This approach is based on the premise that human behaviour and relationships are shaped by conscious and unconscious influences. Psychological forces that underlie human behaviour, emphasizing between unconscious and conscious motivation in which the early life experience is influential and there are stages for the full developed personality which includes Id (we are born with Id and is an important part of our personality as a newborn and it allows us to gain our basic needs) .Ego (is based on reality principles, ego understands needs and desires and it starts after Id and exist from the age 3 to 6 years old ), Superego ( personality fully developed and starts after the age of 6 and is conscious about what is right and wrong ).
Psychodynamic in which behaviour is determined and the consciousness start after the early stages of life experience. Individual learns things day by day and in the first 7 years of life and gets to know the basic ways of life
In terms of Aggression, Psychodynamic theory focuses on underlying psychological tensions and complexes often resulting from childhood experiences or looks in to the past or present of human beings and focuses on relationships and experiences. According to Freud we are born with two instincts; aggression and sexual energy and childhood is an important time for personality development and so psychodynamics look at the past of an individual.
Psychodynamic theory was originally developed by Sigmund Freud; Freud first developed the basic ideas which underlie the approach as a whole–particularly the idea that understanding behaviour requires insight into the thoughts and feelings which motivate our actions.
Sigmund Freud ideas have been proved valuable for those who want to understand what’s in the mind of an individual or what has happened with an individual in the past.
Freud suggested that psychological processes are flows of psychological energy in a complex brain, Numerous theories within a psychodynamic perspective have been developed since Freud’s original idea.
Second to Freud in terms of popular recognition is Carl Jung. Jung developed the idea of unconscious mental processes more fully, the main disagreement he had with Freud was his belief that there was more to the unconscious than what Freud theorized. Jung describes a person’s psychological makeup as always working on two levels the conscious and the unconscious and a third theorist is Eriksson who developed the idea of the ego and became known as ego theories.
The Humanistic approach is often called the third force in psychology after psychoanalysis and behaviourism. The name humanistic itself means belief in the basic goodness and respect of humankind. The focus of the humanistic perspective is on the self and form and reforming. It is the study of the whole person with conscious awareness. The present is the most important part of life we are living in and therefore humanists focus on the present of the person rather than looking at the past or trying to predict future.
Two major theorists with this approach are Ibrahim Maslow and Carl Rogers. Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchical theory of human motivation. Abraham Maslow’s theory of human needs was different than Rogers. Maslow believed that people have variety of needs at different circumstances and the needs change when circumstances change and which need satisfying at different times. He arranged these needs in a hierarchy, like everyone in access course wants to join university next year but will put this need to one side if they are starving hungry therefore Basic needs must be satisfied before can move up to higher needs.
Carl Rogers a leading figure in the development of humanistic approaches published significant aspects of client therapy also called person centred therapy. Rogers looked at theory of Maslow and believed in the clinical case studies to represent his theory. The self-concept is the significant feature of the person’s personality in Roger’s theory, and it includes all the feelings, and beliefs people have about themselves. Rogers had an idea of that people are aware of their self-concepts.
Comparison and Contrast
Psychodynamic and humanistic both are whole based on understanding of the human experience. humanistic and psychodynamic theories cannot be easily tested and Both use case study, interview and observation as their research method, psychologist Case study is in depth and takes a long time. it focuses on certain issues and provides detailed data. Interview is more personal and detailed but it is harder to generalise and observation would show person’s behaviour but you can’t control the object that is under observation.
Psychodynamic focuses on the past of an individual like childhood experiences or dream interpretation and from normal or abnormal of an individual from childhood to their adulthood whereas, Humanistic look at individual’s present and now and it allows an individual to express themselves without looking in to their past.
Psychodynamic approaches are completely based on Freud’s theory which was based on the unconscious mental forces; Id, Ego and Superego, with major emphasis on sexual and aggressive mental crisis. Id (we are born with Id and is an important part of our personality as a newborn and it allows us to gain our basic needs) .Ego (is based on reality principles, ego understands needs and desires and it starts after Id and exist from the age 3 to 6 years old), Superego (personality fully developed and starts after the age of 6 and is conscious about what is right and wrong) whereas Humanistic approaches believe that they are ahead of those basic drives of Id, Ego and Superego and Humanistic approach is different it emphasizes on the human qualities, especially freedom and for continued personal growth. In humanistic Psychologists focus on healthy people whereas psychodynamics focus would be troubled people .Freud’s theory can be used in criminology to explain crime or a criminal behaviour whereas humanistic focus would be free and healthy people.
In the nature-nurture debate, humanistic favour nurture because of their belief that everyone had a free-well and the uniqueness of an individual.