Liver is one of the most important organs of the human body

Liver is one of the most important organs of the human body. It performs many body functions essential to maintain homeostasis in the organism. Disruption of the hepatic functions is commonly takes place due to viral hepatitis, parasitic infection and intoxication with hepatotoxins.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a substantial worldwide health problem and a serious cause of liver inflammation, cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. (Angelico, 2011) Globally, not only about 170 million individuals are chronically infected with the virus and are at risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but also a number exceeds 350.000 patients pass away annually because of the virus. (Shepard, Finelli, & Alter, 2005) (Mohd, Groeger, Flaxman, & Wiersma, 2013).
(Bansal & Friedman, 2011) defined liver fibrogenesis as the natural wound healing response to a hepatic injury resulting from a chronic non-resolved inflammation accompanied with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including collagen to form a scar tissue in order to encapsulate the damaged area. Progressive liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis, liver failure, and portal hypertension and often requires liver transplantation (Friedman, S.L. 2003).
Evaluation of the degree of hepatic fibrosis (i.e. staging) is essential for several reasons: (1) to determine the prognosis of the chronic liver disease, (2) to select patients for specific anti-fibrotic treatment strategy, and (3) for monitoring the success of the treatment process. Liver biopsy specimens represent the most valuable material for the staging of hepatic fibrosis as well as the degree of necroinflammation. Despite that, it has some technical limitations related to sampling and interpretation with a significant risk. For this reason, there was an urgent need to develop simple and reliable noninvasive biomarkers to detect the progress of disease instead.

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