foundation, 1995-
Workplace bullying. Workplace bullying is when a person or a group of people tries to out a single person for unreasonable treatment such as embarrassing and intimidating. The person in position usually plays as the bully, but in some cases, the perpetrator is co-workers who are insecure and immature (Bullying Statistics, 2009).
Why do people bully?
Bullying is a very bad thing. We cannot tell when it will happen or stop unless we do something about it. But before discussing how to stop it, we must identify first why people do such thing. People wondered what could be the reason of the bullies in doing this thing. The entire thing here on earth has reasons or purpose why they were made. Also in bullying, bullies also have their reasons in doing things like this. This might be problems to their families, financial, studies, etc.
According to a mixed martial arts school (Urban Martial Arts, 2007-2012), researchers have found that kids who bully others often have average or even above-average levels of self-esteem. Bullies often have good leadership skills, have an easy time making friends, and therefore have large friendship networks. In fact, according to them, the Health Resources and Services Administration reported that children and youth who bully usually have at least a small group of friends who support or encourage their bullying. This institution also proved the reasons of bullying with these top five reasons.
Bullies have a strong need to be in control and exert their dominance over others.
Children who bully others are often controlled by the desire for power. They can be aggressive, hot-headed, and dominant, and they enjoy being able to hurt others. Debra Pepler (n.d.) explained that bullies are experiencing regular lessons in how effective it can be to use their power aggressively to control and distress others. (as cited in UMA, 2007-2012)
Bullies are rewarded for their bullying behaviors
The fact is that children often receive positive recognition when they bully others, which only makes them continue their behavior. The rewards could be material, such as when a bully forces his victim to give up lunch money. But the rewards could also be less tangible. Bullies often enjoy status and prestige because others fear them. They also command a lot of attention for their behavior. Boyles (2005-2012), found that children who bullied others did so because they wanted to increase their popularity (as cited in UMA, 2007-2012).
Bullies lack empathy, and may even get pleasure out of other people’s pain
Studies have shown (Dewar, 2008) that bullies score low on tests of empathic reactivity, and have also found that bullies can be more likely to develop anti-social personality disorder. This is a condition that causes people to ignore the rights and feelings of those around them (as cited in UMA, 2007-2012).
Bullies lack the ability to self-regulate emotions
The same researchers who conducted this study made another discovery. According to them the parts of the bullies’ brains that allow them to self-regulate their emotions were inactive.
This suggests that bullies simply don’t have a way to control their anger and frustration, which may result in severe overreactions to small provocations.
Bullies are influenced because of their family backgrounds
It’s impossible to predict who will become a bully and who won’t, There are different stories behind the family if these bully. They might have problems with their families or even bad experience while he was with them (¶ 5-10).
Many people are now suffering severe depression. Some of them cannot live the life they used to have. The effects that bullying can give to the victims could be bad effects especially to their studies if the bullying happens among students. Some may affect their productivity at work. It can also affect the reputation the victim holds. The worse effect that it will cause is death to anyone that became a victim of it. Not only because they got hit very seriously but also due to so much depression that they come up to the point wherein they cannot take it anymore and have decided to end up his life.
Life is very important that everyone should give importance to it. There are certain government agencies that prioritize this kind of abuse that anybody can commit and anybody can receive from other people.
According to an organization (stop bullying, n.d.) the following should be done to prevent bullying.
Bullying can threaten students’ physical and emotional safety at school and can negatively impact their ability to learn. The best way to address bullying is to stop it before it starts. There are a number of things school staff can do to make schools safer and prevent bullying.
Bullying can be prevented, especially when the power of a community is brought together. Community-wide strategies can help identify and support children who are bullied, redirect the behavior of children who bully, and change the attitudes of adults and youth who tolerate bullying behaviors in peer groups, schools, and communities (¶ 3 & 4).
Evelyn M. Field (n.d.) elaborate the reduction bullying that can take place at many levels. These are:
The ethical and legal responsibility for reducing bullying belongs to the community, school or employer.
However the target, their family, onlookers or peers need to develop assertive skills to confront the bully and alert the authorities about abusive behaviors.
The bully needs to replace his/her aggressive or passive-aggressive behaviors with assertive, empathic behaviors, which reduce their bullying.
The target needs to learn how to block the bully, protect themselves and build a support network.
Both target and bully may need to improve their social skills in order that their peer group supports and befriends them (¶ 9-13).