The present studies have come to conclude that nature and nurture are inextricable. Both nature and nurture a reciprocal complement to do all the work of determining development. It is extremely unlikely that there are no human being without genetic material to shape the growth and cell differentiation before conception. This means that genetic effects are not only pervasive but necessary. However, it is hard to describe that all process of genetic modification is dominated by genetic influences. Because, environmental factors are inextricably relative with shaping organization as well as affect organization to survive. Both reciprocal genetic and environmental factors influence on individual heritability as well as cognitive ability (Bouchard & McGue, 1998).
In human behavioral perspective, multifactorial human traits and psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia are good evidences to explain the relationship the genetic with the environmental sources. A parent which have undergone disrupt family function are highly prone to their child to have the risk of developing antisocial traits. The reason is that the parent’s genes bring out environmental risks, and these risks contribute to a child to expose to risky environments either directly or indirectly. In other words, their offspring genes that were genetic-environment correlated may cause a psychological characteristic to rise and a nurtured environment for that characteristic to develop further (Bouchard & McGue, 1998). Behavioral scientist can be understand most psychiatric disorders using this approach, but it will require more psychosocial researches that manifest close correlation between both genetic-environment and human traits through the multidisciplinary association and, particularly for geneticists and psychosocial researchers (Bouchard & McGue).
Recent most psychologists tend to accept the idea that nature and nurture can act mutually and both of them influence on heritability. However, in the beginning of nature-nurture concept, Francis Galton carried his thesis that intellectual ability is largely genetically rather than environmentally determined and that the parent’s genius transmit their offspring was the result of a natural superiority through his book, Hereditary Genius (1869) (Mcleod, 2007). By an examination of a large group of eminent people in different fields, Galton attempted to survey their relatives in order to reveal their relatives how many of them were superior for enough stars. He calculated the rate of eminent people in various degrees of similarity to the initial famous people. These findings were showed human breeding were able to manipulate to produce superior people as well as eliminating or excluding biologically inferior people were necessary for improve quality of the human race.
His thesis has unassailable weaknesses that his findings were overly influenced by the British practice of primogeniture and by his inclusion of People who can define Well-thought-of as geniuses (Rothenberg, 2005).His researches were limited to comparing offspring from different families, largely due to a lack of available data. Furthermore, his hypothesis of direct hereditary transmission of eminent genius was over interpretation; because that hereditary genius was close not a matter of certainties but possibilities of a judge. Even in the biologically superior society that he hoped for, consequences could not be expected with certainty for individual cases. It is also possible that he had already exposed the lack of accuracy study due to Galton’s lack of interest in natural history. Nevertheless, he was a first pioneer who not only defines the modern conception of the “nature-nurture” dichotomy but established both the theoretical and statistical science foundations of behavior genetics, and promoted the idea and potential value of intelligence testing (Fancher, 2009).
In the present Rothenberg study (2005), he verified the still-influential statistical studies of Frances Galton on the inheritance of genius as well as surveyed the family background factors in order to evaluate empirically the hypothesis of hereditary transmission of genius or creativity. He collected family background occupational data from the group of 435 Nobel laureates were engaged in natural science fields such as chemistry, physics, medicine and physiology from 1901 through 2003. These for same parent-offspring occupations were compared with a matching group of 548 eminent people with noncreative occupations and also with 560 outstanding non prize winners for general population occupation. The study revealed that both family back ground genetic and environment factor are less likely to influence Nobel laureates in the natural sciences. Instead of direct inheritance of creativity from their parents, the effort and desires of the parent influences on Nobel laureates’ motivation to achieve creative accomplishment in their science filed (Rothenberg, 2005).
The limitation of Rothenberg’s study is based on similarity criteria between parent and offspring behavior, of behavioral genetics rather than on a gene-transmission approach. For all that, his thesis is seems to obviously controverts the Galton’s idea of direct hereditary transmission of eminent. Rothenberg’s study takes into account for derived from a wide cultural and ethnic range as well as from the extended time period of the 20th and 21th centuries, his findings is more reliable then Galton’s and weight in an idea that a genius or talent is born when the relationship between nature with nurture is reciprocal.
This concept of interaction between nature and nurture can be adjusted and useful in the daily life. From relationship parents with their problematic children, as change parents’ idea, they can be found a breakthrough. Parents complain of raising their difficult children who are self-absorbed, rebellious, inattentive, and violent. They could not understand their children as well as struggle to find an effective solution to their problematic children. The parents have tried to find a proper solution for handle their hard to handle children from many researches and books, but they could not find it. The approach stance on nature-nurture will suggests a possible solution to parents who have been suffering from their problem children
Parents should know why their children are hard to handle before solve the problem. Babies come into world with unique traits in physical makeup. Even in the fetus period, babies can expose individual differences in the workings of their motor systems and in specific sensory perceptions (Inal & YA±dA±z, 2012). Some babies are born with overly sensitive and over reactive or under sensitive and under active. When give a stimulus to them, overly sensitive babies may be taking in and decoding information in a certain sense, otherwise, another may have undergone difficulty with comprehending information through that sense (Inal & YA±dA±z). If a child with over sensitive receives a fearful stimulus, he or she may rapidly increase rigid traits to become a problem child. Many children who have suffered that experiences can make a vast difference according to their parents how to relative to them.
After analysis and understand their children’s natural characteristics, parent are able to solve their problem through three ways. First of all, it is important that their parents have made an effort to read their children’s physical makeup and signals as well as to support them learn new ways to cope. Secondly, Parents give the right sense of security to their children. When their children are aggressive and overwhelmed, parents console them by using gentle gesture and comfortable verbalizing for they will be comfort themselves by their feelings. Lastly, parents gradually show them how to take charge of their own environment. A child with fixed temperamental characteristics can be significantly adjusted his or her behavior and personality by early caregiving experiences (Slatcher & Trentacosta, 2012). In a nutshell, when parents are trying to recognize their children’s personality and traits as well as set their behavior for their children’s temper, their children can remove a tag as difficult children of themselves.
During the second half of the 20th century, there has made steady progress on the effects of nature, nurture, and developmental processes. Therefore, we are able to understand many of the mechanisms of human gene, behavior, multifactorial human traits and psychiatric disorders (Rutter, 2002). Nature and nurture are not only indivisible but also reciprocal each other. Parent’s natural specific characteristics such as or genius and creative traits can be influence on their offspring. However, environmental factor also need to fulfill a complete condition.
In the front head, genetic and psychosocial research are forecasting to find more strong gene-environment correlations and interactions through the multidisciplinary association studies. Similarly, other fields without direct relative of psychological study will be also expected to lead them developing their research ideas and also to help with funding applications.