Social scientists for the financial management has been the major crucial aspect to achieve goal of both social and economic development. Some of the debates regarding the role of social worker/scientists and international aid supporting organization are core for this assignment. Individual’s basic needs required to fulfilled and institutional set up are complementary to each other. Hence, in order to gain the both development paradigm from one stone, the various strategies to be used. The important cycle for the achievement of organization’s goals have neen illustrated in the assignment.
Social Development and Foreign Policy
Social Development and economic development has been complementary and interrelated to each other. Social development implies that institutions must put people at the center of development activities. it means a commitment that development processes need to benefit people, particularly but not only the poor, but also a recognition that people, and the way they interact in groups and society, and the norms that facilitates such interaction, shape development processes. Social structures has been constructed in such way in which all people interact with and get influenced by each other. Hence, there needs to be such agencies which will look for social development as well wellbeing of individual. This must be achieved other developmental activities such as economic development and financial management. The financial management is all about efficient and effective management of money so as to achieve the goal or objective of the agency. Therefore, we require to have balance growth of both the sector so as to develop both sector effectively. There have been many studies which suggests that there are temporary imbalances in both sector. It is difficult to defend this on purely moral grounds, may be necessary in order to provide man-power where it can make the maximum contribution and create new resources for a comprehensive development of the entire country as well as the wellbeing of individual. They can be defended on the ground that they will advance social development rather than retarding it. There have been other studies which are indicating and suggesting that there are some negative attitudes from the government bodies and they are not responsive to the needs of enlightened foreign policy, for the simple reason that they will say, they are not responsive to the aspirations and interest of people where we are seeking friendship and cooperation for the betterment of the social and economic resource management.
There are some strens and stresses while working on imbalanced sectors. For the instance, population exploration has been the major cause to the distribution of resources and management of the agency. Hence we see people with bare subsistence levels in developing and under-developed countries. As far as food production is concerned, world’s production of food has in recent years exceeded the growth of population. However, there has been increasingly slowdown in food production. Every year the gap between demand and supply has been increasing. This is seen where countries economy is less developed or under-developed. The results of this of situation have visible in those counties in which malnutrition rates are high and threats are prevailing for human life.
Now, it is essential for all of us to understand that Economic approach be made meaningful by the recognition that the purpose of all economic development is the wellbeing of the individual, the satisfaction of his wants, his his/her growth inn dignity and freedom. In, almost every, policy the word masses have gained effective attention in all the counties. The study done in “social development and financial development” tell us that the word “the masses” is nothing but the denial of dignity of the individual and his ability to develop according to his/her gifts and aspirations. Hence, this word is not only meant for those who are poor absolutely but for relatively poor as well. Therefore, it must be made clear that it is not the development of the poor section but for all the sections of the society. The social development aspect cannot achieved only through the fund allocations to many social policies but need an hour is to manage the human resources as well as management of money. Economic development cannot be gained without the balanced growth of social development. Therefore, methods used in economic and social development cannot be divorced from the overriding social objective without destroying the objective itself.
The social approach and economic approach to free world needs attention on careful planning. There are some developed countries which require such approach while aiding developing as well as under-developed countries. Over all development has to be planned to distribute scarce resources and to give purpose as well as perceptions to economic and social development. There are some less privileged countries with vast human resource and they must be encouraged to stress human investment. The human development in the development process and the importance of human qualities which motivates economic growth and efficiency. In order to adopt such processes developed counties must help other countries to motivate and make self-sufficient. In most of the planning processes, people are not involved effectively. To adapt such changes in processes we need to give some sort of share to the people in whole process. This will result in to self-initiative, self-realization and the will to improvement to the fore, and to achieve voluntary commitment in the less developed counties could be achieved.
This has been strongly believed that we should not use totalitarian approach to planning in achieving social as well as economic development. This approach tries to minimize or even eliminate the human factor from the planning process.
“The recognitions of individual advance and social development as the ultimate objective of all economic development, has direct bearing on the establishment of concrete development plans which, while flexible and always open to needed adjustments, can give direction and perspective to national development efforts.” This is why, it is needed to understand that the social programs and economic programs are interrelated.
For the better implementation and policy framework for the balanced growth between social and economic management, there have been various commits, rounds and discourses among developed nations. Among them, Economic commission for Asia underlined the fact that “balanced economic and social development aimed at a better understanding of the relative importance of economic and social programs in the overall development of less developed counties, their relationships and complementarity, the allocation of scarce resource for social as contrasted with economic purposes and the coordination of programs to achieve maximum results in both fields.” With the various experiences that under-developed countries and less privileged counties are facing, the conclusion are made like there is growing agreement on that priority should be given to economic aspects but with early social impact and to social programme designed to advance economic growth.
Similarly, social programs require to be developed which will again have vice-versa effect on economic development. These programs includes education, health, the development of improved labor relations and organization and the establishment of minimum wages whatever possible. The application of such programs will have positive impact on economic development. Once people benefit out of this they will contribute to the economic development. It could be through investing their intellectual capacities, physical work, individual resources etc. for the instance that in terms of less span of planning, limited resources have to be concentrated, deliberately on primary education for the part of children of school age. These children are the future resources to the country as to preserve resources for secondary and higher education. Within this if we take one element of this, those children would be undertaking vocation and technical types of courses to meet pressing requirement for the trained personnel. This way social development and financial/economic management work.
As the demand for more production is growing, along the line population is also exploding. Planner need to convey and plan in such manner in which all people would be considered major actors in economic development. The number of teachers or social worker who are serving for the western countries have contributed or expanded the programme Technical Assistance on very low rate. This factor gathers the attentions of all developing nations. The more contradictory factor is that social worker and social scientists play very minor role in the policy making bodies of the less developed counties or among those who are responsible for international aid programs.
There is no problem with foreign aid programs or the relations with the countries but the methodology, which we adopt require more advanced forms of specialist training and much emphasis has to be given on degrees and professions standards.
“This preoccupation and emphasis is undoubtedly important, but unless it is balanced by training in the broad issues of economic and social development which confront two thirds of the people of the world, it tends to isolate the social work expert from the broad stream of historical change. It may even result in a form of parochialism which may prevent the great social work profession in such a country as the United States from making the contribution it should to social development throughout the world.”
Meeting Basic Human Needs –
Several question has been asked to the kind of approach is used to social development approach Wealth has not been trickled down and the poor have become poorer. In the reality, developed countries support the aid system for developing countries. This interdependence is affecting fuel, food, materials and jobs. This realities has forced developed countries to reconsider their own growth and developmental directions. The development is conceptualized in such way which indicates that it is the complex process of enlarging human potentials via social, cultural and political change as well as economic. It is not restricted to the so called developing countries but involves all nations. Therefore, “development is interdependent; but self-reliance and self-determination are essential conditions within the sustaining framework of international cooperation. Development is to meet the needs of people. “The central purpose of economic and social development is to meet human needs. The satisfaction of human needs is indeed the whole purpose of growth, trade and investment, development assistance, the world food system, population, policy, energy planning, commodity stabilization, ocean management, monetary reform and of arms control. The developing countries are now forced to extend its conventional approach of governmental groups to include new sets of actors and participants in the development dialogue. They are loosely organized in a variety of people and their networks at non-governmental, associational, regional and national levels.
Needs and their satisfactions are socially and culturally conditioned and exhibit different con-figurations in different societies, cultures, and regions. Therefore the definition of adequacy may vary but there can be rough agreement on levels below which individual physical, social, and cultural growth is attenuated. There have been agreed floor through which public policies have been formulated. There is consensus among policy makers on the standards of living. But we need to consider the difference in the standards according to the context and situation. This is why some people are responsive well and some are not. Some people are getting benefit of policies whereas others not. The problems of absolute poverty, of those more or less close to the survival margins in the satisfaction of basic needs, are chiefly found in the developing countries where there are very large numbers of people at and below subsistence level.
One can say that there are enough resources at the global level to meet the basic needs of all people but due to obstacles of institutional, political and economic arrangements, the resources have not been getting distributed across the world. A more equitable redistribution of world economic advantage within the international economic order is a necessary for more balanced development, specifically to meet the challenge of the needs of the world’s poorest billion.
The interdependence and interaction of needs requires an equivalent integration of the approaches and means used to meet them.
International Support system to Basic Human needs –
Many Third World observers wish to define their own needs and not be mere consumers of Western civilization; accordingly, they reject needs models fashioned by First World experts. In many non-modern societies, the organizing principle around which its economic activities revolve is the maintenance of harmony with nature, allied to social cohesion around kinship rules for the use of property and the sharing of goods. The organizing principle of centralized socialist states is a politically determined plan, and any use of auxiliary controls – price stimuli or managerial emulation–is subordinated to fulfilling the planned targets. Problems arise because centralized plans do not
Role of Social Scientist –
Governments at State and Federal levels have created several permanent corporations, commissions, councils, boards, bureaus, agencies, and authorities whether it is about education, health, industrial public enterprises, infrastructural development, financial architecture or welfare schemes where social science experts are playing theirrespective roles. But more importantly, for example, agriculture experts, say in farmers’ commission, are developing and using their social understanding besides their scientific knowledge. The governments keep setting up ad hoc commissions and committees like finance commission, education commission, knowledge commission and pay commission and taxation reforms committees for seeking expert opinion before taking a decision to have impact of permanent nature and experts include social scientists and scientists having social science understanding. In case there exists a policy for setting up an industrial unit in the public sector in a backward region with a view to promoting balanced regional development, which maybe an important element of the economic policy, expert opinion is needed to decide its form as a departmental enterprise, a corporation or a company, whether to have partnership with a private company and if so, sharing capital, costs, revenues and risks.
Within each economic organization, especially if related with promotional activities, social scientists, especially those having knowledge of economics are needed whether it is related with trade, production or distribution. Whether to borrow capital and where from is an issue better delineated by financial experts. It is another issue that in recent past engineers have specialized in the area of finance. Likewise they may advise on insurance matters etc. Banks, non-banking financial institutions such as mutual funds and insurance companies employ economists to carry out research on sector specific aspects as well as on macroeconomic aspects of the economy in order to help them inbetter decision-making. When a project has to be undertaken say of building a dam one may ask whether a road can be built over it and whether a rail bridge can be built on top of the road, whetherthe dam should be used for irrigation purposes or should it generate power as well. Catchments and command areas, submergence of villages, land, forests, flora and fauna have all to be studied and, in addition, whether it is worth relocating the people affected and securing them equivalent livelihood options and on the top of all whether it will affect their social and cultural milieu and whether change is so drastic as to alienate them from the State. Whether these decisions will be compatible with various proclaimed policies of the State, is again an issue to be squarely dealt with. A variety of social science inputs would be needed in such exercises. Governments have created specialized cadres for economics, trade and statistics. They always had those in judiciary, health, education and forests. Everywhere social science specialists, including management experts are playing their respective roles. Multilateral organizations are often banking upon social science professionals for their activities. All the United Nations expert bodies and other multilateral bodies, including non-governmental international organizations seek involvement of economists, sociologists and anthropologists. The World Bank consults various social scientists and keeps some of them on payroll to understand the likely impacts of the projects it undertakes and sponsors from the point of view of tribes, weaker sections and environment. Likewise other agencies involved in funding like ADB or providing liquidity like IMF do consult social scientists though sometime we have reservations on their decisions. WTO and WIPO run their training programs for educating government officials, scholars and others on social science related material—economics and law, understanding the issue’s, approaching power, negotiation and bargain. In addition,in administration of projects they would need people from accounting, management, law and social work background. Role of social sciences and social scientists seems to be all-pervading in decision-making at any level. Every society follow some rules and regulation which is made by some specific social advisor. Some time it is necessary for the society development and some time it is need for guidance. For the development of every society or nation we need some policy which is basically done by social scientist. Some policy is very much necessary Public policy is an affirmation of positive actions and negative sanctions, executed through legislative, executive and administrative channels by a government often in pursuance of the constitutional directives whose interpretation may change in the course of time due to change in ethos. The set of actions and sanctions is often chosen from the set of possible alternatives, which may subserve the same set of objectives. There can be an agricultural/farm policy as well as an industrial policy. There can be a policy on telecom and on films. There can be an employment policy and there can be a policy on reservation of jobs for certain sections of society for certain categories of jobs. But there can be a prohibition policy or on consumption of tobacco and there can be one littering. In simply means public policies are broad commitments and guidelines for political and bureaucratic executive in certain areas needing intervention. Chosen policies purportedly optimum in certain terms. With change in ethos things may change. For example, the same set of Directive Principles is now used to justify the policies.