Introduction to Sikhism

Among all the religion found in the world, Sikhism is the youngest religion and is about 500 years old. This religion today has over 27 million people worldwide and is the world’s fifth largest religion. Sikhism was founded by the first Guru of the Sikhs, Siri GuruNanalDevJi. The following nine Gurus that succeeded the first Guru nurtured and developed his ideas and teachings. The tenth guru whom is also the last Guru of the Sikh, Sri Guru Granth SahibJi, brought to an end to the line of human Gurus and is installed as the permanent Guru of the Sikhs. The Holy Scriptures which included the writings of the Ten Gurus and their disciples only talks about one almighty god, WAHEGURU. The Sikhs do not believe in anything else, but their one and only god. However, the Sikhs have accepted that there are lots of names of God. Sikhs are taught to remain a free life and respect all religions.

The homeland of Sikhs is Khalistan and it means land of pure people. Currently it is under the rule of the Indian government. The Sikhs rebelled in 1984 to get independence from the Indian government to get freedom and a separate country. To stop the freedom movement, the Indian government mobilizes the army to attack Darbar Sahib, the holiest shrine of Sikhs under an operation called Operation Blue Star. The freedom movement is still active and the Sikhs are struggling to get the free country Khalistan.

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1.0 History

In Sikhism history, Women are considered low in society and were treated as a servant and nothing more than an entertainer. There were also considered as seducers and distraction of spiritual path, treated badly among men and women. Besides that, in marriage, the man is allow to remarry to another women and the women was not allowed to remarry and if they do, they rather burn themselves on her husbands’ funeral (Sati) as low rankings do not deserve another man and only one. Also, child marriage is quite popular that time. Child marriage means children were force to marry their chosen fiancee from the age of thirteen or so. Furthermore, women are not allowed to carry their family names and that causes the father of the family to throw baby girls into the streets.

However, everything changed during 1469-1708, when one of the ten gurus, Guru Nanak came here to the rescue. This happens when he found out that, many women is worthy equally on man. Thus, Guru Nanak plans to declare women are equal to man. Of course men disagree with this and therefore, Guru Nanak spoke wise words to settle them down, one of this hymns are:

From woman, man is born; within woman, man is conceived; to woman he is engaged and married. Woman becomes his friend; through woman, the future generations come. When his woman dies, he seeks another woman; to woman he is bound. So why call her bad? From her, kings are born. From woman, woman is born; without woman, there would be no one at all. O Nanak, only the True Lord is without a woman. That mouth which praises the Lord continually is blessed and beautiful. O Nanak, those faces shall be radiant in the Court of the True Lord.

Although, Guru Nanak words are logical and fair, the society only realized this after the guru passed away. Although he sacrifices his life, his effort was not wasted and thanks to his effort, women nowadays stand equally to men and were given opportunity to do the impossible from the past. Nowadays, many women participate in work, education even at the battlefield.

2.0 The 10 Gurus’
Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the first Sikh guru, was born in 1469 in Talwandi. Guru Ji was always ready to help the poor and he served food to them. In fact, Guru Ji often invited the needy and the poor into his house. Guru Nanak Dev Ji took four long journeys. On these journeys, Guru Ji got many followers and was able to relate his message to many people. When Guru Ji left this world at the age of 70, in 1539, he had laid down the foundations for a great religion.

(Guru Nanak Dev Ji also taught us that there is one God and he is the Truth and Ultimate Reality. God has created the universe and he is everywhere.)

Siri Guru Angad Dev Ji

Guru Angad was born in 1504 A.D. at Sarai Matta in Ferozepur district of the Punjab (India). Before becoming the Guru, his name was Lehna. When guru Angad Dev ji left this world, His soul crane-like flew crying in the midair for his Beloved that had passed the limit of the sky.A Months elapsed, and no one knew where Guru Angad of the people was.

(Like Guru Nanak, Guru Angad and the subsequent Gurus selected and appointed their successors by completely satisfying themselves about their mystic fitness and capacity to discharge the responsibilities of the mission.)

Siri Guru Amardas Ji

Guru Amar Das was born in 1479 at Basarke village in Amritsar District. He is the disciple of “Guru Angad Dev Ji” that who the second guru in Sikhism is. Guru Amar Das purchased some land in Goindwal and laid the foundation of a Bawli (a well with descending steps) in 1559. Guru Amar Das proclaimed, “God’s summons had come.A Let there be no mourning when I have gone. Sing God’s praises, read Gurbani, hear Gurbani and obey God’s will.”A In 1574, Guru Amar Das left for his heavenly abode and the spirit blended with the Master spirit.

(Guru Amar Das to believe that all persons, high or low, rich or poor, Brahmans or Sudras, king or the commoner, and Hindus or Muslims, must sit in the same row as equals to dine in the Guru’s langar.)

Siri Guru Ramdas Ji

Guru Ramdas was born in Lahore into a Sodhi Khatri family residing in Mohalla Chuna Mandi in 1534A.D. Guru Ram Das acquired land falling in tung, Gumlata and Sultan Wind villages in 1574 A.D. and started the digging of the tank. Guru Amar Das installed him as Guru in 1574 A.D. Guru Ram Das left his old headquarters at Goindwal.A After a few days He left this world in 1581.A

(Guru Ram Das started the digging work near Dukh Bhanjni Beri and the digging ofA the tank was taken up in 1586 A.D.)

Siri Guru Arjan Dev Ji

Guru Arjan was born in Goindwal, a small town in Amritsar district, in 1563. Guru Arjan Dev built another great temple some twelve miles away from Amritsar and called it Taran Taaran; otherwise Guru Arjan Dev was that interested people were passing compositions of their own as those of the Masters. But The Fifth and the Sixth Gurus had done nothing beyond the extension and development of the foundations laid and the organisation built by Guru Nanak.

Guru Har Gobin(1595-1644) -Justice

Guru Har Gobin, the son of Guru Arjan Dev ji, was the sixth of the ten Gurus of Sikhism. He was merely 11 years old when his father was matryed after being jailed, tortured while under arrest by Jehangir’s orders.

At the time of installation of Gurus, he asked Bapa Buddha ji to discard the tradition of donning with him with the Seli of Guru Nanak, instead, to be donned with 2 swords, explaining signified his “Miri” & “Piri”(“Temporal power & Spiritual power). Without mixing religion with politic, his Purpose was to take up the cause of exploited and defend against the oppression of rules.

He was the first of the Gurus who took up arms to defend the faith. He also introduced martial arts and weapon training and create a standing military force for the defense. Built the Akal Takhat(the first Takhat in the history) in 1608 , this Takhat seated with all the regal adornments of a Mugal or Hiddun Ruler. In here where he listened to the woes and complaints of people and issue edicts.

Guru Har Rai(1644-1661)-Mercy

Guru Har Rai was a man of peace, but he never disbanded sikh warriors (sainted soldier) but to continue the military traditions started by his grandfather Guru Har Gobind ji. He kept 2200 mounted soldiers at all times However, he never indulge himself in any political and armed controversy .

Guru’s son, Ram Rai, distorted Bani in front of Mughak Emperor Auzangzeb, he then decided to make his other son Guru at the age of only 5 age.

Guru Har Kishran(1661-1664)- Purity

Guru Har Krishan was the youngest Gurus because he was installed as a Guru at his age of 5 years, when his father Guru Har Rai nominated him instead of his elder son, Ram Rai. Auranzeb summoned him to Delphi after receive the complaint against him from Ram Rai. Guru Har Khrishan went Delphi even though He was instructed publicly by his father never meet Auranzeb personally.

When reach Delphi, Har Khrishan and his party were the guest of Raja Jai Singh, lot of Sikh devotee flocked to see the Guru. A smallpox Epidemic was raging in Delphi. He devoted his life for serving and healing people who suffer smallpox epidemic which result in many deaths in Delphi. The young Guru also began to attend the sufferers irrespective of cast and creed. Particularly, the local Muslim was much impressed with purely humanitarian deeds of this Guru Sahib, stop disturbing him and nicknamed him Bala Pir(Child Prophet). However, coming contact with many people every day, he too infected and taken seriously ill. He died at only age of eight.

Guru Tegh Bahadur(1665-1675)-Tranquility

Guru Tegh Bahadur was the eighth of the ten Gurus. He was the fifth and the youngest son of Guru Har Gobin. He was famous for built the city called Anandpur Sahib. He traveled extensively throughout India. He sacrificed his own life, facing down the Emperor Aurangzeb on behalf of the Kashmiri Hindus, ending Aurangzeb ‘s threat to them choosing to convert to islam or to be executed. He also contributed 115 hymns to the Sri Guru Grant Sahib.

He was a firm believer in the right of people to the freedom of worship. This had caused that he faced martyrdom for the defense of the down-trodden Hindus. So pathetic was the torture of Guru Tegh Bahadur that his Body had to be cremated clandestinely at Delphi while his severed head was secretly taken four hundred kilometers away to Anandpur Sahib for cremation. This is just because he refuse to convert to Islam a threatened forced conversion of the Hindus of Kashmir was thwarted.

Guru Gobin Singh (1675-1708)-Royal Courage

Guru Gobin Singh was the tenth and the last of the ten human form of guru. He became guru after martyrdom of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur at the age of 9. His teachings are very scientific and most suitable for all times. Unlike other prophets, he called himself a “slave” or a “servant of god”, and, he called all the people the sons of God sharing His Kingdom equally.

Guru Gobin Singh lived peacefully at Anandpur for his earlier life, practicing arms and exercises to complete his training as a soldier. He was good at Writing composition as well. He studied Persian and Sanskrit and engaged 52 poets to translate the Hindu Epics. He use what he had learned to translate stories of ancient heroes into Punjabi in order to create martial spirit among Sikh.He created the Khalsa in 1699, changing the Sikhs into a saint-soldier order with special symbols and sacraments for protecting themselves. He gave the Sikhs the name Singh (lion) or Kaur (princess).

Guru lost his family(father, mother and four sons) during the battles with Mughal Tyranny.He then wrote a letter(the Zafarnama) to Aurangzeb, in which he indicted the Grand Mughal with his treachery and godliness after the attacking against the guru and Sikhs were called off.Aurangzeb died after read the letter. The rightful heir of Mughal Throne Sought the Guru’s help in winning his kingdom. A sneak attack of the Pathan assasins of Wasir Khan who inflicted the wound which cause the Guru’s death.

3.0 Symbol of Sikh
The Khanda — the Sikh symbol

The Khanda is the main Sikh symbol. TheA KhandaA has been interpreted symbolically in many ways. One is:”The Sikh emblem, Khanda, contains a ring of steel representing the Unity of God, a two. It is composed of four items, all traditional Sikh weapons:

A vertical double edged sword with a broad blade, also called a Khanda.
Two curved swords, called kirpans. They are called miri and piri, after the names given to his personal kirpans by Guru Hargobind.
A ring called a chakker (aka chakram). It is a very effective weapon, with a range of up to 50 meters (165 feet). This has been popularized in North America by the television seriesA Xena the Warrior Princess.
Edged sword symbolizing God’s concern for truth and justice, and two crossed swords curved around the outside to signify God’s spiritual power.”A 4
Kesa (long hair, which is never cut).

BaptisedA SikhsA are bound to wear theA Five KsA (in Punjabi known asA panj kakkA“A orA panj kakA?r), or articles of faith, at all times. The tenth guru, Gobind Singh, ordered these Five Ks to be worn so that a Sikh could actively use them to make a difference to their own and to others’ spirituality. The 5 items are:A kA“sA (uncut hair),A kaa?…ghA?A (small comb),A kaa?›A?A (circular iron bracelet),A kirpA?n(dagger), andA kacchA?A (special undergarment). The Five Ks have both practical and symbolic purposes.[45]

Kacha (short pants)

InA Sikhism,A KeshA (sometimesA Kes) is the practice of allowing one’s hair to grow naturally as a symbol of respect for the perfection of God’s creation. The practice is one of theA Five Ks, the outward symbols ordered byGuru Gobind SinghA inA 1699A as a means to profess theA SikhA faith. The hair is combed twice daily with aA Kanga, another of the Five Ks, and tied into a simple knot known as aA Joora, orA Rishi knot. This knot of hair is usually held in place with the Kanga and covered by aA turban.

Kangah (comb)

TheA SikhsA were commanded byA Guru Gobind SinghA at theA BaisakhiA Amrit SancharA inA 1699A to wear asmall combA called a Kanga at all times. Kanga must be worn by all baptisedA SikhsA (Khalsa), after a mandatory religious commandment given byA Guru Gobind SinghA (the tenth Guru of Sikhism)A inA AD 1699. This was one of five articles of faith, collectively calledA KakarsA that form the external visible symbols to clearly and outwardly display one’s commitment and dedication to the order (Hukam) of the tenth master and become a member ofA Khalsa. The Khalsa is the “Saint-Soldier” of Guru Gobind Singh who stated the following:A “He does not recognize anyone else except One Lord, not even the bestowal of charities, performance of merciful acts, austerities and restraint on pilgrim-stations; the perfect light of the Lord illuminates his heart, then consider him as the immaculate Khalsa.”(Guru Gobind Singh in the Dasam Granth page 1350)

Kara (metal bracelet)

The kara is to constantly remind the Sikh disciple to do God’s work with the hands, keeping with theA advice given by the Guru. As the Sikhs’A holy textA theA Guru Granth SahibA says “In the tenth month, you were made into a human being, O my merchant friend, and you were given your allotted time to perform good deeds.”[2]A Similarly, BhagatA KabirA reminds the Sikh to always keep one’s consciousness withA God: “With your hands and feet, do all your work, but let your consciousness remain with the Immaculate Lord.”[3]

In India, warrior Sikhs are still seen wearing several karas of large sizes, designed to be used as a weapon in hand to hand combat.

KachchheraA (Punjabi:a?•a?›a©?a?°a??) orA KachchhaA (Punjabi:a?•a?›a??) are specially designed short,A shalwarA (pant-like), looseA undergarmentsA with a tie-knot (“nara” =A drawstring) worn byA baptizedA Sikhs.

It is one of the fiveA SikhA articles of faith, called theA Five Ks (a??a?‚a?? a?•a©?a?•a??a?°), and was given as a “gift of love” byA Guru Gobind SinghA at theA BaisakhiA Amrit SancharA inA 1699. Kachaera have been worn by baptizedSikhsA (Khalsa) since a mandatory religious commandment given byA Guru Gobind SinghA (the tenth Guru of Sikhism)A inA AD 1699. Both male and female Sikhs wear similar undergarments. This is one of five articles of faith-collectively called “Kakkars”-that form the external, visible symbols clearly and outwardly displaying one’s commitment and dedication to the order (Hukam) of the tenth master.

Kirpan (a ceremonial dagger)

TheA KirpanA (English pronunciation:A /kE?E™rE?pE‘E?n/;A Punjabi:A a?•a??a?°a??a??a??A kirpA?n) is a sword or dagger carried by manyA Sikhs. According to a mandatory religious commandment given byA Guru Gobind SinghA (the tenth Guru of Sikhism)A at theA BaisakhiA Amrit SancharA (a holy religious ceremony that formally baptizes a Sikh) inA CE 1699, all baptisedA SikhsA (Khalsa) must wear a kirpan at all times.

Prohibitions of Sikhism
Cutting hair

Cutting hair is strictly forbidden in Sikhism. Sikhs are required to keep unshorn hair. This is because Sikhs believe that long hair as a beautiful part of their bodies. Besides that, Sikhs must always wash their hair due to maintain cleanliness.

Without wear turban

For Sikhs people, they must wear the turban no matter is male or female. This is because this religion was founded over 500 years ago, only wealthy men wore turbans as a sign of status and many kings wore turbans. Since Sikhs have believed in the equality of all people since the creation of their religion, all Sikhs wear the turban as a sign of equality.

Cannot consume intoxication

Sikhs cannot consume alcohol, drugs, tobacco is not allowed due to alcohol can slow down nervous system that causes damaging their ability to respond appropriately.


Sikhs must faithful and loves each other and try to reduce conflict among each other even though are different cultures or races.

Eating meat

Sikhs cannot eat meat because the meat is offered to God only. Therefore, Sikhs must consume vegetarian. Besides that, they strictly prohibited from eating meat killed in a ritualistic manner.

Sikh Festivals
Birthday of Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Guru Nanak Dev Ji is the founder of Sikhism; celebrate on November 24 every year. Before his birthday, Akhand Path which is read Guru Granth Sahib in 48 hour non-stop that held in Gurdwara (Sikhs temple). On that day, the program or activity is begins early in the morning about 4 am. In this program, they would sing the Asa-di-Var (morning hymns) and hymns from the Sikh scriptures followed by Katha (expositon of scripture) and lectures and recitation of poems in the praise of Guru. Then, celebration will until about 1 to 2 pm.


Lohri is Punjabi winter harvest festival acts as a Hindu winter celebration which is celebrates on January 13. In the morning on Lohri day, children will go from door to door singing and demanding Lohri “loot” such as seeds, peanuts, jiggery, or sweets and so on.


Vaisakhi known as Baisakhi is an ancient harvest festival in Punjab region which marks beginning of new solar year. Vaisakhi is celebrated on April 13. Baisakhi is aA SikhA religious festival.A It falls on the first day of theA BaisakhA month in the solarNanakshahi calendar, which corresponds to April 13 in theA Gregorian calendar.


Sikhs also celebrate Diwali popularly known as Festival of Lights. It is an important 5-day festival in Hinduism,A SikhismA andA Jainism, celebrate between mid-October and mid-November. The name of Diwali which translate into row of lamps that involves the lighting of small clay lamps (diyas) filled with oil to signify the triumph of good over evil.

The Skih Ceremonies

All the Sikh Ceremonies like birth, baptism, marriage and death are held in simple, inexpensive and religious manner. The presence of holy Guru Granth Sahib is very important to every ceremony performance. And of course, singing of hymns, Ardas or a formal prayer cannot be excluded in the ceremonies. Other than that, Hukamnama, a random reading from the Guru Granth Sahib is also presented as the oder of the day. Every guest will be given Karah Parshad, some sacred pudding made from flour, butter, sugar and water as well as langar. Sikhs no longer seek blessing from god and renew the spirit of devotion and service.

Besides that, some major Sikh Ceremonies must be held in certain time, Naam Karan (Naming Ceremony), Dastar Bandi, Marriage Ceremony, Amrit Sanchar (Baptism) and Funeral/Death Ceremony.

Naam Karan (Naming Ceremony)


Mool MantraNaming Ceremony, an important ceremony held after a child is born. This happens when the child and the mother are in good health, they will go to the Gurdwara with their family, relatives and friends for the naming ceremony. The Granthi or the senior member of the congregation stirs water and sugar crystals in a bowl with a ‘Khanda’ placed in front of the Guru Granth Sahib while reading the ‘Mool Mantra’ (the basic belief of the Sikhs and it begins the Sri Guru Granth Sahib) and the first five verses of the ‘Japji Sahib’. The holy water is mainly dedicated for the child, but just a few drops are given to the child, the remaining is given to the mother. Finally, hymns are recited to bless the child.

Dastar Bandi

This is a very important event when a Sikh boy is ready to start tying the turban. The Granthi will explain why the turban is needed to be tied on the head.

Amrit Sanchar (Baptism)

Baptism brings the best or worst to the Sikhs, it can help the Sikhs in life if the Baptism is done in a proper and complete manner. This is the initiation ceremony for the Sikhs to become a true Khalsa (purified or chosen one). It is something like Christian at confirmation acquires full membership of the Sikh brotherhood. As the ceremony culminates in the drinking ofA Amrit (specially prepared sweet Holy water) so the term ‘Amrit-dhari Sikh’ is often used. However, a Sikh should only take Amrit when he or she is mature enough to realize the nature of the obligations he or she has chosen to accept.

Marriage Ceremony

The Sikh marriage is also one of the most important ceremonies in Sikhs life. The Sikh marriage is also known as ‘Anand Karaj’ which means the ceremony of joy. Normally the wedding is held in the morning in a Gurdwara. The groom will be dressed in fine clothes and accompanied by his family and friends. Then he will head to Gurdwara Sahib where the bride’s family and friends receive them. After certain ceremony called Milni ceremony where close relatives of the couple garland each other in a spirit of goodwill, some refreshments are said to be done. Then everyone enters the Gurdwara congregation hall where bride sits alongside the groom facing the Guru Granth Sahib Ji. A short prayer is meant to be done then the wedding ceremony begins and the Ragees sing the hymn of ‘Palla’ which is groom’s scarf. The bride’s father hands the Palla over the bride’s hands which is symbolizing of giving away the bride. After a long run, the ceremony is followed by ‘Lavaan’, the wedding ceremony. Itself consists of four verses. The first verse is recited by the Granthi while the couple sits next to each other. Then the Ragees sing the same verse and the couple walk gracefully clockwise around the Guru Granth Sahib the bride following the groom. Same way the other three verses are recited. The six verses of ‘Anand Sahib’ (the hymns of joy) are then sung followed by the Ardas. Order of the day is read from Guru Granth Sahib Ji followed by the distribution of Karah Parshad. Usually, lunch is always provided by the bride’s family and there is also a reception held later in the evening in a hall.

Funeral/Death Ceremony

Sikhs are very easygoing and simple in this kind of funeral ceremonies. They do not tend to spending too much money or resources on this sort of ceremonies as this is their basic custom. When a Sikh passes away, firstly the body is taken to be washed and cleaned up and finally dressed with new clothes. Then the body is carried to the cremation ground in procession. Meanwhile, appropriate prayers are said before the funeral pyre to smoothen the Sikh’s death path. Then the body will be lit by close relatives. There is a crematorium built in Britain for this purpose. Later, the cooled ashes will be collected and immersed into or presented to natural running water- a river.

Until this stage, the ceremony is not complete yet. To complete to ceremony, either in the home or in the Gurdwara, the daily reading of the Holy Granth begins. This runs continuously in about ten days. When all the 1430 pages have been read, the final service is held. Relatives and friends gather to join in the final prayers. TheA Kara ParshadA (holy food) is served and the people disperse. This marks the end of mourning.

The Sikh Marriage

For Sikhs, marriage is not merely a physical and legal contract but is a holy union between two souls where physically they appear as two individual bodies but in fact they are united as one. Like what has been mentioned earlier, the Sikh marriage ceremony is known as Anand Karaj meaning ‘blissful union’.

According to Sikhism, when a girl attains certain maturity, her parents are obligatory to find a match for her. It is neither desirable nor proper to marry a girl at tender age. The daughter of a Sikh should marry a Sikh. If a man is a Sikh believer, is humble by nature, and earns his bread by honest means, with him matrimony may be contracted without a question and without consideration for wealth and riches.

As Sikh marriages are usually arranged, so they have different views from the people from other cultures. They do not interpret ‘arranged’ as forcing man or woman into wedlock of parents’ choice only. It is also about agreeing to marriage proposed by mutual discussion between the man’s and the woman’s family. This is to select the right partner with the approval of all. Most importantly, the man and woman themselves must get to know each other to convey their agreement to their parents.

Last but not least, no Sikh marriage is regarded as truly complete unless the bride and groom present themselves before theA Holy GranthA and are blessed by the Guru, as well as by the congregation or the families present.

8.0 Roles and status of Sikh women

In fourteenth century, before Sikhism was founded by Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Indian women were looked down at by society. They were given no education, and they only function to give birth, do housework and serve men. Female infanticide, the act of killing a female baby, was common as the men of the family considered them useless and an embarrassment to the family. Sati, which is the act of burning a widow alive with her husband’s body was encouraged and sometimes forced.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji shocked the entire society by preaching that women were equal to men and should be treated in such way. Guru Nanak Dev Ji conveys this through his scripture as follows:

“Man is born from a woman; within woman, man is conceived; to a woman he is engaged and married. Man is friends with woman; through woman, the future generations exist. When his woman passes away, he seeks another woman; to a woman a man is bound. So why call her bad? From her, kings are born. From a woman, woman is born; without woman there would be no one at all” (Guru Granth Sahib Ji, 473).

Thus, in Sikhism, all men and women have equal status, all human beings are only judged by their deeds, not their race or gender. Women were encouraged and allowed to join in religious and social activities. They were given freedom of speech and were also allowed to read the Guru Granth Sahib (the holy scripture of Sikhism).

Famous Women in Sikhism

The first famous woman in Sikhism is the mother of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Mata Tripta Ji. It is said that she meditated while carrying the child Nanak. She brought him up with love, and also protected him from his father Mehta Kalu.

The elder sister of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Bebe Nanaki Ji, is also another famous woman in Sikhism. She supported her brother throughout her life and gave him respect as she would a Guru. She was an intelligent and spiritual woman who recognised her brother’s divine light before anyone else could.

9.0 Sikh’s Sacred Places
Harmandir Sahib

The Harmandir Sahib, informally known as The Golden Temple because it is partly made from gold, is the most sacred shrine of the Sikhs. It is located in the city of Amritsar, India (Northern Punjabi). The name Harmanidir Sahib literally means temple of God.

The Golden Temple in built in the centre of a large lake of water. The sacred pool of water around the Golden Temple is also known as Sarovar. It is a place where Sikhs perform Isnaan, which means to bathe, cleanse and purify.

The Golden Temple has been constructed with four doors which is different from traditional Indian temples. This signifies that everyone is allowed in the temple regardless of race and gender.

There are two forms of contribution all Sikhs had in the construction of the temple: Voluntary labour and a donation of ten percent of their income. These traditions are still kept alive till today as Sikhs contribute towards the improvement of their Gurdwara (Sikh temples).

Anandpur Sahib

The city of Anandpur Sahib, informally known as the holy city of Bliss, is the holy city of the Sikhs; it is an important and sacred place for the Sikhs. It is located on the lower spurs of the Himalayas.

Guru Gobind Singh ji spent almost 25 years staying at Anandpur Sahib. It is famously known as the place where five Sikhs voluntarily gave their heads to Guru Gobind Singh ji, which shows the values of self-abnegating and bravery.

The city mainly comes to life during Hola Mohalla, a Sikh festival celebrated to remember the courage of the Sikhs in fighting the enemies of Sikh. It is also a community festival that brings people together.

10.0 History Of The Golden Temple

The Golden Temple of Amritsar is located in India. This temple is one of the most ancient and brilliant piece of engineering of all time. Amritsar is also under one of the main cities in India There is about five thousand sq. km and a total population of about 2.5 million. The main language that is spoken in this place is Hindi or English while the average temperature of this city is about 30 to 46 degree Celsius every day of the year. The temple was founded in the year 1574 by the fourth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Ramdas and completed by his successor Guru Arjan Dev. The land for the temple was bought by guru ramdas for only 700 rupees at that time from the owner of the village Tung. (Earlier Guru Ram Das Sahib had begun building Santokhsar Sarovar, near erstwhile village of Sultanwind in 1564 {according to one source in 1570}.

The temple is also known as the Shri Darbar Shaib, it is in the center of the old part of Amritsar. The Golden Temple sits on a rectangular platform, surrounded by a pool of water called the Amrit Sarovar

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