The study is aimed to investigate the Quality of Life of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder patients in relation to Severity of the symptoms and Cognitive Appraisal. The study will explore the predictors of Quality of life of OCD patients from variables of Symptom Severity dimensions and Cognitive Appraisal. It is hypothesized that patients having OCD with more Symptom Severity, and Cognitive Appraisal of obsessions will have impaired Quality of life. Correlational research design and purposive sampling will be used. 60 patients with primary diagnosis of Obsessive Compulsive disorder, with age range of 18 years and above will be recruited. For assessment, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Symptom Checklist (OCDSC), Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM), and WHOQOL-BREF will be used. Pearson Product Moment will be employed to find the relationship of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Appraisal with Physical health, Psychological health, Social and Environment related Quality of life. In addition, Multiple Regression Analysis will be used to explore the predictor of Quality of life of patients with Obsessive Compulsive disorder.
The study investigates the Quality of Life (QoL) of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) patients in terms of Symptom Severity and cognitive appraisal. The severity of symptomology and clinically manifested psychological distress exacerbates the functional impairment of OCD’s patients. The functional impairment debilitates and gradually leads to poor treatment compliance as psychotherapy include the dysfunction area in treatment plan. The present study is intended to understand the relationship of the associated factors that will help facilitate the better understanding on etiological and therapeutic grounds.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
According to American Psychiatric Association (2000), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder OCD) is an anxiety disorder classified into Obsessions and Compulsions. Obsessions are intrusive, unwanted thoughts, id, images, or impulses that and individual experienced as senseless yet anxiety evoking. Compulsions are desires to engage in behavioral or mental acts according to specified “rules” or in reaction to obsessions (i.e., to lower down obsessional anxiety). However, individuals are unaware of the trigger and may perform stereotyped acts according to idiosyncratic rules (Wells, 1997).
Obsessions are persistent thoughts, impulses, or images that are experienced as intrusive and inappropriate. The most common obsessions concern thought about contamination, doubting, aggressive or horrific impulses and sexual imagery (Wells, 1994; Wells & Morrison, 1994 as cited in Wells, 1997). A compulsion is a repetitive behavior that is overt or covert. Overt compulsions include hand washing, checking, ordering, or alignment of objects. Covert compulsions are mental acts such as praying, counting, or repeating words. The goal of these overt and covert compulsions is to reduce or prevent anxiety or distress (Wells, 1997).
Severe OCD is characterized by
Substantial frequency of obsessions and compulsions (from 4 hours a day to every minute of the patient’s waking hours),
Substantial impairment from the OCD (usually in all domains of life including social, work, and family),
Poor insight into the symptoms (or how realistic the patient thinks their fears are), and/or
Substantial co morbidity which complicates the presentation of the symptoms (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder or schizophrenia).
Severity of symptoms, as characterized by high frequency of symptoms or significant distress, is often measured through self-report measures such as the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R; Foa et al., 2002). Obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms include both obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions often have themes of fear of contamination or dirt, having things orderly and symmetrical, aggressive or horrific impulses and sexual images or thoughts. However, compulsions typically have themes of washing and cleaning, counting, checking, demanding reassurances, performing the same action repeatedly, and orderliness (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2012). Studies indicate that there are clinically meaningful differences among these symptom-based subtypes. It was reported that OCD patients with compulsive hoarding report higher levels of anxiety and depression, greater impairment in occupational, family, and social functioning and poorer response to pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatment (Abramowitz, Franklin, Schwartz, & Furr, 2003). Despite the documented detrimental effects of OCD on quality of life, evidence suggests that not all individuals with OCD are uniformly impaired. Masellis, Rector, and Richter (2003) found that severity of obsessions, but not compulsions, was related to lower overall quality of life. Similarly, Eisen et al., (2006) reported that severity of obsessions and comorbid depression predicted impairment across eight domains of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction, whereas compulsion severity was related only to impaired work functioning. In contrast, Stengler-Wenzke, Kroll, Riedel-Heller, Matschinger, and Angermeyer (2007) found obsessions to be unrelated to Quality of life ratings, but that severity of compulsions was associated with reduced physical and psychological well-being, as well as impairment in social and family life and leisure activities.
Grinker and Spiegel (1945, as cited in Sincero, 2012), explained appraisal as a process that requires mental activity involving judgment, discriminating and choice of activity based largely on the past experiences of and individual. According to Lazarus (1984), cognitive appraisal occurs in reaction to stress. One is the threatening tendency of the stress to the individual, and second is the evaluation of the resources that is required to minimize, tolerate or eradicate the stressor and the stress it produces. According to Lazarus, appraisal takes two forms, Primary Appraisal and Secondary Appraisal.
Primary appraisal has been distinguished into irrelevant, benign-positive and stressful. Irrelevant implies when experiences not stressful, it falls within the category of irrelevant (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). The appraisal of relevancies is not themselves of great concern, but the cognitive processes by which these events are appraised. Benign-positive appraisal occurs if the outcome of encounter is constructed as positive and enhances well-being. These appraisals are characterized by positive emotions. Stress appraisal includes harm/loss, threat and challenge. In harm/loss, damage to the person is suspected. Threat concerns are the anticipated harms or lose. Challenge appraisal focus on the potential for gain or growth inherent in an encounter and they are characterized by pleasurable emotions such as eagerness, excitement, and exhilaration, whereas threat centers on the potential harms and is characterized by negative emotions such as fear, anxiety, and anger (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).
The aim of secondary appraisal is to provide information about the individuals coping options in a situation. It has three components including problem focused coping, emotion focused coping and future expectancy. When an individual is deciding whether a situation is a threat or challenge, or he must do something to manage the situation, secondary appraisal becomes significant in order to figure out what might and can be done. Secondary appraisal activity is crucial feature of stressful encounter (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984). When an individual is faced with adverse situation, something needs to be done to control it and avoid any subsequent consequences. Secondary appraisal follows primary appraisal of a situation. This necessarily includes evaluation of the situation and suitable reaction. The person than evaluate what can be done to cope with a particular situation. The reaction to the situation is decided by carefully analyzing what is at stake and what can be done to reduce negative consequences (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).
Cognitive Models of OCD
According to O’Leary (2005), the number of cognitive models describing OCD phenomenon. These illustrate the rate of dysfunctions in general cognitive processing or dysfunction in cognitive appraisal and beliefs.
Salkovskis Model (1985; Wells, 1997) based on cognitive and behavioral concepts in the formulation of obsessional problems. It theorized that the importance of appraisal of intrusion as the major source of distress, rather than the content of the intrusion itself. The appraisal of the significance of intrusions is determined by underlying beliefs. Once negative appraisals of responsibility occur, the second process of initiation of neutralizing responses which may be internal or external begins. When a person neutralized the intrusive thought he attempts to reduce responsibility and discomfort. Thus, the recurrences of intrusions become more likely because responses to them result in such cognitions acquiring greater salience. Studies have found significant correlations between responsibility and obsessive-compulsive behaviors in both clinical (e.g., OCCWG, 2001) and nonclinical participants (Freeston, Ladouceur, Thibodeau, & Gagnon, 1992; as cited in O’Leary, 2005).
According to Rachman (1998; as cited in O’Leary, 2005), the catastrophic misinterpretation about the importance of unwanted thoughts made by a person increases the range and seriousness of potentially threatening stimuli. In this way numbers of neutral stimuli that were insignificant are interpreted as threatening. This transfer of the neutral stimuli and situation to potentially threatening ones increases the range of threats and therefore increases the opportunities for the provocation of obsessions. This happens with both internal as well as external cues. In internal cues, the person deduces a threat from the fact of feeling anxious. Moreover, when the patient feel anxious he interpret it as if he is losing control of self and thus there is an increased likelihood that he will act upon the unwanted impulse. Hence, the catastrophic misinterpretation of one’s anxiety can interact to increase the misinterpretation of the intrusion. Neutralizing prevents exposure to any disconfirming evidence regarding the personal significance of the intrusive thoughts. This cycle remains until the catastrophic misinterpretation is changed or reduced and the internal or external stimuli are no longer interpreted as threatening.
Quality of life
The World Health Organization (1994) defines Quality of Life as an individual’s perception of his/her position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which he/she lives, and in relation to his/her goals, expectations, standards and concerns. It is a broad-ranging concept, compromising of the person’s physical health, psychological state, social relationships, and their relationship to salient features of their environment (Hollar, 2012, p.74). Obsessive compulsive disorder may significantly affect self-care, social relationships, occupational functioning, family and marital relationships, child-rearing capacities, and use of recreations or spare time (American Psychological Association, 2007). Bobes (2001) revealed that patients with obsessive-compulsive illness had definite impairment in all domains of quality of life other than physical functioning. Similar findings emerged from the studies of Moritz (2005) and Eisen (2006), also showed that as compared to general population, OCD patients have poor health related quality of life in all domains except physical health. Few studies, however, have examined whether OCD symptom dimensions are differentially associated with impairment in functioning and Quality of life. Only one study to date has evaluated the impact of different dimensions of OCD symptoms on Quality of life. Fontenelle et al., (2010) found that whereas depression severity predicted impairment across eight domains of functioning assessed by SF-36, only hoarding and washing, but not other OCD symptom domains, predicted impairment in other areas of functioning social functioning and limitations due to physical health problems, respectively.
OCD sufferers generally recognize their obsessions and compulsions as irrational, and may become further distressed by this realization. Cummins (2000) suggest that it is difficult to define Quality of Life because it can be characterized in both objective and subjective terms (as cited in Barofsky, 2012). According to Spranger & Schwartz (1999), Quality of life is a multidimensional and dynamic concept: perspective can change with the onset of major illness. With the onset of illness, individuals relevant cognitive or affective processes (e.g. in their health or lives) include making comparisons of one’s situation, with others who are better or worse off. People may adjust to deteriorating circumstances because they want to feel as good as possible about themselves (Ayers, et al. 2007).
According to Salkovskis (1985) the difference between the obsessive compulsive disorder patient who experience prominent distress and disturbance lies in the meaning they make out of their obsessions. However, normal individual tends to view these intrusions as meaningless and benign whereas OCD patient make catastrophic interpretation out to these cognitive intrusions. These maladaptive interpretations discriminates the OCD patients. Cognitive models of OCD implied that a thought will be distressing and repetitive depending on the meaning assigned to it, not because of the content of obsessional thoughts (Teachman, 2005). The Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions Working Group (OCCWG) has shown that symptom severity correlates with appraisals of intrusive thoughts among individuals with OCD. In comparison with individuals who do not have OCD, those with OCD appraise unwanted intrusive thoughts as more important to control and as conveying more responsibility for preventing harm related to the thought (OCCWG, 2001). Purdon and Clark (1994) suggested that high scores on measures of OCD suggest that the individual is more likely to believe that intrusive and unwanted thought will occur in real life and will experience more guilt in reaction to those thoughts. Appraisals that one could act on the intrusive thought as well as appraisals about control, responsibility and the significance of the thought for one’s personality also correlate with the OCD symptoms (as cited in Corcoran and Woody, 2007). Thus, models of Obsessive compulsive disorder showed that cognitive appraisal of unwanted intrusive thoughts will produce significant distress in patients having OCD that in turn will affect quality of life.
There is evidence suggesting a relationship between Cognitive Appraisal and Psychological and Physical well-being (Coyne, Aldwin & Lazarus, 1981; Harris, Heller & Braddock, 1988; Jerusalem, 1993; Nezu, 1986). There is a general Conesus among research that an individual appraisal of the significance of the situation in terms of personal well-being will be a major determinant of affect (Carver et al., 1989; Harris et al., 1988; Lazarus & Folkman, 1987; Lazarus, 1991; Smith & Ellsworth, 1985). The way a person evaluates the significance of an event for him/her produces different emotional reaction, making some people more vulnerable to adverse effect than other (Kessler et al., 1983; as cited in Kausar, 1994). Perceived control experienced by an individual has an effect on outcome (Partridge & Johnston, 1989). Increased levels of perceived personal control are associated with more favorable psychological adjustment (Folkman, 1984) and perceived lack of control on the other hand predicts psychological symptoms (Prime-Emberry, 1972; as cited in Kausar, 1994). How an individual appraises and copes with the stress is important to his/her well-being (Antonovsky, 1979; Lazarus 1981). According to Lazarus and Folkman (1984), a fit between cognitive appraisal and coping strategies is postulated to produce a better outcome. Johnson and Kenkel (1991) concluded that appraisals of threat (Appraisal of self, holding self back) and use of coping strategies of detachment and seeking social support were associated with emotional distress. Moreover, Felsten (1991) suggested that appraisals of challenges and expectations of successful coping should be associated with lower distress and better well-being. Rassin et al. (2001; as cited in Yorulmaz, 2007) suggested that unwanted and intrusive thoughts are experienced by everyone and the difference between normal and abnormal lies in the appraisal process, frequency and distress. Therefore, the examination symptom severity and cognitive appraisal as the predictors of quality of life of OCD patients may facilitate the understanding if the distress and impairment faced by them.
In OCD, primary appraisal occurs in conjunction with the intrusive thoughts associated with obsessions, and secondary appraisal leads to faulty coping (compulsions and avoidance). According to Carr (1971), patients with OCD typically overestimate the likelihood of an unfavorable outcome in the context of primary appraisal (during obsessions) (as cited in Stein, Hollander, & Rothbaum, 2009) and they perform compulsive behaviors in order to reduce perceived threat. In term of cognitive domains, studies of patients with OCD have found an exaggerated sense of responsibility, overestimation of threat, perfectionism, over importance of thoughts, need for control and intolerance of ambiguity (Rachman, 1993; Salkovskis, 1985; as cited in Sten, Hollander, & Rothbaum, 2009). Individuals with OCD report markedly reduced Quality of life and general well-being, diminished occupational attainment, impaired family functioning, and higher rates of suicidal thought attempts. According to Koran et al. (1996), severity of OCD is inversely correlated with social functioning (as cited in Simpson, Neria, Fernandaz & Schneier, 2010). According to Teachman (2007), subjective cognitive complaints exacerbate the effects of obsessional beliefs, and promote maladaptive responses to intrusive thoughts thus increasing the severity of the OCD symptoms.
In present study, it is intended to explore mediating role of Cognitive Appraisal on Quality of Life perceived by Obsessive Compulsive Disorder patients with Symptom Severity and Cognitive Appraisal of the disorder are expected to impair the patient’s functioning.
This section includes the review of the studies that investigated the studied variables that are Symptom Severity, Cognitive Appraisal and Quality of life.
Kumar, Sharma, Kandavel & Reddy (2012) examined the contribution of cognitive appraisals to the quality of life (QoL) in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. In Cross sectional study, it was hypothesized that cognitive appraisals of obsession contribute to poor quality of life in OCD patients. Sample size was 31 consecutive patients from Behavioral Medicine Unit of the NIMHANS and 30 Normal controls. Exclusion criteria were patients having severe co morbid psychiatric, physical and neurological disorder. The assessment was done by using mini Internal Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI), the YBOCS severity scale, Clinical Global Impression-severity, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21, the Interpretation of Intrusive Inventory-31 and WHOQOL-BREF. Data was analyzed using independent t-test and chi-square test. Relationship between the domains of cognitive appraisal and the QoL after controlling for the duration of symptoms was analyzed by using Partial correlation. The results indicated that all the domains of cognitive appraisal have strong negative relationship with psychological domain of QoL. Thought control and inflated personal responsibility also correlated negatively with the total QoL. Cognitive appraisal specifically contributes to poorer QoL in OCD so modification of beliefs and appraisal may be essential for better QoL. Main limitations were small size, patients were recruited from Behavioral Medicine Unit of major psychiatric hospital, and findings may not be easily generalized. Sample was predominantly male so it’s important to examine gender difference in cognitive appraisal and its relationship to QoL.
Fontelle et al., (2010) in a study compared patients with OCD and normal on severity of different OCD dimensions and levels of QoL of patients with OCD. Further, it was also investigated the socio demographic variables and co occurring depressions and anxiety symptoms have significant contribution in impairment of QoL of OCD patient. They hypothesized that universal pattern of impairment in the physical, mental, and social aspects of quality of life of patient will be associated with more significant hoarding symptoms. The patients with the diagnosis of OCD were included; age between 18-80 years and without any other neurological, endocrinological or systematic disorder. The measures used were Saving inventory revised (SI-R), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Obsessive Compulsive Inventory- Revised (OCI-R), Medical Outcome Study 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). Chi-square and independent student t-test was used for the comparison of categorical and continuous variables respectively. The patient who met the inclusion criteria was 135 out of which 65 were patients, and 70 were controls. The result supported the hypothesize only partially, the decline in particular aspects of patients QoL was significantly associated with hoarding and washing symptoms for but co occurring symptoms, the most prominent determinant of the impairment of QoL of subject with OCD were depressive and anxious ones. The study had limitations that sample was taken from specialized institutions, second control group was of nonclinical individuals, rating on depression scale and QoL Instrument may be dependent on state and change during continuity of OCD, they applied generic tool for measuring QoL in OCD.
Teachman (2007) studied subjective concerns about cognitive decline partially mediate this relationship between obsessional beliefs and OCD symptoms across young and older adult age group in a large community sample. The sample size was 335 including males and females. Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, Obsessional Beliefs Questionnaire and Memory Functioning Questionnaire were used. This study attempted to evaluate the modification of cognitive model proposed by Rachman and Salkovskis. The results provide support to cognitive models of obsessions and suggest that obsessional beliefs that have been validated in younger adult samples are also important for older adults. It was shown that the relationship among subjective cognitive concerns, obsessional beliefs and OCD symptoms was consisted but older patients showed greater subjective cognitive concerns,
Grant et al. (2006) carried out a study to find out the differences of OCD patients with primary OCD and sexual obsessions and OCD patients without sexual obsession on number of clinical variables. They included co morbidity, symptom severity, insight, quality of life, and social and occupational functioning under the clinical domains. 293 subjects, meting criteria for OCD, aged 19 years or older were included and interviewed. Clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorder, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) to assess OCD symptom severity, Subject Clinical Global Improvement scale was used to evaluate the response towards medication. Rating on the degree to which previous treatments have proved to be effective was taken on 7 point scale. Brown assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS) was used to evaluate the insight and current Depressive symptom and QOL by were assessed by using 17-item Hamilton Rating scale for Depression and Quality of life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire respectively. The findings supported the hypothesize that earlier age of OCD, presiding entry in treatment, increased rate of aggressive and religious obsession onset was related to having OCD with sexual obsessions, and also with increaser depressive symptoms, longer duration of treatment, and higher rates of impulse control disorder.
Teachman, Woody and Magee (2006) attempted to evaluate cognitive theories of obsessions and they experimentally manipulated appraisals of the importance of intrusive thoughts. The design contained both experimental and quasi-experimental elements. Implicit Association Test was used to examine the influence of instructions about the importance versus meaninglessness of unwanted thoughts on reaction time. Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, Beck Depression Inventory, Interpretation of Intrusions Inventory III, Obsessional Beliefs Questionnaire-Short Form, State Self-Esteem Scale, and Personal Significance Scale were the part of study. Results indicated that the manipulation shifted implicit appraisals of unwanted thoughts in the expected direction, but not self-evaluation of morality or dangerousness. Interestingly, explicit self-esteem and beliefs about the significance of unwanted thoughts were associated wit the measure of OCD beliefs, whereas implicit self-evaluations of dangerousness were better predicted by the interaction of pre-existing OCD beliefs with the manipulation.
Libby et al., (2004) studied Cognitive Appraisals in young people with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. The study had two aims to investigate whether the same pattern of cognitive appraisal found in studies with adults will be observed in the younger population. A secondary aim of the study was to establish the relationship between cognitive appraisal and the extent these predict obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Three groups of young people aged between 11 and 18 years old were recruited for the study. First group were of patients with OCD, second was patient with anxiety disorder and third one was non clinical group. Leyton Obsessional Inventory-Child Version, Responsibility Attitude Scale, thought-Action Fusion Scale, and Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale was used n the study. The young people with OCD had significantly higher scores on inflated responsibility, thought-action fusion, and one aspect of perfectionism, concern over mistakes, than the other groups. In addition, inflated responsibility independently predicted OCD symptom severity. The results generally supported the cognitive appraisals held by adults with OCD to young people with the disorder.
Saxena et al., (2010) conducted a research to compare compulsive hoarding and non compulsive hoarding OCD patients across variety of QoL domains. They hypothesized that hoarders would be older and have lower FAF scores than non hoarding OCD patients. Secondly, hoarding patients would be less satisfied with their living situations, given their amount of clutter, and hoarders would have greater victimization/ safety concerns and finally hoarders would have greater financial problems and receive more social service assistance than non-hoarding OCD patients. To study this171 adult patients were selected (84 males, 87 females) with age aged 18-72. They were diagnosed OCD and treated openly between 1998 and 2005. Out of these patient 34 met criteria of having compulsive hoarding syndrome. 137 patients didn’t report any hoarding symptoms. Patient presented with a wide range of co morbid diagnosis. Those with active psychosis, mania, dementia, mental retardation or other cognitive impairment were excluded. Standardized rating scales were used to assess symptom severity and level of functioning. YBOCS was used to measure OCD symptom severity. Severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms were measured by 28 item Hamilton Depression rating scale (HDRS-28) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (Ham-A) respectively. QoL was assessed with Lehman Quality of Life Interview Short. Obtained scores for QoL between 2 groups were compared using Analysis of Variance procedures. ANCOVA were performed with covariates and also for secondary analysis on individual items. Results showed that compulsive hoarders were significantly older that non hoarding OCD patients. QoL scores on victimization and safety factors differed significant between 2 groups. Hoarder felt less safe in streets and less satisfied with protection. Both groups had significant occupational impairment, unemployment and disability. Discrepancy in sample size between 2 patient groups and intensive patient setting were the limitations of study.
Eisen et al., (2006) conducted a study to assess multiple aspects of QoL in individuals with OCD. It was hypothesized that all aspects of QoL would be affected, and that severity of OCD symptoms and depressive symptoms would be associated with impairment in QoL. 5 years prospective naturalistic study was conducted on 197 participants with an age 18 years or older, primary OCD. An exclusion criterion was having an organic mental disorder. YBOCS, Brown assessment of Belief scale, Modified Hamilton rating scale for Depression, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, Social Occupational Functioning assessment scale, Medical outcome survey 36-item short form Health Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was conducted to assess relationship between clinical features of OCD and QoL. Results showed that YBOCS score of 20 appeared to be an inflection point where QoL becomes significantly more impaired, suggesting that functioning and QoL, may be preserved in individuals with OCD until threshold of severity is crossed. Limitations of the study were participants seeking treatment and therefore finding may not apply to those individuals who do not seek treatment. Moreover, subjects were evaluated only once. It was suggested that the role of treatment in improving QoL in OCD should be further investigated along with a need to assess which aspect of QoL and psychological functioning.
Guraraj et al., (2008) conducted research in which they hypothesized that patients suffering from severe OCD may have comparable level of global functioning, family burden and QoL and disability with patient suffering from schizophrenia. 70 subjects from National Institute of Mental Health and Neuroscience gave informed consent. Inclusion criteria were (a) a primary diagnosis of DSM IV OCD/schizophrenia (b) continuous illness for the previous 2 year (c) Clinical Global Impression Severity (CGI-S) score of > 4 (d) availability of a primary care giver involved in patient care for 2 years Mini-international Neuropsychiatry Interview was conducted to confirm the diagnosis. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), World Health Organization (WHO-Quality of life (QOL)(BREF Version), WHO Disability Assessment Schedule-II (WHO-DAS-II). Family Burden Schedule (FBS) were used to assess global functioning, quality of life and disability. ANCOVA was employed with age of onset and duration of illness as covariate for comparison of family burden, QoL and disability between 2 groups. Pearson correlation between socio demographic/ clinical variable, family accommodation and functioning with family burden were performed. The results demonstrated that severe OCD is associated with significant impairment in functioning and severe family burden and disability. QoL was poor and severe OCD and schizophrenia are often associated with comparable disability, family burden and poor QoL.
Huppert et al., (2009) compared the QoL of OCD patients with functioning of matched healthy controls. They hypothesized that OCD patients in remission would report similar QoL and functioning matched healthy controls (HCs), while individuals with OCD would report poorer QoL and functional impairment. Additional prediction was that OCD patients and comorbid psychiatric disorder would report the worst QoL and functional impairment. Finally, Individuals with a history of OCD (current or past) increased severity of OCD would be related to decrease in QoL and increased functional impairment, even when controlling for depression. 66 comprised the current sample. 36 HCs were included. They were matched on age, sex and ethnicity. Stru