The effect of mindfulness based on cognitive therapy on body self-concept and unlogical beliefs in people who seek cosmetic surgery centers
The aim of the research was to investigate mindfulness based on cognitive therapy on body self-concept and unlogical beliefs in people who seek cosmetic surgery centers.
Research sample include 50 people who selected randomly.
(25pcontrol group, 20 people experimental group). They answered to research instrument such as back body self-concept questionnaire and Jonesunlogical beliefs questionnaire.Research method was pretest, post lest with control group. Following randomly selecting, each group passed pre-test and experimental intervention as independent variable which was 8 sessions lasted 90 minutes. Then post-test was used for each group. Manko covarianceanalyse was used to analyse the data. The results showed that mindfulness based on cognitive therapy inereade body self-concept and decreaseunlogical beliefs in people who seek cosmetic surgery centers in experimental group more than control group.
Cosmetics surgeryrotates to negative physical appearance description not to positive one.Researches showed that main factors appearance dissatisfaction, ideal appearance acquirance, sex, partner, income, suitable physical appearance. Base on behavioral cognition therapy, the degree of people evaluation from appearance depend on appearance pattern. (Park et.al 2009.Yossefi 2010). Pattern related to body image are used as cognition models to validate people appearance and body image emotions. Uglynes, imagination and seeking cosmetic surgury are as a result of people with unlogic beliefs such as inferior feeling show low self-as teem. (Aghakhani, 2011) physical self- concept or body self- description show people attitude to body ability and skills dimension such as body appearance, body fat, flexibility, harmony, endurance, power, …(Islam Nasab, 1994). It is believed that body self- concept has effect on total self-concept as a result people notice to his/her body. Every one has a mind imagination from his/her body which is most important factor to form his personality.Body imagination includes behavior, feeling and personal value, about himself. Totalinner feeling constitutes body imagination. Totally, body imagination is a set of body situation and it’s image in brain and other perception, attitude, feeling, personal reflection. In other words, people who seek cosmetic surgery centers have unlogical beliefs about themselves and social judgments. Unlogical beliefs have key role in many disorders such as depression, stress.(Ferri1999, translation. F Sahebi, Hamidpour,Andoze2003) according to Albert Alice conceptual, emotional and behavioral hypothesis, unlogical beliefs are key factors in people problems. Alice recognize many mental- behavioral disorders as unlogical beliefs, when people have unlogical and unintellectual beliefs and thinking, comfort to unlogical results. Which result in depression.In unlogical beliefs, people expect other approval and have extra expectation from themselves and experience blame, disability, unsuccessfulness, emotional disresponsibility, stress, depression towards change. (MOtamedian and Ebadi, 2007). It should be said that mindfulness based on cognitive therapy can decrease problems in these people. It is a psychological treatment which integrate Beck cognition therapy and stress reduction program base on Zine mindfulness (1990) and attract the focus on present time and create unjudgment awareness toward inner and outer experiences. It is a balance judgment which helps to see and accept emotions and physical events really. (Brown, 2003). mindfulness instruction leads to pain, depression and psychological distress reduction. (Staphin and Chavla, 2006) mindfulness based on cognitive therapy decrease stress, depression symptoms (Evans and Frando, 2008). Stress reduction instruction base an mindfulness has important role in physical, mental, emotional, intellectual improvement and leads to good sleeping and high quality life and low physical symptoms. (FlugelColl& Vincent, 2010) (Shapiro &Bootzin, 2013) (Kieviet-stijnen&Visser, 2008). It has shown that mindfulness increase instruction. (Kingeston&Chadwicka, 2007) mindfulness instruction along with meditation is one of treatments base on stress reduction and psychology in which thing mind representation in life is instructed by breathing and thinking, because it is out of human control. (Brad &Celork, 2009) The aim of mindfulness is changing thinking style to “being” method. The aim is to instruct a way by which people can comfort with their thinking and experiences differently. People who learn mindfulness skills, conside low value to self judgment and blame which cause negative thinkings and reflect with acceptance feeling.(Coiccen, 2010). As mentioned above, Kaviani et al., (2005) found in athat mindfulness based on cognitive therapy decrease depression, stress, unsuccessful attitude, unconscious feeling. Yavari (2013) showed in a research that cognition therapy increase body mind, self-concept and decrease obsessive rumination in people who nose cosmetic surgery. Lird (1999, Yosefi, 2010) states that people who have unlogical beliefs avoidance from problems. Hardin et al., (2011, Yavari, 2003) reported in a research that instruction measures in in behavioral cognition text decrease disturbance thinking and increase self-esteem and self-confidence. William (2012, Yavari, 2003) showed in a research that cognition therapy balances emotions in groups and decrease unlogical beliefs. As mentioned above, the aim is cognition therapy base on mind by which people inform from repeated mind function by uncouncissious surveillance, repeated practice to certain aim and focusing on neutral thing for example, thinking and seeing body emotions and feelings and thinkings by breathing. Therefore, it is important that whether mindfulness based on cognitive therapy effects on body self-concept and unlogical beliefs in people who seek cosmetic surgery centers in Kermanshah. Then research hypothesis are as below:
1. mindfulness based on cognitive therapy effects on body self-concept in people who seek cosmetic surgery centers.
2. mindfulness based on cognitive therapy effects on unlogical beliefs in people who seek cosmetic surgery centers.
In the research, semi-empirical field method was used included pretest, post test will control group. Statistical population included all people who seek cosmetic surgery centers which were 317 people. Randomly sampling is used to select samples. A list of people who seek cosmetic surgery centers was prepared in 5 centers. 100 people selected among 137 people based on Morgan table randomly. 50 people were selected due to low and high score in self-concept and unlogical beliefs questionnairs and placed in experimental and control groups randomly. (20 each groups)
A) Back self-concept test: It was used to valudate self-concept. It was prepared by Back and Stear (1978) base on cognition hypothesis which include 25 items. The test was scored base on Likert in continuum from 1 (completely negative) to 5 (completely positive). It minimal score was 25 and the maximum score was 125. Items 3, 10, 11, 19, 25 were scored adversely. (Rajaee, 2013) Back et al., (1985) reported correlation Rozenberg self-esteem questionnaire 55% in level 0.001 which representative of high correlation. Reliability of questionnaire was reported by -kronbakhcoefficient in 0.80. Rajaeereported reliability of questionnaire by cutting it in to parts and-kronbakh 0.16, 0.18 respectably. Reliability coefficient was obtained 0.81 by -kronbakh.
B) Jones unlogicalthinkings questionnaire: It was used to investigate unlogical thinking. It was prepared based on Albert Alic hypothesis which study unlogical. It have 100 items. Questionnaire was based on likert spectrum as 5 options, completely agreement (1) to compeletely disagreement (5). High score was representative of unlogicalthinking, low scow was representative logical thinkings. (Yosef, 2010). Jones (1968, Yosefi, 2010) reported validity as 0.92 and reliability of each a F 10 criteria were 0.66, 0.88. Mean reliability of each sub-criteria was 0.74. Yosefi (2010) obtained reliability coefficient 0.80, 0.81 by -kronbakh and Tonsif. In current research, reliability coefficient was obtained 0.84 by -kronbakh.
C) mindfulness based on cognitive therapy: The sessions included 8 sessions which lasted 90 minutes. Following introduction sessions, treatment protocol was administered. The sessions were as bellow:
session1, introduction representation, pretest administration, focus on breathing practice, conflicting practice and investing next week homework by example.
Session 2: Body investing and practice on it, last homework reviewing, define thinkings and feelings and their connection to patients and instruction to record ideal daily events.
Session 3: Instruction to see and listen, sitting in meditation state, body awareness and breathing and strong body feelings. Instruct to focus on body gestures by consciousness mind and walking it and preparing a table which records unideal events and new homework array.
Session 4: Recognize negative unconsciousness thinking domain and depression symptoms and its criteria.
Session 5: Sitting in meditation state and body, sounds, thinking awareness and focus on how we can relate to our experiences by reflection to feelings, thinking, emotions and body sense and their results on body.
Session 6: Instruct to change thinkings and temper to destroy false loops of thinkings and find away to connect with thinkings not direct reflection.
Session 7: Sitting in meditation state and last practice reviewing, writing a list of ideal functions which result in independency and embedding these functions in daily program.
Session 8: In last session, at first, practice of body investigating was done and positive, logical reason to continue practice were presented. At last,post-test was done.
Body self concept
Body self concept
Before hypothesis data analyzing, covariance infra structural prepositions are analysed. To bserve research variable variances equallness prepositions, lovin test is used.
Table 2: Lovin test results about variance equality proposition of research variables scores in two groups in society.
Freedom level 1
Freedom level 2
Freedom level 3
As we see in above table, lovin test isn’t meaningful in body self-concept and unlogical beliefs. Therefore variances homogeneity preposition is confirmed. Zero scores variances equality in all variables is confirmed.
Table 3: The result of multi-variable covariance analyse (Mankoa) on mean scores of physical self-concept and obsessive rumination post-test in control and experimental groups with pretest control.
Level of meaningful
Piliai effect test
Hetling effect test
Roy biggest root test
Table 4: Unilateral covariance analyse results in Mankula text in body self-concept and unlogical beliefs post test score mean in two groups with pre-test control.
The level of meaningful
The rate of effect
As we see in table 3, control of all tests meaningful level pre test show that there is a meaningful difference between people who seek cosmetic surgery centers control and experimental groups in spite one of dependence variables. (body self-concept and unlogical beliefs) (F=43.17, P<0.001). The rate of differences or effect is 0.88. In other words, 88% of personal differences in body self-concept and unlogicalbeliefs post test score relate to mindfulness based on cognitive therapy. As we shown in table 4, control of pre testshow that there is a meaningful difference between control and experimental groups in spite of body self-concept and unlogical beliefs. (F= 109.75, P<0.001) (F= 41.03, P< 0.001)
In other words, mindfulness treatment instruction base on cognition therapy increase body self-concept and decrease unlogical beliefs in experimental group according to table 1. The rate of difference or effect are 0.87, 0.61. In other words, 91 or 61 precent of personal differences in body self-concept and unlogical beliefs post-test score relate to mindfulness treatment instruction base on cognition therapy(MBCT).
Discussion and results
As we mentioned in last sections, the aim of the research was study of mindfulness based on cognitive therapy on physical self-concept and unlogical beliefs in people who seek cosmetic surgery centers. The result showed that mindfulness treatment increase body self-concept and decrease unlogical beliefs in people who seek cosmetic surgery centers. Kaviani et al (2005) fond in a research that cognition therapy method base on mind decrease depression, stress, inefficient, attitude, consciousness thinkings.Yavari (2011) showed in a research the cognition therapy increase mind and body self-concept and decrease unlogical beliefs in people who seek cosmetic surgery centers. Hardien et al (2011) reported in a research that instruction measures in cognition therapy decrease disturbance thinkings and increase self-esteem and self-confidence. Williams (2012) stated that cognition treatment base on mind decrease unlogical beliefs. To confirm the date, we can say that cognition mind base on cognition therapy helps people to be balance by focusing on present time and conscious cognition and decrease mind problems by accepting themselves and emotion really. This method along meditation and cognition decreases stress, depression symptoms and increases body imagination, personal feelings and values and creates positive self-concept from body imagination, decreases passive and negative thinkings. As a result, people report less negative evaluation which leads to low unlogical beliefs in people who seek cosmetic surgery centers. It should be careful because of sampling. Intervention variable about social-economical situation weren’t controlled and determined.