The Hakka people are an ethnic group of China. The Hakka group form part of a larger diaspora of a tribe or ethnic group as the Han. A majority of people in China belong to the Han clan. The Han played a major role in China’s history as the first Chinese Emperor was a Han known as the Yellow Emperor Ruling of the Yellow River in the northern Region of China.The Hakka tribe a (child, grandchild, etc.) of the Han tribe.
They migrated from the Northern parts of China to the Southern parts of China. Their reasoning for doing such various and in some cases debated by historians as fleeing war, poverty, and chaos. The specifics believed by some is that the first migration is a result of invading tribesmen, the second migration occurred in the early part of the fourth century during the period of invasions from barbaric tribes in the north, The Third Migration was then due to another invasion of barbarians by a tribe known as the Mongolians, The Fourth Migration caused by the incoming Tartars(any member of several Turkic-speaking peoples) pushed the Chinese southward and the fifth wave was caused by the tension and a number of rising conflicts between the Hakka and Yue tribes because of population pressure(Garden and Science, 2018) it also was spurred by the Hakka’s involvement in the Taiping Rebellion this caused unrest for the Hakka and thus they sought better life quality overseas and father away. Officially they have been five waves of movement for the Hakka tribe but a sixth is said to be have created when the Peoples Republic of China announced their plan to reclaim Hong Kong pushing Hakka people to migrate again and this time to places such as Australia, United States etc.
The Name Hakka is Cantonese pronunciation of the Mandarin word ‘Ko Chia’ or ‘Kejia’ meaning (“guest people”,” strangers”,” people from guest families”).The Hakka having hailed from the northern parts specifically Yellow River also known as the cradle of Chinese civilization have been said to be of Royal blood as the descendant of the Han clan.Specify further on where they come from andSocial Aspect The Hakka having migrated from their birthplace faced many hardships in the south and since they never fully integrated with southern population as they had their own well-preserved traditional beliefs and cultural activities.
The Hakka are a strong, tough and strong, (full of energy) and fearless race with simple habits. The Hakka are the type of people to regularly (all the time) be willing to risk taking a chance and strong enough to survive the (blocking or stopping things) in their path. We see the resilience of the Hakka tribe as during the fourth dynasty of the Ming Dynasty they acquired land for farming even though it was a usually deserted due to be being overused and left unfertile.
The tough economic climate made farming at this time a win or lose situation they preserved and came out on top. The Hakka do not follow the strict rules set by a patriarchal society when it comes to the division of work as the women have a long history of participating in the hard labour usually reserved for men.The Hakka much as an indigenous clan of China are exalted from the influence of Chinese dress in which garments which consists of the shan (an unlined upper garment) and the pao for the upper body and pants or a long pao for the lower half of the body. Hakka clothing is the same. The Hakka clothing is economically minded, conservative, and plain and is not adorned with designs as reflects their work on the land. When we look at Hakka dress, we see that they are frugal, unaffected, hard working.
Fastening upper garments on the left side was taboo in Chinese dress, so most upper garments were fastened on the right. The fasteners were not located in the middle; rather they were located to the right of and away from the collar and downward. This design is respectfully referred to by the Hakkas as “dajin” (big or great collar).Although their clothes were traditionally plain, most Hakka women used to weave intricately patterned bands or ribbons, which they commonly wore to secure black rectangular headcloths or the flat, circular, fringed Hakka hats.
These are still worn by some older Hakka women in Hong Kong and some regions of GuangdongThe Hakka music composes of folk songs, said to be sung in nine accents and eighteen melodies, are very complex. They especially sing mountains songs. The songs can be song impromptu, they are actually a form of sung conversations to describe their surroundings or sung by women, sometimes in a flirtatious dialogue with men, as they worked in the fields or collected fuel as in the fields and hills. They are often accompanied by sounds such as the chopping of trees. These songs are often love songs, but they also touch on topics such as hard work, poverty, and personal hardships The Hakka if still participating in the traditional lifestyle, make paper umbrellas by hand. These are made from Meinong oil paper and bamboo and then hand painted. Only one or two per craftsman can be produced in a day.
The Hakka also have their beliefs in regard to childbearing. To avoid miscarriage brought on by the Taishen (The Hakka god of the womb), they forbid moving things in a pregnant woman’s bedroomLanguage in any developed society has a profound effect on its ability to carry the knowledge of generations from one to another. It forms a part of the foundation that holds together the people of place. The Hakka a tribe have as a tribe developed their own language but them being as old as they are didn’t merely form a new language but rather a language that branched off from the development phases of Punti the oldest Chinese language on its way to becoming Mandarin or Cantonese. There have been found to exist similarities in between Cantonese, Mandarin, Punti and Hakka ,although Hakka does differ in its tones as it is harsher than Mandarin and produces more clearer sounded words than Punti.The Hakka have a custom in which women has to spend a month following childbirth during which time they replenish nutriments and avoid labor of any kind.
After the child is a month old, they have to pay their respect to the gods and their ancestors in what is called “zuomanyue” (completing the month). In this celebration or ritual,they invite their friends and family to a feast and the grandparents on the mother’s side prepare gifts for their new grandchild ,after another four months, another celebration is held and the grandparents on the mother’s side again bring gifts when they come to see their grandchild. From this, we can see that they maintain a close relationship with their daughter even though she has been given away in marriage (thereby becoming a member of her husband’s household).The Hakka Food consists of a somewhat assorted range of foods such as pickled vegetables, fried treats etc. Hakka food tends to be vinegary and salty which including a large variety of pickled vegetables. The pickled vegetables not only replenish the salt lost through sweating, it also can be stored for long periods of time.
This has made the pickled vegetable a favoured food item of the Hakka.The religious beliefs of the Hakka. The Hakka do not have their own distinct religion, but like most other Chinese tribes or clans, adhered to a blend of Daoism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and “folk” religion. The Hakka traditionally believe that ancestral spirits influence the lives of the living and thus required special care, offerings, and worship.
They erected homes, located graves, and built ancestral halls according to the principles of Feng Shui (geomancy).Local Climate and EnvironmentThe Hakka being who they were with their successes and troubles were not a loved tribe by the native as they differed in their practices ,beliefs and as their name points to/shows they were seen in a negative connation the outsiders. The round circular homes or “Earth Houses” of the Hakka, the homes of the Hakkas, were built with the first aim of keeping the people together and secondly fighting off attacks from the other (groups of people related by culture, race, religion, etc.) among whom they had settled. The (distance or line from the outer edge ,through the centre, to the other edge) of a small roundhouse was about 50m and could change something It accommodated around 40 families. The smaller round houses had two or three storeys built in a single ring.
The medium-sized houses had three or four storeys with a larger inner space and double rings. The larger ones were built in three (all with the same center) rings. A larger sized roundhouse had distances or lines from one edge till about 80m which could hold a “village” of some 700 to 800 people. Traditional Hakka houses were also built in square and “Five-Phoenix” shapes.
A “Five-Phoenix” building, also known as a “Curling (imaginary, huge, fire-breathing animal) House”, was an older type of earth structure, popular in the early Hakka (traveling far distances all the time) period and could be found in southern Jiangxi and eastern Guangdong. The “Curling (imaginary, huge, fire-breathing animal)” buildings were the most like Hakka traditional zhongyuan (Central China) culture as they were built according to the (related to kings, queens, emperors, etc.) court pattern. When the first Hakkas came to Fujian and Guangdong areas of a country, they could afford the beautiful “Five-Phoenix” houses, modelled on the style of housing in the (related to kings, queens, emperors, etc.) court.
The houses were built on the same axis and contained/made up two or three buildings and a gate. The Hakkas slowly lost their connection and relationship with the (related to kings, queens, emperors, etc.) court and had to fight against the local people on equal terms. They no longer had the support of the (related to kings, queens, emperors, etc.) court because it was hard for the (related to kings, queens, emperors, etc.
) power to reach the remote areas where they lived. Without (related to kings, queens, emperors, etc.) protection the Hakkas came under attack from the local population.
This led to the construction of the (related to actions that protect against attack) round houses, which changed (and got better) from the square buildings and the “Five-Phoenix” structures. The rings of round houses, built around the same central point, spread like ripples through the green mountain areas of East and South China. A (related to a person’s relatives going way back for many years) hall was located in the centre of a round house and was thought of as a holy place in the building. The wall of a round house was usually 1 metre thick at the base, thinning towards the roof. “The design of the walls saved on the materials and secured/made sure of that the buildings could survive storms and earthquakes,” said Zhong Fulan, a professor at East China (usual/ commonly and regular/ healthy) University.
A typical room was about 10 to 13 square metres and each family had three rooms. The families in the round houses often had the same blood relationship. As there was only one main stairway in each building and the rooms were connected, privacy was hard to maintain. Another expert on earth buildings, Sun Xiaoning, said that the round houses were easy to defend, saved space and the round design secured/made sure of enough light. (China.org.
cn, 2014)The circle shape had a symbolism as its shape through its architecture conveyed the emotion of togetherness and gathering together within China. The buildings showed that the Hakka people liked to live together in tight communities. As a minority group among the local population, it was necessary for them to co-operate with one another to survive attacks both (with the Army, Navy, etc.) and cultural from the local people.
Each Earth Building had only one entrance and became a strong (huge, fancy, stone house) once the gate was shut and guarded by a few people. The Hakkas stored their food and raised pigs and chickens in the buildings. They dug wells and built complicated drainage systems in their buildings and could survive for long periods when cut off from the world outside. Each building, in fact, was like a well-run village in which the Han culture was preserved and passed on. In southwestern Fujian and in northern Guangdong, Hakka built circular or rectangular, multistoried, (large, very secure place) like houses, designed for (related to actions that protect against attack) purposes. These Hakka “roundhouses” were built three or four stories high, with walls nearly a meter thick, made of clay or tamped earth strengthened with lime. The structures change/differ in size; the largest, looking like a walled village, measures over 50 meters in (distance or line from one edge of something, through its centre, to the other edge).
Although the Hakka maintain the reputation of living in poor, not important, areas away from cities, Hakka today also reside in city-based, intelligent areas.ReferencesThere are no sources in the current doc China.org.cn.
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