Dang Su Rene
The research shows that the intervention of Stroop effect affects the time taken in completing the color naming task. To do this experiment, 248 participants were randomly selected which are half of the participants are Chinese speaking and another half are non-Chinese speaking. The two type of participants will took this experiment. Their result were recorded and shows that non-Chinese speaking took a little longer time to identify the color of round shapes, neutral words, incongruent color words and related words compared to Chinese speaking. However, their results turn out to be very competitive. In contrast, participants who are Chinese speaking they understand Chinese incongruent word and this causes them take time to identify it.
“Stroop effect” is discovered by John Ridley Stroop was first publish in 1935 in an article. This effect is a study of an intervention that the brain’s reaction time of a task. However, the misapply of interference or inhibition has given the physiologist to begin the investigation on experimental literature and has perpetuate to the present by psychologists. Many studies had been published but only several reports captured the psychologist attention.
Stroop (1935) was the original Stroop Experiment that studied the speed in naming the ink color and the nature of stimulus which is round shape versus incongruent color words. It illustrates the nature of automatic processing versus visual awareness control. The results showed that the speed in naming the ink color of incongruent color words were slower compared to round shapes. The conclusion was stated were due to interference effect.
After a short time, there is two alternative explanation for the Stroop Effect have been suggested which is relative speed of processing argument and automaticity account.
The relative speed of argument theory was proposed by John Morton (1969). Both reading and color naming are accomplished in parallel. When it is complete at the same time, word reading is faster and therefore interferes with color naming in the race for verbal output.
Schiffrin and Schneider (1977) came up automaticity account theory that suggested the two cognitive attentional processes are automatic processes and controlled processes. They illustrate the differences between the automatic and the controlled. Automatic task requires less attention, difficult to interrupt and it is a task that we are practiced at. In contrast, controlled task requires more attention, interrupt easily and new tasks is given. Therefore, the Stroop Effect happens when an automatic process disrupts a controlled process and this may causes changes after practicing at naming colors.
Dalrymple-Alford (1972) considered the variation of the Stroop Effect which includes some conditions. The conditions was to have shapes, color related words and non color-related words. As a result, he concluded that more interference for color related word.
Ami (2012) studied that conventional theories of the Stroop effect propose that faster color categorization on congruent trials parallel to incongruent trials is caused by channel interaction. In other words, information from the unrelated word channel disrupts processing of the print color, in turn triggers the deceleration process of incongruent displays.
Karthikeyan, Murugappan, & Yaacob (2014) studied the results shows that notable changes between the normal and stressed states are more apparent with categorization accuracy.
The aim is to display the interference in the response time of a task. Therefore, the current research helps us understand that the participants will take longer time to identify color for incongruent color words (Sheet C) compared to color shapes (Sheet A) and color neutral words (Sheet B). Participants who are Chinese speaking will take longer time to identify color for Chinese-incongruent color words (Sheet E) compared to those non-Chinese speaking. Participants will take longer time to identify color for color related words (Sheet D) compared to color neutral words (Sheet B).
248 participants were randomly selected from college mates, relatives, friends and acquaintances that were recruited by the researcher. The participants are aged between 16-50 years old. In addition, half of the participants are Chinese speaking and another half are non-Chinese speaking. The participants should not be color blind and must be literate in English.
Construct 5 test sheets and a practice sheet of A4 paper. Color pencils or color markers are to be used for the 5 test sheets and practice sheet. A timer is used to record the duration of the experiment.
Before the experiment starts, the researcher has chosen a suitable location where the participants can be seated with minimal distractions. Participants are also given a consent form to sign. Each consent form contains the participant’s signature and the date they did the experiment.
Next, the instructions and the experimental conditions were explained to the participants by the researcher. The 5 pages of test sheet with objects or words that are written in different colors were not shown to the participants. The participants were required to name aloud the color of the objects or words as fast as they can. However, if the participants named it wrongly, they are alerted by the researcher and required to repeat the color of the object or word again.
After that, the researcher showed the participants the practice sheet that consist one example from the 5 test sheets to make sure that they understand the instructions. Otherwise, the researcher will repeat the explanation to them until they get to understand it. Then, show them the 5 test sheets which are Sheet A, B, C, D and E one at a time. Meanwhile, the time that the participants took to complete the task was tabulated by the researcher.
According to the experiments, most of the participants who are Chinese speaking react faster than the participants who are non-Chinese speaking. The table below is regarding to complete color naming task which is sheet A,B,C,D and E are round shape, color neutral words, incongruent color words, color-related words and Chinese incongruent color words.
Table 1 show that the participants who are Chinese speaking take a longer time to finish test sheet E which is Chinese incongruent color words than those who are non-Chinese speaking. In contrast, the participants who are Chinese speaking spent significantly less time on the color naming task than the participants who are non-Chinese speaking. Overall, my hypothesis was that the participants will take longer to identify Sheet C compared to Sheet A and B. Chinese speaking participants will spent longer time to identify Sheet E compared to those non-Chinese speaking. Participants will take longer time to identify Sheet D compared to Sheet B. My results do support my hypotheses.
Table 1. Time Taken (In Seconds) to Complete Color Naming Task
Figure 1. Time taken (In Seconds) to Complete Color Naming Task
The result showed a significant effect of the participants in completing color naming task were found in this study that the participants who are Chinese speaking take a longer time to finish test sheet E which is Chinese incongruent color words than those who are non-Chinese speaking. In contrast, the participants who are Chinese speaking spent significantly less time on the color naming task than the participants who are non-Chinese speaking.
This result is in line with previous research and it supports my hypotheses of this study. In the past research they do not have Chinese incongruent color words and the participants who are Chinese speaking. According to the past research, the findings of Stroop (1935) studied that the speed in naming ink color are affected by nature of stimulus. Morton (1969) also concluded that word reading is faster and therefore interferes with color naming in the race for verbal output. Dalrymple-Alford concluded that the results are more interference for color related words.
Dalrymple-Alford,E.C. (1972). Sound similarity and color word interference in the stroop task. Psychonomic Science, 28, 209-210.
Ami, E. (2012), Independent race of color and word can predict the stroop effect. Australian Journal Of Psychology, 64 , 189-198.
Karthikeyan, P. , Murugappan, M. & Yaacob, S. (2014). Analysis of Stroop Color Word Test-Based Human StressDetection using Electrocardiography ad Heart Rate Variability Signals. Arabian Journal for Science & Engineering (Springer Science & Buisness Media B.V.), 39, 1835-1847
Morton, J. (1969). Categories of interference: Verbal mediation and conflict in card sorting. British Journal of Psychology, 60, 329-346.
Shiffrin, R.M. & Schneider, W. (1977). Controled and automatic human processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending and a general theory. Psychology Review, 84, 127-190.
Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies in interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643-662.