Intrinsic motivation refers to engaging in an activity in itself and for pleasure and satisfaction derived from participation. Vallerand 2004. Behaviour chosen for the pleasure of participants provide own satisfaction. The Athlete felling free, enjoy the competition, excitement and having fun. A good example is tennis player Roger Federer.
Extrinsic motivation is a constructed that pertains whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable outcome. Behavior where the goal of participants is outside the activity. The characteristics of an extrinsic person is give up easily fear failure focus on winning thus involving rewards such as money and trophy’s.
But both represent intentional behavior, but the two types of extrinsic motivation vary in their relative autonomy. (Ryan & Deci 2000)
Attribution theorist investigates the perception of causality, or the judgment of why the particular incident occurred. The allocation of responsibility manifestly guides subsequent behavior. (Weiner 1972)
Thus the model of Attribution develops in the following manner, four attribution categories, ability, effort, task difficulty and luck. Locus of control internal or external and locus of stability stable or unstable.
NACH vs NAF
The popularization of the concept of the NACH was into by American psychologist David McClleland. He stated that each person has a level of a different achievement. Nach mean Need Achievement. Many people have the natural intention of achieving set goals than other people. The difference may be related in motivation between Nach and NAF.
Nach mean Need for Achievement or motivation for success this kind of people don’t afraid of failure, looks for challenges take risks and no worry being assessed. This people normally is determinate and hard workers. In this case most of the athletes are in this group. Michael Phelps is a good example.
NAF is mean Need to Avoid Failure, these kind of people avoids challenges because they have a fear of failure, ours performs is poorly under observation, don’t like be assessed and easily become disillusioned by reason of their being assessed, need to feel accepted by the other components of a group, community or society.
Task vs Ego Orientation.
Developed by John Nicholls the success and failure depend on an athlete’s perception of whether he or she has reached his or her personal goals. Intensity and effort are driven by the type of goals one sets. Achievement motivation depends on perceived ability. This is determined by self-referencing or normative referencing.
Development of Goal Orientation influenced by various factors parents, coaches, peers, role models, sport situations, throughout childhood. Some characteristics of task orientation person are hard working, demonstrating improvement, help others learn and believing that each player’s contribution is important. The characteristics of Ego orientation are Competitive, likes to know that they are the best likes to dominate.
Goal Setting is the only current approach to work motivational that claim a beneficial effect on performance. (Locke, et al,1981) . Goal setting came to life in the 1970’s, initially was developed in the world business. Edwin Locke traced a technique to use goal setting theory. Goal setting principles involve specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time targeted (S.M.A.R.T) goals. SMART principle used to make goals workable. SMARTER goal generally will be used in to three different categories. There are Short-term commonly used for small aim, used from where to day month, a athlete could not win an Olympic medal, he’ll never get it without going through the process of short term goals. Medium-term goals form the link between short and long term and are set for one-three months. The persecution of beating the best time or win a world title are examples. Long term will run from three months a several years. The long journey of training of rowers Olympic gold medalists in London, H. Stanning and H. Glover is a good example.
The Performance Profile is simply a tool that can provide the coach with an awareness of the athlete’s perspective.( Butler, 1996)That’s the manner to monitor the athletes to get an evolution in psychological skills to improve a better performance analyzing their own strengths and weaknesses and and thus introducing detailed and specific benefits in the athlete’s performance bringing the confidence that the goals are achieved. There are three main purposes: Aid in identifying appropriate interventions, maximise the athlete’s motivation and adherence to the program, monitor any changes over time. The process of introduction should be well explained to the athlete by the sports psychologist how it works, if the answers is not right or wrong, benefits about the results. The Coach explains in detail the process of performance profiling, identifies the characteristics of athlete, athletes do a self-evaluation taxing levels of performance, coaches and athletes analyze the results to search best performances. (Crust, 2002)
Self-talk has been described as ‘the key to cognitive control’ (Bunker, Williams and Zinsser, 1993) and is usually referred to as internal dialogue, including thought content and self-statements (Hardy, Jones and Gould, 1998).
What athlete conversation and thinks to himself can have a big impact in its sports development. Frequently are induced by their coach generally in the childhood synchronize their bodies to the physical abilities but are not taught to use their minds to mental development for growth in the sport.
Are commonly used by athletes four types of self talk, Positive (‘I’ll get it’) Negative (‘It is very difficult’) Technical or Instructional (‘balanced weight and breathe’) and neutral (‘Anything is good, etc …’.).(ref)
It is not secret that the best technique to use for the motivation of an athlete in this case and positive self talk. The best example of ‘ I’ll get that’, here could be represented by several athletes but Rafael Nadal is a good example.
So many times him say certain words in Spanish as:
‘Tengo que disputar el punto ‘ (I have to dispute the point), Yes Rafael or Vamos (Came on) Rafael Nadal said to himself. And the stories tell the powerful force he sought internally, resulting in turn unbelievable matches.
That’s a positive self-affirmation statement brings self confidence to the athlete in difficult moments and many times reinforce his strong posture resulting in a good performance.
Decision Balance Sheet
A decisional balance sheet or decision balance sheet is a tabular method for representing the pros and cons of different choices and for helping someone decide what to do in a certain circumstance. They are often used in working with ambivalence in people who are engaged in behaviours that are harmful to their health. ( Miller, et al 2000)
This help people in a decision making process ( Hoyt, et al 1975) Psychologists have developed this technique as Balance Sheet, a technique that helps people with the decision process, potentiating the benefits thus exercising the term of participation in self gain and losses, gains and losses important to others, approval and disapproval of others, and Self-Approval disapproval.
The results the analysis of the study about Decision Balance Sheet the Stafford- Brown in 2007 shows that people take action to achieve their goals because of the serious consequences of not taking action, the consequences have been shown in studies with health problems.
The person has also considered the consequences of their changing behavior in terms of losing money, avoiding bad foods and less spending drinking team
It is important to make clear to your client that their losses are short term, whereas the gains will be long term.
Thus this technique was invented to motivate but there is the risk to forgetting the techniques, so should be modified to maintain motivation.
There are three styles of Leadership: Autocratic decide without consulting like a American Football Coach, Democratic allow the team to provide input before making decisions as a cycling and the Laissez faire don’t interfere as elite tennis coach.
The leader usually by someone in authority, prescribe leader but sometimes they can emerge from the groups, “emerge Leader”.
In the first half of 20th Century researchers considered leadership to be a trait but this is later argued. In the early of the second half century behaviorist argued that anyone could arcade by learning. Instructional theorists say you cannot predict a leader from their personality. It says that effective leadership has to fit the situation and they can change to match the situation, this makes two types of leaders. Relationship oriented and task oriented.
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