REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter deals with the information were gathered related to the present study and helps to acquire comprehensive idea of it. It is an essential part of research process. It assists the researcher to understand what is already known related to the problem and what remains to be known (Kothari, S.R. 2000). Review of literature helps to plan and conduct the study in a systematic and scientific manner.
Section A : Studies related to level of self esteem among adolescents
Section B : Studies related to Assertive training programme on improving the level of self esteem among adolescents
Section A : Studies related to level of self esteem among adolescents:
Barnabas, E.N. et al (2012).British Journal of Arts and Sciences conducted a study to explore the relationship between level of self esteem and internal & external locus of control among adolescents in South Eastern Nigeria. Total of 500 adolescents in the age group of 15-19 yrs recruited from 2 higher secondary schools. Correlational results showed that there is a positive relationship between high self esteem and internal locus of control among well functioning adolescents (r=0.46) at p<0.01 level.
Richard,W.R.,& Jack,B.(2008) Journal of child development conducted a longitudinal study on consistency and level of self esteem between the period of early adolescence & adulthood. 47 girls and 44 boys were selected for conducting this study. Rank order consistency was used to assess the self esteem among adolescents. The results showed that boys were tended to have increased level of self esteem than girls. Within each gender, boys and girls with high level of self esteem influenced quite difference in personality characteristics in early adolescence period and in adulthood both sexes have similar characteristics.
Jennifer,A.A.(2004) Journal of Treatment And Prevention conducted a study on evidence for aself-esteemapproach in the prevention of body image among adolescents in Taiwan.350 adolescents were selected in 5 different schools in Taiwan. Self esteem approach was given to selected adolescents for 3 months. It is a structured intervention used to reduce body dissatisfaction, dietary control and improve the knowledge about eating disorders. It also discussesself-esteemasoneof the significant factor for improving concern about body image and describes the subsequent use of aself-esteemapproach for prevention of eating disorders.
Andrew,M.,& Kyprianou,A.(2004).International journal of social behaviour and personality conducted a correlational study on relationships between self-efficacy, self-esteem, academic performance among 205 high school students in north Europe. Student’s average grade marks were calculated to assess the academic performance of the students. Student’s self esteem was assessed by using Rosenberg self esteem scale. Correlation results showed that there was a negative correlation between self efficacy, self esteem and academic performance.
Brenda,N.,& Shibley,J.(1999) American Psychological Association conducted a meta analysis to examine the gender differences in self esteem among americans. Participants who were selected through computerized literature search.97,121 respondents were participated in this study. The statisticl results revealed that 48000 boys have higher self esteem than girls. This study showed that boys were have high self esteem than girls.
Webster, H.M et al (1999) conducted a descriptive study on level of self-esteem among 200 female students in the age group of 14-19 yrs were selected from Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh. Student’s self esteem was measured through Rosenberg state self esteem scale. The results showed that most of the (33%) adolescent girls were in the category of 81-106, which means female students had low level of self esteem.
Cheung, W.L., Ling,P.C.,& Kwan,J.C.(1998) Journal of child development conducted an exploratory study on relationship between mental health, self esteem and physical health in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Total of 1945 adolescents who were in the age group of 12 – 19 yrs selected from four higher secondary school in Chinese. The results indicated that self esteem of adolescents were negatively correlated with physical and mental heath. Most of the adolescents in Hong Kong have depressive symptoms and low level of self esteem.
Ellen,G.B.,et al (1998) conducted a descriptive study on adolescents’ possible selve approach and their relationship to global self-esteem among Caucasian school students. The possible selve approach method was utilized to find out the the relationship between male and female self concept & self esteem. Total of 212 high school students were selected for this study. Results indicate that female self-esteem is lower than boys self esteem and adolescence period is a problematic period for female self esteem.
Beverley,K.M., et al (1996) Journal of applied developmental psychology conducted a descriptive study among adolescents. Three studies are conducted to explore the liaison between the youngsters’ self-esteem and body esteem related to age, gender, and body weight. Study 1 involved 379 students at the age group of (8-12-yrs) and Study II involved 85 (13-15yrs, Study III involved two adolescents were assessed over 2 years.Harter’s (1985b, 1988). Self-Perception Profile was used to assess the level of self worth and self-concepts. Body esteem (Appearance and Weight) was assessed with the Revised Body-Esteem Scale (Mendelson & White, 1993). The results showed that self-esteem was not related to body weight , but it was not associated with feelings of one’s physical appearance.
Section B : Studies related to assertive training programme on improving level of self esteem among adolescents
Mahmoud,S.,& Hamid,R.A.(2013). Journal of American science conducted a quasi experimental study to assess the effect of assertiveness training on level of self esteem and academic achievement among adolescents in 3 higher secondary schools at abha city. Total of 145 student girls were participated in this study. Data were collected by using Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Questionnaire for assess the level of assertiveness and student’s exam scores.10 sessions of Assertiveness training was given to the students. Each sessions was given for 30-45 min. The Spss-12 results revealed that assertiveness training programme was improved the Assertiveness, Self Esteem and Achievement score among adolescents.
Osarenren,N. (2013) Research Journal in organizational psychology & educational studies conducted the correlational study to examine the effects of two treatment methods on level of self esteem and sibling maltreatment among Junior secondary school students in Lagos, Nigeria. Total of 180 (90 males and 90 females) junior secondary students were selected for this study. Sibling Abuse Interview Schedule and Psychosocial Symptom Checklist were used as an instrument. Assertiveness Training was given to the students for five weeks. The descriptive survey and Quasi- experimental research design was used for this study. The results showed that Assertiveness training and Cognitive restructuring were effective in improving the level of self esteem and decreased the sibling maltreatment among students.
Akbari,B.,Mohamodi,J.& Sadeghi,S.(2013) Journal of basic & applied scientific research conducted a study on effect of an assertiveness training on self esteem & general self efficacy among female students of Islamic Azad university. True experimental pre test post test design was adopted for this study. Total of 40 students were recruited for this study. They were divided into two groups, from this 20 students are in experimental group and 20 students are in control group. Experimental group members were received assertiveness training for 8 sessions. Each sessions were conducted for 90 minutes. Multivariable covariance analysis test (MANCOVA) showed that assertiveness training was effective to increase self esteem and self efficacy among female students at p<0.0001 level.
Solaf,A.H.,Samia,A.E.,&Ossmaan,L.H.(2013) Journal of american science conducted a study on effectiveness of assertiveness training programme on assertiveness skill & self esteem among high school students in Alexandria university. Quasi experimental research design was adopted for this study. The sample consists of 80 students,40 males & 40 females. Students were divided into two groups, study group & control group. Assertiveness scale (modified version) & Hudson self esteem scale was used as an instrument for this study. Assertiveness training was given to study group for 8 weeks. Statistical results showed that assertiveness training was improved student’s self esteem level & assertiveness skill.
Makhija,M.,& Promila,S.(2010) International Research Journal conducted a study on effectiveness of assertiveness training on level of self esteem & academic achievement in adolescents at chattisgarh. Total of 160 students were selected from higher secondary schools of Rajnandgaon town area of Chhattisgarh. These students were divided into two groups,80 of them in experimental group & another 80 of them in control group. Self esteem inventory was used to assess the self esteem level & two annual exam marks were used to assess the academic performance of the students. Two group pre-post control group design was adopted for this study. 8 sessions of Assertiveness training was given to experimental group. ANCOVA results showed that student’s self esteem level & academic performance was increased after receiving assertiveness training.
Rezan,M & Zengel,Z (2009) Academic Journal of nursing conducted a study to examine the effect of an assertiveness training on assertive behaviour and level of self esteem.”Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS)” scores, Rosenberg self esteem scale, voluntariness, teacher’s opinion, and permission of students’ parents were used to select the adolescent’s from the population. Assertiveness training was given to the adolescents who were in experimental group by the school counsellor, during 50-70 minutes lasting for 12 weeks. Control group did not get any treatment. The ANCOVA analysis results have shown that assertiveness training program was effective on adolescents’ assertiveness level and self esteem level.
Deltsidou,A.(2008). An evaluative study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of an assertiveness training program among adolescents on assertiveness, self-esteem, and interpersonal communication satisfaction in Turkish. Longitudinal research design was adopted for this study. Total of 66 participants were selected for this study and out of which 33 adolescents were assigned to an experimental group and another 33 adolescents were assigned to control group who did not receive any intervention. Data were collected before and after training and again one month after the end of the training. The results showed that there is a significant improvement of adolescents assertiveness and self-esteem of the experimental group after assertiveness training, although it reveals that there is no significant improvement of interpersonal communication satisfaction of the adolescents in experimental group.
Adile ,G.S.(2003) conducted a study on effectiveness of an assertiveness training on assertiveness and level of self esteem among junior grade students. Twenty four students were selected from Ankara university. Assertiveness Inventory and Coppersmith Self Esteem Inventory was used as an instrument. Two group pre test post test design was adopted for this study. Experimental group was received 8 weeks assertiveness training programme & control group didn’t receive any type of intervention. The statistical results showed that there was a significant changes (p<0.01) in level of self esteem after receiving assertiveness training programme, but no difference in assertiveness level of the students.
Stake,J.E.,Deville,C.J.,& Pennell,C.L.(1999) Journal of child and family studies conducted a study on effects of assertiveness training on the performance of self esteem of adolescent girls. Total of 148 girls were selected from 10 senior high schools. Student’s self esteem level was assessed by state self esteem scale. The intervention for this study was assertiveness training was provided for 10 sessions by experienced leader and student’s own high school teacher. Statistical results showed that there is a significant changes in performance self esteem level before and after assertiveness training. Self esteem scores were increased at immediate post test and 3 month follow up period at p<0.01 level.
Barrett,P.M.,Webster,H.M & Wallis,J.R. (1983) Journal of youth and adolescence conducted a study to assess the effect of psychosocial prevention program for adolescents on self esteem, negative cognitive thinking and peer isolation. Total of 51 tenth grade students between the ages of 13-16 yrs were selected for this study. Total students were allocated for 3 groups. These are assertiveness training group, attention placebo comparison group and waitlist control group. Pre & post design was used to measure target skills like self esteem, self report and other measures like peer relationships, suitability of intervention for adolescents and teachers. Multivariate analysis of variance showed that there is a significant changes in measures of target skills in assertiveness training group when compared to attention placebo comparison group and waitlist control group. Overall results showed that school based psychosocial prevention program was improved adolescent’s self esteem and social competence.
Margaret,w.w.(1980) A study was conducted to assess the self esteem and assertiveness on 372 final year Turkish school students. Total of 372 students who were participated in this study. The self esteem level was assessed by Stanley Coppersmith Self Esteem Inventory (SEI) and Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS).One Group Pre test Post test design was adopted for this study. Assertiveness training was given to the students for 6 weeks duration. The statistical results showed that level of self esteem (80.64) and assertiveness level (36.29) was improved after giving assertiveness training. Similarly the school students had the highest scores on the assertiveness level when compared to self esteem level.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM :
A STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ASSERTIVENESS TRAINING ON LEVEL OF SELF ESTEEM AMONG ADOLESCENTS IN SELECTED SCHOOL, COIMBATORE.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:
The objectives are to:
assess the level of self esteem among adolescents before and after assertiveness training.
assess the effectiveness of assertiveness training among adolescents.
find out the association between the effectiveness of assertiveness training with selected demographic variables.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION :
1. Assertiveness training :
It refers to systematically planned training consists of role play, lecture interweaved with group discussion along with video cassettes prepared by Aparajitha foundation. It consists of concept of assertive communication , types of behaviour patterns, assertive rights, anger management and self esteem skills that promote self esteem.
It is an emotional evaluation of oneself as well as an attitude towards self and others as measured by Heatherton & Polivy State Self Esteem scale.
Adolescent refers to girls and boys in the age group of 13-19 years.
H1: There will be a significant difference in mean score of self esteem who have assertiveness training and those who do not have assertiveness training.
Adolescent period may prone for more peer pressure and self esteem changes.
The concepts of Albert Bandura’s social learning theory was adopted for this study. This model was introduced by Albert Bandura (1952). Bandura’s Social learning theory focuses on environmental and cognitive elements that interact with human being to influence the behaviour based upon their social circumstances. It deliberates the people to acquire and encompasses the concepts such as observational learning, imitation, and modelling.
Reciprocal causation :
According to Bandura, behaviour can also influence both the environment and the person. Each of three variables, environment, person, behaviour influence the behaviour of the person. Bandura’s social learning theory characterized as a strong interaction which consists of Person, Learning environment, Behaviour.
It refers to the characteristics of the models (age) and the observer including self-efficacy, self-confidence, and self-esteem. In this study it refers to the demographic variables and pre-test level of self esteem among adolescents measured by Heatherton & Polivy Self Esteem Scale.
i‚· Learning environment
It refers to the observational learning from the environment takes place in the following process i.e. Attention, Retention and Production
It refers to the developing cognitive processes to pay attention to a model. In this study, assertive training programme on improve the level of self esteem which was given to the adolescents is the source of learning from the environment includes all the three models such as role play (types of behaviour, assertive techniques), self esteem skills & express hidden talents of adolescents, goal setting through lecture method and feedback.
2. Retention :
It refers to later imitate the behaviour, must remember the aspects of behaviour. In this study it refers to home work given to the students after each session.
It refers to the translating imaginal representations into overt behaviour. In this study it refers to measure the level of self esteem after the assertiveness training programme.
It refers to the vicarious reinforcement for having a good behaviour. In this study it refers to the positive reinforcement in case of low level of self esteem. Through this the adolescents can improve the level of self esteem.