The Stakeholder would be someone who is concerned, an engaged or interested in a project. Stakeholder is individuals or organizations that have a straight concentration in a service being provided. There are three categories of user primary, secondary and tertiary.
1.1 .1 PRIMARY STAKEHOLDERS:
Primary stakeholders are those people and groups ultimately who are affected by the project. That will be differ depends on the types of project concerned and should be analyzed according to criteria such as gender, income levels, dependence on resources, etc. The primary stakeholders are the most important of the organization. People or group who are ultimately impacted either positively (beneficiaries) or negatively (for example, competitors). The users are those likely to be frequent hands on user of the organization.
Regional Nature Conservation Authority
Ministry of Environment, Forestry, Regional Planning, etc
Landowner and or residents in the forest
Recreational and other user
1.1.2 SECONDARY STAKEHOLDER:
Secondary stakeholders are the intermediaries in the aid delivery process. The secondary users are occasional user or those who use the system through an intermediary. People or groups who have a role in the decision making process without being directly affected by the outcome.
Landowner and residents not inside the protected area but near
1.1.3 TERTIARY STAKEHOLDER:
Tertiary users are those affected by the introduction of the system, or who will influence its purchase. Tertiary stake holder can still have an influence, but are not directly involved.
Local opinion leader
Ecological department of universities, research institutes
Environmental inserts or special programs of national media
1.2. Scope Document:
The scope document is a general term for any document that refines and defined the requirements aspect of the triple constraint of time, cost, and requirements.
1.2.1 Purpose of a scope document:
The purpose of this document is to collect, analyze, and define high-level needs and features of that system. It focuses on the capabilities needed by the projects.
The scope statement is generally confined to a few paragraphs or pages, the scope document may be a far more substantial document. It captures information from a variety of sources and places it in a single repository. As an alternative, it may largely be a document that provides reference to other documentation in other locations. Specifically identifying those locations and the information embedded in that documentation.
1.2.2 Contents of a scope document:
It contains the overall information about the project in a short summary documentation.
Description of the Proposed Action
The various types of action and processes will be taken to accomplish the project. The description of all those action and processes is documented here.
Project Purpose, Need and Benefits
Background and History of project
Cornell and Public Need for the Proposed Action
Objectives of the project
Benefits that will be gain to meet the objective.
Consideration about the business competitors, about their activity.
Description of all deliverables that will establish the successful completion of the project
The project development area is defined here with specifications.
The resource that will be needed to complete the project successfully, all are documented here.
Contain specific plan about the cost estimates to prevent misunderstanding later.
Define when and how project development team should be paid for the project
Introduction: There are some visual forms to help us our project. There are different stages in the development of the project and that stage can focused to use some visual form. While planning to develop a project many factors and issues should be considered before getting into the project and what are more stages in the total life cycle is vital for the successful implementation of the project and that stages are focused by the visual form. You can focus of all your project stage by using visual form.
2.1 Life Cycle Model:-
The term project lifecycle models how a project is planned controlled and monitored from its inception to its completion. Project life cycle model are not similar. To deliver a quality system, it’s critical to know the risk facing your project and to use models that reduce those risks. Life cycle models describe the phase of the projects and the order in which those phase are executed. Each phase produce deliverables required by the next stage in the life cycle. There are some life cycle models is Waterfall Model, V-shape model, Spiral model and etc.
2.1.1 Waterfall Life Cycle Model:
The waterfall life cycle was the first attempt at the definition of software development life cycle. The concept of a waterfall in this model suggests that one stage is completed before the next one starts and the diagram exactly show that concept. Stage completion is judged by the outcome of the stage matching the requirements defined by the previous stage.
Diagram: Waterfall Model
Code & Test
The water model is very simple diagram. The model is showing some lifecycle activities. The waterfall model is very simple to use and easy to manage due to the inflexibility of the model because each stage has specified deliverables and a review processes. Those stages are completed one at a time. That is best for small project where requirement are much understood.
2.1.2 V Model:
The life cycle models heart of the v-Model. It describes the activity and products in the V-Model. Just like the waterfall model, the v-shaped life cycle is a sequential path execution of processor. Each stage must be completed before the next stage begins. Testing is emphasized in this model more so than the waterfall model though. The testing procedures are developed early in the life cycle before any coding is done, during each of the phase preceding implementation.
Code & Unit Test
Integration and Test
Diagram: The V Model
The sequential lifecycle diagram is easy to understand, it easy to focus what the plan a project according to a sequential approach. The V-Model maintains the change control board and they meets once a year and processes all received change request on the V-Model. That supports tailoring, at each project starts, the V-Model is tailoring into a specific project. The tailoring makes it possible because the V-Model is organization and project independent. The V-Model produces actual support on how to implement an activity. In each activity scheme there are instructions, recommendation and detailed explanation of the activ
2.2. The Activity Networks:
The activity network is a technique for pictorial representing a project plan. It shows dependencies between all the activities that have to be created. The most important part of activity diagram is the Critical path. Activity networks find out the all activity and find out who activity dependence to others. And the process of creating network begins with the drawings up of dependency list. The processes assign independence to each product or activity and specifies it backwards dependency.
EST Duration EFT
LST Float LFT
8 5 13
19 11 24
22 2 24
22 0 24
24 4 28
24 0 28
3 5 8
14 11 19
3 6 9
18 15 24
9 13 22
9 0 22
13 7 20
15 2 22
9 4 13
11 2 13
0 3 3
0 0 3
3 6 9
3 0 9
Diagram: Activity Networks
The activity networks show the activity by a box with sections used to hold key pieces of information. The show the activity starts time, finished time and there duration. They show last start time, finished time and there float. For example the boxes (nodes) A, B, C, D, E, etc represent the activities and the arrows, or connectors, represent the dependencies between the activities. And provide the information of which are activities are much more critical. The diagram contains the some visual information are:
Earliest Start and Finished Time
Latest Start and Finished Time
The Critical Path
2.2.1 Earliest Start and Finished Time:-
Earliest Start Time (EST): The earliest points are shown when the activities are started. The next activities (box) earliest start time (EST) dependence on previous finished time (EFT).
Earliest Finished Time (EFT): the earliest point are illustrate the activities finished time. The EFT depends on what the activities duration. The activities duration calculate (EFT = EST + Duration) the EST and produce the Earliest Finished Time (EFT).
2.2.2 Duration: The diagram is show the activities duration. That is easy to find out which activities times are defined. The important point about this is that it is not until the activity network has been completed, and the dependencies combined with the estimated elapsed durations, that the project manager can be confident about the predicted elapsed duration and whether a specific end date is achievable or not.
2.2.3 Latest Start Time and Finished:-
Latest Start Time (LST): They LST provide the information of the latest time that the activity in question can begin, without causing subsequent jobs to overrun.
Latest Finished Time (LFT): The latest time that the activity in question can finish, without causing subsequent jobs to overrun.
Float: The earliest points are show the time of who much needs to time the activity are finished. They use to some mechanism to provide the information. Working backward through the network, the mechanism is:
LFT of an activity = LST of succeeding activity.
LST of an activity = LFT – Duration.
2.2.4 Critical Path:-
The diagram (visual form) is very attractive you can easily find out which activities are critical. If any activity has no Float, as in the case you can understand that the activities are more critical and this called the Critical Path. That helps to the project. These activities are high risk, so
The superlative people can put on them
They can easily monitored frequently of the activity
The estimating can be re-examined for their liability to any risk of overrunning.
2.2.5 Dependency Type:
The visual form can easily help us to find out the dependency of our project activities. That can show to which activities are depending to other. “We have assumed that an activity cannot start until the previous one has finished. This is not always the case. Sometimes activities can overlap, for example, where one activity is design programs and the successor is code programs these can go almost on parallel but there must be delay before the start of the letter activity.”
2.3. Mind Maps:-
“Mind Map is diagram used to represent an expression of radiant thinking and is therefore a natural function of human mind”. This visual form is very interesting that can generate an imaging idea of any projects. Mind Mapping is useful technique that improves the way you take notes, and support and enhances your creative problem solving. By using Mind Maps, you can quickly identify and structure of a subjects and the way that pieces of information fit together, as well as recording the row facts contained in normal notes. Mind maps are tools which help you think and learn.
FIG: – Mind Map
2.3.1 Key Ideas in a project:
That is applied to every aspect of life where improved learning and clearer thinking will enhance human performance. The mind map has some essential characteristic:
The subject of attention is crystallized in a central image
The man themes of the subject radiate from the central image of branches
Branches hold a key image/word printed on the associated line – details radiate out
The branches from a connected model structure
Mind Maps are more compact than conventional note, often taking up one side of paper. This helps you to make associations easily. And if you find out more information after you have drawn the main Mind Map. Then you can easily add it in. Mind Map is also easily useful for:
Can summarized information
That can easily Consolidating information from different research sources
Its help to thinking through complex problems and
Presenting your information in a design that shows the overall structure of your subject
3.1. TUCKMAN Theory:
Bruce tuckman has provided the theory to develop a successful project team. There have five stage of group development. His research led him to determine four phase of group development those are-
And the last stage is Adjourning.
Forming: personal relations are characterized by dependence in this stage.
Storming: in this stage, the characterized by achievement and argument in the personal relations dimensions an organization in the task-functions dimension.
Norming: in the stage, the interpersonal relations are characterized by cohesion.
Performing: This stage are not reached by all groups, if group members are grow to stage four, their ability, variety, and depth of personal relation are expand to true interdependence.
Adjourning: That stage involves the execution of task behaviors and disengagement from relationship.
3.2. BELBIN Theory:
Dr Meredith Belbin defined a team role as: “A tendency to behave, contribute and interrelate with others in a particular way”. Belbin identified nine cluster of behaviors team, terms team role. Those are-
Co-ordinator: the co-ordinator may not stand out in a team and usually does not have a sharp intellect.
Shaper: He or She will challenge, argue or disagree and will display aggression in the pursuit of goal achievement. Two or three shaper in a group, according to Belbin, can lead to conflict, aggravation and in-fighting.
Plant: Weaknesses are a tendency to disregard practical details and argumentativeness.
Resources Investigator: Weakness are a tendency to lose interest after initial fascination with an idea, and they are not usually the source of original ideas.
Company worker/implementation: Implementers are conservative, inflexible and slow to respond to new possibilities.
Monitor evaluator: Weakness are that they appear dry and boring or even over-critical. They are not good at inspiring others. Those in high level appointments are often monitor evaluators.
Team worker: They tend to be indecisive in moments of crisis reluctant to do things that might hurt others.
Completer finishers: Weaknesses according to Belbin, are that they tend to be over anxious and have difficulty letting go and delegating work.
Specialist: their weaknesses are single-mindedness and a lack of interest in other peoples.
3.3. MYERS_BRIGGS theory:
The Myers-Briggs personality typology, unlike some other typing theories such as the Enneagram or Four Temperaments, uses a combination of several aspects to arrive at a “composite” type, based on the interaction and relative weight of different behavioural and attitudinal factors. The types are expressed as combinations of four letters, as follows:
E or I (Extravert or Introvert)
S or N (Sensing or iNtuitive)
T or F (Thinking or Filling)
J or P (Judging or Perceiving)
E/I preference: interest the world around you.
S/N preference: how you gather the information about the world.
T/F preference: how you evaluate that information.
J/P preference: your attitude to the world.
These four pairs give 16 possible combinations, some of which are more common I the population than others. I will use myself as the worked example in what follows as I am the nearest subject to hand.
3.4. Knowledge from Tuckman, Belbin, and Myers-Briggs theory to develop a project team
3.4.1 Tuckman theory: Tuckman theories originally give me the knowledge of groups. How the way to observed group evolve, whether they were conscious of it or not. And I understand how to move the performed in the stage. The forming stage is describing the characters of each group members. And next stage they are comments to each other. Group might be happily Norming and performing stage because they are understood to each other.
3.4.2 Belbin theory: I collect the some information of Belbin theories. That is each team role has its particular strength and allow able weaknesses, and each has an essential contribute to make to a team. Every member needs different time to her/his roles.
3.4.3 Myers-Briggs: That theory simple to helps an aide-memoire for people who have done the profile, and give a flavor of how it works if it’s new to you. The theory helps to how we deal with the world around us. How you gather the information about the world and how you evaluate that information and your attitude.
Generally if I’m a project manager then I select and develop of an effective project team to follow some idea. First fall check every team members are polite behaviors and the members have more confident. And identifies the members are communicate more openly with each other and then I will make a project team. The members are keen to be accepted into team and look the team leader for guidance and direction. The members are eager to be accepted.
3.5. Risk of Team Failure:
There are common problems:-
3.5.1 No Trust between the Team Members: That is most and effective problem to a group. When team members do not trust to each other or are suspicious of each others motives, the end result is a team that is not interrelated in its approach. So we are assessment the team members are related to each other.
3.5.2 Ineffective Interaction and Unproductive Team Meeting: Some of important time all team members comes to attend the meeting. The meeting is one of the most critical aspects of the team process with strategies and innovative to problems emerging during this time.
3.5.3 Poor Role Clarity: When roles are not clearly defined, this can lead to conflict and confusion on tasks. So team member can not understand what exactly is expected of each of them. So identify who is responsible to each tasks and identify they are confidently done this tasks.
3.5.4 Poor Time Management: A team should plan its goal and activities whilst keeping time constraints and deadlines in mind, otherwise their efficiency level in managing and implementing a task can suffer. While a team analysis any task they should define who many times are needed to each task. They are trying to finish that task proper time.
3.5.5 Losing Focus of Business Objective: If every member can unclear the goals of team so they lose of directions and lose of focus efficiency products. And turn lead to wrongly prioritized activities. While a team can identify their goals they can lead better direction and focus the efficient products.
3.5.6 Faulty Analysis of Market Conditions and Flawed Company Policies:
If a team can fail to reservations in market condition
3.6. Risk Matrix:
This is the simple method to raise visibility of risk and assist the management to make decision against all the risk that arise. It is a graphical representation of information normally found in existing risk logs. Risk matrix is easy to use, unless they are designed properly
FIG: Risk Estimation Matrix (From MBP book of NCC Education)
3.6.1 Notes: How to assess the Risk of team failure.
A risk assessment is simply a careful checking of what, and identify of any event that if occurred. It may be negatives or positives in our team. There are many reasons for a team can breakdown. So we are researched before making a team.
That helps get greater strategic thinking and enhances creativity the proper solution when a team failure.
3.7. Contingency Plan: The contingency plan helps to identify what I will do if the risk occurs.
The points are discussed here encapsulate the key issues that can lead to team failure. Team managers and team leaders have to take measures to protect the team from these chains that can wrap themselves around the team and collapse its performance. Diagnosing is the first step to solving the problem. Some of the issues such as role clarity or losing focus of business objectives can be solved by a discussion with the team members. Some of the other problems like poor trust, poor time management, and poor team interaction can be better tackled through team building exercises.
Let’s now look at the other side of the points, success. If success is what the team is after, then what is it that is expected of teams? What should they do to be successful?
Understand their goals
Interact, communicate effectively, explore ideas and innovative approaches
Be loyal, co-operative, willing to share information and lend a helping hand
Understand market realities and develop a sound strategy
Keep time frames in mind
Know their responsibility within the team and focus on results
All this may seem like a tall order but is actually achievable. Everybody on a team is naturally equipped to deal with these factors, the only exception being ‘flawed company policies’, which is up to corporate management to resolve.
When teams in an organization show problems, then the solution may lie in a deeper analysis of the problem and exploring the areas mentioned above to find a solution.
Validation and Verification is the process of checking that the product.
“Am I building the product right?”
The process of determining whether or not the products of given phase of the software development cycle fulfill the requirement established during the previous phase
The purpose of Verification is to ensure that selected products meet specified requirements. The interpretation of this process area for business development is to ensure business development work products meet specified objectives and criteria. A key work product is the customer proposal. It should be verified that it meets customer-specified needs by conducting a readiness.
It is important to verify that the business development products meet the external customer’s needs. Verification increases the likelihood that offered products and services will be accepted by the customer, but it does not guarantee success. Verification is necessary but not sufficient.
The business development campaign should include verification milestones throughout the process. Does the proposal meet the buyer’s specification? What are the risks in the proposal? Do marketing collateral and advertising meet the defined goals and objectives of the campaign?
These types of question arise in a project for verification.
verification addresses whether the work product properly reflects the specified requirements
Verification includes verification of the product and intermediate work products against all selected requirements, including customer, product and product component requirements.
Verification is inherently an incremental process because it occurs throughout the development of the product and work products,
Verification of work products substantially increases the likelihood that the product will meet the customer, product, and product component requirements.
Am I building the right product?
Validation is the process that checks the product design satisfies and fits. That provides a high degree of assurance that a product, services, and system accomplished its intended usage “you built the right product”.
There are few terms uses in validation process:
User acceptance Testing or system validation
The purpose of Validation is to demonstrate that a product fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment. The interpretation of this process area for business development is to validate and to demonstrate that a campaign product or service fulfills its intended use in support of the business development campaign objectives.
The proposal is a key product of the marketing effort. Prospective customers base their decisions largely on the organization’s proposal. Because knowing how to develop a good proposal is critical core competency for business development, it is important to evaluate the readiness of the offer before it is submitted to the customer.
The following types of question may in project for validation.
What is the size of the market?
Is the market growing or contracting?
What influences this movement
validation can be applied to work products as well as to the product and product components
Validation is to demonstrate that a product or product component fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment.
Validation demonstrates that the product, as provided, will fulfill its intended use
4.3. Verification and Validation in a Project Lifecycle
The need and importance of verification and validation in a project are stated below with a life cycle model.
4.3.1 Verification and validation in V model
Here validation is taken in the primary stage which named requirements specification to check all the information in accurate and exact for build the project. With the information of previous stage the design stage is developed. Verification is done after the design process to develop evidence of design solution requirements compliance. A shorthand statement of the meaning of verification is commonly voiced as, “Am I building the product right?” Verification technique aims to detect and aid the designer to correct mistake during the product developments.. After the design is verified, the conceptual model and its associated design are converted into code or hardware by the developer. Code verification and hardware checkout ensure that the detailed design is being implemented correctly in the code or hardware respectively. Code verification normally entails detailed desk checking and software testing of the code, comparing it to the detailed design, documenting any discrepancies and fixing any problems discovered. Other important activities include participating in code testing, audits, walkthroughs, and inspections; validating input data; preparing complexity report; conducting code analysis; and verifying code structure. Integration checking also sorted out by verification testing to address that is all component of the product or part is integrated properly and accurately. Validation and verification are present throughout all the phase of product life cycle and are composed of a wide variety of activities. The validation and verification activities are detection and correction of errors. In incremental assessment, which verification and validation activities provide at each phase of the process model. The information gives the progressive view of the productivity of the development process and quality of the product.
4.3.2 In a project life cycle verification and validation can arise in different stages. Those are mentioned below
Configuration Management Plan
Quality Assurance Plans
Studies and Analyses
4.3.3 Checking Procedure of verification and validation
Checked all the item that may need for the project development
Requirement are checked through validation
Test all the module for integrating correctly
Design of the development mu