Indoor Positioning System
Final Year Project Thesis
Engr. Fahad Iqbal
Assistant Professor, DUET
Aqsa Saleem D-15-CS-04
Samia Asif D-15-CS-20
Aneesa Shaikh D-15-CS-26
Vikram Kumar D-15-CS-24
BATCH – 2015
COMPUTER SYSTEM ENGINEERING
DAWOOD UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
Indoor Positioning System
B.E Computer System
INTERNAL ADVISOR EXTERNAL ADVISOR
Engr. Fahad Iqbal Engr. Faizan Saleem
Assistant Professor Asstant Professor
Computer System Engineering Telecommunication Engineering
1. Aneesa Shaikh (Group Leader) D-15-CS-26
2. Samia Asif D-15-CS-20
3. Vikram Kumar D-15-CS-24
4. Aqsa Saleem D-15-CS-04
Department of Computer Systems Engineering,
Dawood University of Engineering and Technology
This is to certify, such an effort shown in view of this project report on “Indoor Situating System Application” is plenarily reported by the following students themselves under the supervision of Engr. Fahad Iqbal.
Aneesa Shaikh (Group Leader) D-15-CS-26
Vikram Kumar D-15-CS-24
Samia Asif D-15-CS-20
Aqsa Saleem D-15-CS-04
INTERNAL ADVISOR EXTERNAL ADVISOR
Engr. Fahad Iqbal Engr. Faizan Saleem
Assistant Professor Assistant Professor
Computer System Engineering Telecommunication Engineering
Dr. SALEEM PHUL
Department Of Computer System Engineering
Dawood University of Engineering and Technology
Department Of Computer System Engineering
Submitted in the partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelors of Computer System Engineering
We would relish to thanks first of all the Almighty Allah who make us able to reach at this caliber and then our supervisor Engr. Maria Abdullah for his guidance and support throughout the whole project.
There are technologies utilized in Indoor situating systems (IPS) to locate objects in indoor environments such as sensors and communication technologies. IPS becomes the essentiality at the sizably voluminous level because there is an astronomically immense market opportunity for applying these technologies. There are many antecedent surveys on indoor situating systems; however, most of them lack a solid relegation scheme that would structurally map a wide field such as IPS, or omit several key technologies or have a constrained perspective; conclusively, surveys rapidly become obsolete in an area as dynamic as IPS. The goal is to provide a technological perspective of indoor situating systems, comprising a wide range of technologies and approaches. Further, we relegate the subsisting approaches in a structure in order to guide the review and discussion of the different approaches. Determinately, we present a comparison of indoor situating approaches and present the evolution and trends that we presage.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION
1.1 PROJECT BACKGROUND 1
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT 3
1.3 REASEARCH OBJECTIVES 4
1.4 SCOPE OF RESEARCH 5
1.5 RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE 5
CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION 6
2.2 WHAT IS ANDROID? 7
2.3 WHAT IS ANDROID PHONE? 7
2.3.1 ANDROID TABLETS 8
2.3.2 ANDROID HISTORY 8
2.3.3 ANDROID ARCHITECTURE 14
2.3.4 LINUX KERNEL 15
2.3.5 ANDROID RUNTIME 15
2.3.6 LIBRARIES 15
22.214.171.124 ANDROID LIBRARIES 16
126.96.36.199 C/C++ LIBRARIES 17
2.3.7 HARDWARE ABSTRACTION LAYER 17
2.3.8 JAVA APPLICATION FRAMEWORK 17
2.4 SYSTEM APPS 18
2.4.1 ANDROID APPLICATION 18
2.4.2 TABLETS V/S SMARTPHONES 19
2.4.3 CURRENTLY USED APP EXAMPLES 20
2.4.4 EVOLUTION OF FIRST ANDROID 21
2.4.5 SECRET OF SUCCESSFUL APP BRANDS 22
2.5 MOBILE APPLICATION MARKET 22
2.5.1 EXISTING MOBILE APPLCATION MARKET 22
2.5.2 MOBILE BANKING CONCEPTUAL 23
2.5.3 MOBILE BANKING SERVICES 24
2.5.4 FUTURE FUNCTIONALITIES IN MOBILE BANKING 25
2.5.5 CHALLENGES FOR MOBILE BANKING SOLUTION 26
188.8.131.52 HANDSET OPERABILITY 26
184.108.40.206 SECURITY 27
220.127.116.11 SCALABILITY AND RELIABILITY 28
18.104.22.168 APPLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION 28 22.214.171.124 USER ADOPTION 28 126.96.36.199 PERSONALIZATION 28
2.6 PAKISTAN FIRST ANDROID/MOBILE BANKING APP 29
2.7 REVIEW ON EXISTING METHODS 29
2.8 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WITH EXISTING METHOD 30
2.8.1 CURRENT WORKING SYSTEM 30
2.8.2 CURRENT SYSTEM OF MEEZAN BANK 30
2.8.3 DENSITY OF A BRANCH 30
2.8.4 DENSITY FOR TOTAL NETWORK 31
CHAPTER 3 – BANKING STRUCTURE
3.1 ABOUT MEEZAN BANK 32
3.2 SERVICES OF MEEZAN BANK 32
3.3 HISTORY OF MEEZAN BANK 32
3.4 WORKFLOW OF MEEZAN BANK 34
3.5 SAMPLES OF REPORTS 35
3.6 PICTORIAL ILLUSTRATION OF MEEZAN BANK 37
CHAPTER 4 – PROPOSED METHOD
4.1 PLANNING AND EXECUTION OF PROJECT (GANTT CHART) 38
4.2 PROPOSED METHOD 38
4.3 APPLICATION LEVEL BLOCK DIAGRAM 39
4.4 FLOW CHART 40
4.5 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS 41
4.6 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 41
4.6.1 ANDROID STUDIO 41
4.6.2 ANDROID SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT KIT 41
4.6.3 ANDROID DEVELOPMENT TOOLS 42
4.6.4 XML 42
4.6.5 JAVA 42
4.6.6 MYSQL DATABSE 42
4.7 WEB SERVICES 43
3.7.1 COMPONENTS OF WEB SERVICES 43
4.8 SERVERS 43
4.8.1 WAMP SERVER 43
4.8.2 MEEZAN BANK IBM PORTAL 43
188.8.131.52 DYNAMIC FILL EXPERIENCE/UI FRIENDLY 44
184.108.40.206 SIMPLE CREATION 44
220.127.116.11 ADAPTIVE 44
18.104.22.168 EXTENSIBLE 44
22.214.171.124 FLEXIBLE INTEGRATION 44
4.9 NETWORK REQUIREMENT 44
4.9.1 3G NETWORK 44
4.9.2 4G NETWORK 45
4.9.3 WIFI NETWORK 45
4.10 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS MODEL 45
4.11 MANUAL DOCUMENTATION 46
4.11.1 MOBILE APP 46
4.11.2 WEB PANEL 47
4.12 PICTORIAL ILLUSTRATION OF BSO/BDO APPLICATION 48
4.13 PICTORIAL ILLUSTRATION OF BM APP 49
4.14 UML ACTIVITY DIAGRAMS 50
4.15 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF PROJECT 54
CHAPTER 5 – RESULT AND DISCUSSION
5.1 TESTING 55
5.2 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT TESTING 55
5.3 TESTING OF APPLICATIONS USER INTERFACE 58
5.4 TESTING OF WEB PANEL USER AND APP CNNECTION 62
5.5 RESULT 66
5.6 DISCUSSION 66
CHAPTER 6 – CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
6.1 CONCLUSION 67
6.2 FUTURE DIRECTION 67
6.3 FUTURE OF APPLICATION RATHER THAN MEEZAN BANK 68
REFERNCES 69 APPENDIX 72
ACTUAL DATABASE TABLES 72
REPORTS GENERATED FROM DATABASE 76
CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION
1.1 Project Background
An indoor positioning system (IPS) is a system to locate objects or people inside a building using lights, radio waves, magnetic fields, acoustic signals, or other sensory information collected by mobile devices. There are several commercial systems on the market, but there is no standard for an IPS system.
Indoor positioning systems can determine location, many need additional information to determine which way a person or object is facing. That can make providing directions or pitching a product in a store more challenging.
In 2011 we (Alexey and Oleg) initiated this idea of Indoor Mapping. By 2013 we have completed a minimal product and started sales. Starting from 2014 we participated in several accelerator programmers followed by an International expansion in 2015 by establishing an office at Berlin. In 2016 we joined accelerator programme in New York called Strata Accelerator Programme and we are also part of HealthBox Accelerator Programme at Los Angeles. Now we have presence in USA, Europe and Russia with an International scope right now.
“GPS gets you to the shopping mall but doesn’t work inside,” says Roger McKinley, a navigation specialist and former president of the UK’s Royal Institute of Navigation. “The signals are weak and the receiver has no hope of finding four signals, which have not been bounced around. So other forms of positioning are needed.”
A recent report from the research firm Markets and Markets estimates the indoor location market – which includes indoor navigation as well as indoor data tracking (such as how long someone spends in a specific store in the mall) – will be worth $41 billion by 2022. Another report, from Opus Research, estimated that, as of 2014, there were some 200 startups working on indoor navigation systems.
These systems utilize a variety of different technologies, from Wi-Fi to radio waves to magnetic fields. It’s not yet clear which, if any, technology will become ascendant. Many current systems rely on Wi-Fi or on Bluetooth beacons installed around a given building, which can communicate with a user’s phone and offer authentic-time directions homogeneous to GPS
IPS are magnetizing scientific and enterprise interest because there is an immensely colossal market opportunity for applying these technologies. The goal of indoor situating systems, comprising a wide range of technologies and approaches. Indoor Navigation is an emerging field which is expected to grow at a more expeditious pace than any other navigation applications.
Basically outdoor positioning is well established. When we started our company we understood that outdoor navigation is quite well-defined and the next step is to include similar functions in indoors. We spend 80% of our time indoors as buildings become bigger and bigger the need for indoor navigation is larger.
We usually get floor plans from the owners of the building and upload these floor plan into Navigine back-end where we can set up different layers on top of the map. For navigation, we have to set up beacon layer and then we can immediately get navigation through our application and by integrating the SDK into the mobile application we will be able to get navigation inside any third-party mobile app.
1.2 Problem Statement
Obtaining position information in indoor environments is concretely challenging because of several reasons: errors by multipath and Non-Line-of-Optical discernment (NLoS) conditions, presence of moving people that modify the indoor propagation channel, more preponderant density of obstacles that cause a high attenuation and signal scattering, ordinant dictation of a higher precision .indoor environments are more intricate as there are sundry objects (such as walls, equipment, and people) that reflect signals and lead to multipath and delay quandary.
indoor situating applications require a higher precision in comparison with alfresco situating applications in order to deal with relatively minuscule areas and subsisting obstacles.
It is intricate to implement.
it requires precise time synchronization of all the contrivances which is high cost.
It requires some prior erudition to eliminate the position ambiguity,
it is affected by multipath of signals .
It requires supplemental antennas with the capacity to quantify the angles which increases the cost of the AOA( advent of angle) system implementation, it is affected by multipath and NLOS propagation of signals, and reflections from walls and other objects.
Due to these factors, it can significantly transmute the direction of signal advent and thus degrade the precision , AOA calculations are very susceptible to range.
As the distance from the source increases, the position precision decreases.
Esse of obstacles indoors may cause the different attenuation coefficient for RF signals. So the establishment of precise indoor propagation model is very arduous.
building site survey is time-consuming, labor intensive, and facilely affected by environmental dynamics
1.3 Research Objectives
To evaluate the level of service quality and customer satisfaction by providing an efficient technology.
Indoor localization system is a system that endeavors to find the precise position of the person and object inside a building, mall, etc.
The localization systems endeavor to identify the position of moving contrivances with the avail of some fine-tuned nodes and some mobile computing contrivances. The position information can be utilized for navigating, tracking , monitoring etc.
To introduce a real time system that provides an efficient way to find the easiest path.
It is the most precise technique, which can lter out multipath effects in the indoor situations
To improve speed and efficiency of current working system and to minimize time lapses.
1.4 Scope of Research
The proposed software product is the Android based indoor positioning system Application. It is not limited to the marts only. The system can be used in any hospitals, Pathology labs, Clinic to get the information from the customer and then storing that data for retrieving future usage.
GPS is the most widely used satellite predicated situating system, which offers maximum coverage. GPS cannot be deployed inside buildings, because:
(1)It requires line-of-optical discernment transmission between receivers and satellites which is not possible in indoor environment.
(2)It requires clear welkin-view for opportune working,
(3Cost of GPS contrivance is high for Wireless Indoor Localization Systems and Techniques: Survey
(4)GPS signals are not available in confined environment or high elevate buildings. Our research will definitely contribute a lot in solving problem regarding time, efficiency, speed and many more. It will provide a platform for the users where they can update their routines, appointments, meetings and transactions done instantly in the database. This application provides many features that are quite useful and beneficial for the end-user.
Android based application is particular software system that will currently introduce only for the specific location. Later on, it can be used by other locations.
1.5 Research Significance
Project has number of applications which gives prove to its significance some of them are listed.
Time lapses has been reduced.
Data traffic on the servers is reduced.
Systematic manner of representing the information.
Database can be viewed and updated via android phones.
Report generation becomes easy.
Maintain proper scheduling (Date & Time) of the information inserted or retrieved.
More customer must be access the location in less time
CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW
Android app development has become an important thing for businesses today because android technology has spread all around the world in no time. People are buying smart phones like the speeds of horses. Many people cannot supposed to even imagine one day without their favorite mobile device. We use them for almost everything: finding information, stay connected with our friends and families, finding the way around, deciding what to do and many other things. Even smartphones have reduced the usages of wristwatches and calendars. But certainly we come to the point that smartphones are the only necessary need for everyone’s survival, as they become so important nowadays.
Currently mostly organizations and institutions are using Android applications for increasing their business, providing easily access and bestest features of their services to their customers and also other facilities to their employees. Android applications are the easiest and fastest technology nowadays. It boost up the technologies currently used by all organizations either manually or Desktop-PC’s.
As our world becomes more automated and the demand for time-efficiency increases, the ,large and complex indoor environment, people need to know where they are in a room, where the room is on a floor and which floor they are on within the building. Indoor location and wayfinding services typically require an indoor map in order to show the user’s location and surroundings. Indoor maps represent a detailed cartography of the building containing key elements such as walls, floor, rooms, and other Points of Interest (POI). Indoor positioning systems are used to locate people or required objects in large buildings and in closed areas. For example, locating patients in the hospital, finding people trapped in a burning building or finding workers in a large office block are a few applications of indoor positioning systems. There are many positioning systems with different architectures to determine the location of objects. They have different accuracies, configurations, and reliabilities.
A positioning application system allows mobile devices to pinpoint their locations and at the same time enables location-based activities of tracking, monitoring and navigating to take place simply based on that local position that is made available . In fact, Global Positioning System (GPS) transceivers found in most smart phones can be employed to determine users’ positions
Basically we use all the sensors available in smartphones that can provide navigation data such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, gyroscope, accelerometer, barometer, compass. With current technology level it is not possible to ensure precise infrastructure-free indoor navigation for all smartphones and environments. Wi-Fi access points in most cases do not have enough density of deployment and are too costly. All these factors make beacons the optimal choice as an external infrastructure for navigation. Additionally, they enable interaction with a smartphone on operating system level which adds a lot of value for proximity marketing and customer analytics scenarios.
Whereas outdoor maps are more focused on showcasing larger scale objects such as cities, road, rivers and oceans indoor maps are focused on the map data inside the buildings. Indoor map data tends to change more often, and it is more critical to businesses than outdoor map data when integrated into their systems and services. It is also more dense and detailed and is visualized in deeper zoom levels. Showing more data more densely can also make indoor maps more complex. The complexity of indoor maps can also be seen in the vertical axis: buildings can have hundreds of floors layered on top of each other whereas outdoor maps don’t have as much data on the vertical axis. The aim of this Application is to find a way to manage indoor map data in efficiently and user-friendly way.
There are many types of indoor and outdoor methodologies are available. A majority of these solutions are based on Global positioning system (GPS) and instant video and image processing. An indoor navigation can be assisted by using the building maps and plans documented in computer-aided design applications (CAD)
2.2 What is Android?
Android is the name of a mobile operating system owned by an American company, Google. It is most commonly comes installed on a variety of smartphones and tablets from a group of companies that provide users access to Google services such as search, YouTube, Maps, Gmail and more.
This means that you can easily search for information on the Internet, watch videos, look for trends and to send e-mail messages on your phone, just as you do on your computer, but there is more to the robot from these simple examples. 12
2.3 What is Android phone?
Android phones can be easily customized and as such can be altered according to user’s taste and needs; with wallpapers, themes and launchers which completely change the look of your device’s interface and make it elegant. You can download applications to do all sorts of things like check your Facebook and Twitter feeds, manage your bank account, order pizza and play games. You can plan events from your phone’s calendar and see them on your computer or browse websites on your desktop Mac or PC and pick them up on your phone.
Another feature of Android is that it automatically backs up your contacts and your chats.
When you set up an Android phone you’ll need to create a Google Account or sign in with an existing one. Whenever you add a new contact number to the address book of your Android phone it will be automatically synced to your Google Account.
The benefit of this is that if you lose your phone all of your contacts will be backed-up when you login your account. The next time you get an Android phone (or an iPhone or Windows Phone if you prefer) and sign in with your Google Account, all of your contacts and friend’s numbers, not only these but also your images, your chats, and your applications data will be displayed in your new phone immediately.
Synchronization is a way for your phone to keep all your information. Sites, contacts, and calendar entries and applications up to date. This can happen through a data or Wi-Fi mobile phone network, seamlessly, in the background. 13
2.3.1 Android Tablets
Such as Android phones and Android tablets come in all shapes and sizes. These can range from the 7-inch screen to make the Asus Google Nexus 7 to view a much larger, such as 10-inch display found on your Nexus 10.
Somewhat confused, and some of the old Android tablets. Like the original Samsung Galaxy Tab, launched running Android 2.2 Froyo’s – version of Android designed for phones, while Android 3.0 Honeycomb was the first version of the operating system designed for tablets.
The oldest Android tablets that did not work on 3.0 Honeycomb cannot take advantage of things like YouTube application of the redesigned and improved widgets and applications of certain tablet-specific, such as Sowicki disks.
The elimination of this fragmentation between Android phones and tablets with the launch of Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich, which is designed to run on any device type and size accordingly. Android Jelly Bean made a number of improvements on both the smartphone and tablet experience to the likes of the ICS (Ice Cream Sandwich), and this trend continues with the latest version, Android 7.0 nougat, which brings features such as support for split screen to the negotiating table. 14
2.3.2 Android History
The word android has become almost a household name. Android is run mobile phones designed to address the problem of dealing with wireless networks and hardware system. And come in different versions of this operating system in the market since its inception in 2008. There were two commercial launch of Android before between 2007 and 2008, called alpha and beta Android. Released beta Android in November 5, 2007, the date popularly celebrated as “Android’s Birthday”.
Each copy of the android have been developed since the 1.5 with the codename identified that are selected in alphabetical order, and each remote Ohecma were candy items (sweet / sugary foods). Some codenames are linked with a number more than one version, while others are limited to just one specific. Here a historical overview of the Android operating system, version and features. 15
I. Android 1.0
This was where the dream commenced, this was the first commercial version of Android, was relinquished in September 2008. The market opened Android people commenced to agnize this incipient operating system. Additionally, it was the first commercially available Android contrivance HTC Dream. Features included operating system to fortify the camera, and access to electronically-mail accommodation on the Internet, and support for POP3, IMAP4, and SMTP. Google sync with Google apps, calendar synchronization, synchronize contacts, Google Maps, SMS, MMS, IM support, media player, YouTube player, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support. Notifications withal appear in the status bar, with options to set the tone.
II. Android 1.1
Relinquish of February 9, 2009. You do not have this version Android official name but was called internally “Petit Four” This update did not genuinely bring many incipient features to the anterior version, and transmuted only the Android API, resolving bugs and glitches with to amend overall performance. 17
III. Android 1.5 Cupcake
The relinquishment of the April 30, 2009, this was the first version got a formal codename predicated on item candy (“Cupcake”). Key features include the operating system this fortification piece, the soft keyboard with text presage. It distributed Cupcake additionally watch the video and recording capabilities, and upload videos to YouTube and Picasa, Bluetooth stereo (A2DP aka) support that sanctions streaming music wirelessly to the headphones or verbalizers are compatible. 18
IV. Android 1.6 Donut
Donut brought more of the key features of the most astronomically immense amendments that were with Google Maps Navigation turn-by-turn, and under expanded gesture. Search and the facility to view snapshots of applications in the Android Market got more facile and Android Market has become an amicable place to buy applications. Other integrated features, applications and text-to-verbalization and modernization of technological support for CDMA / EVDO (802.1X, VPN) 19
V. Android 2.0/2.1 Éclair
Relinquished October 26th of 2009, I got on the operating amendments in the system preponderant, such as support for multiple accounts, ameliorated Google Maps Navigation, and features of the incipient camera, so that sanctions phones to take pictures with support for flash, digital zoom, scene mode, multiple sizes resolution and screen. It withal got an incipient utilizer interface and support for Microsoft Exchange e-mail or with a mundane inbox to browse email from multiple accounts in one page. The version 2.1 in January 2010 with just a renovation of the amendments and the utilizer interface and to reform secondary API bug. 20
VI.Android 2.2 Froyo
Relinquished 20th May 2010, Froyo came with a general amelioration in performance of the OS with speed amendments and JIT implementation which was an adscititious application for speed amendments. The two key feature of this OS were USB tethering and Wi-Fi hotspot functionality plus other features such as Support for installing applications to the expandable recollection, support for high exhibit and screen resolutions and an option to incapacitate data access over mobile network. 21 .VII. Android 2.3 Gingerbread
Gingerbread was relinquished 6th December 2010 and came with hi-tech support features which got the attention of many Android users. The OS release optically discerned Google introduce the much touted NFC (Near Field Communications) tech that sanctions one make mobile payment, it withal got the native.
VoIP/SIP and video call support and the overall UI was updated with incremented implicit, speed well amended text input in virtual keyboard for ease of avail.
Some other features of this OS included multiple camera support for both rear and front facing camera, amended power management, ameliorated copy/paste functionality and a Download Manager that gives users facile access to any file downloaded from the browser, email, or another application. Another update to the Gingerbread version additionally came in December 2010 and January 2011 (version 2.3.1 and 2.3.2) which fine-tuned bugs and got an overall amelioration. UP till September 2011, more incipient Gingerbread versions were relinquished (to version 2.3.7) 22
VIII. Android 3.0 Honeycomb
Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) was introduced on February 22, 2011. Determinately we got an advent of the first OS optimized for tablet support. The first contrivance featuring this version was the Motorola Xoom tablet. . It contained an interface with holographic & virtual support, multiple browser tabs, Google verbalize, private browsing and hardware expedition. There was withal an integrated System Bar that featured expeditious access to notifications, status, and soft navigation buttons, available at the bottom of the screen, an Action Bar that gives access to contextual options, navigation, widgets, or other types of content at the top of the screen. Multitasking on the incipient OS got simplified. Tapping Recent Applications in the System Bar sanctions users to optically discern snapshots of the tasks underway and expeditiously jump from one
application to another. 23
IX.Android 4.0 Ice-cream Sandwich
The Frozen dihydrogen monoxide-cream Sandwich was relinquished to the public on October 19, 2011. It sanctioned users to utilize multitasking apps, incipient lock screen actions, facile folder engenderment, Google chrome, built-in photo editor. This version introduced numerous incipient features such as faculty to access applications directly from lock screen, Face Unlock, faculty to cease the operation of applications that are utilizing data in the background, Wi-Fi Direct, video recording at 1080p for stock Android contrivances, screenshot capture (accomplished by holding down the Power and Volume-Down buttons), better camera performance, smoother screen rotation and a whole lot of ameliorated functionalities. 24
X. Android 4.1 Jelly Bean
Google promulgated Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean) at the Google I/O conference o 27 June 2012 and later relinquished to the 9th July 2012. This version owns 34.4 5 of the overall Android market share and the main features include multi-utilizer support, Google Now, smoother UI, enhanced accessibility, offline voice dictation. Ameliorated voice search and camera application, faculty to turn off app-categorical notifications, expandable notifications, automatic re-arrangement and resizing of apps and widgets on home screens were withal integrated features to the OS.
Higher versions of the Jelly Bean OS were additionally release to enhance performance and fine-tune bugs in precedent versions. While the 4.2.2 version sanctioned wireless charging, competency to swipe directly to camera and showed percentage and estimated time remaining in active downloads, the 4.3 Jelly Bean version which was relinquished on 24 July 2013 had more security and performance enhancement, Bluetooth low energy support (BLE), facility to engender restricted profiles and a 4K resolution support. 25
XI. Android 4.4 KitKat
This is the latest version of the Android operating system. Google is believed to be called “Key Lime Pie” but decided later to be called after the popular chocolate bar Kit Kat. Key features of this operating system include an incipient utilizer interface transparent system, and promote the advent notification, and integration of gregarious media, and preview the application, the registration screen. Kate has a plethora of ameliorations to the performance of the contrivances less designations, with 512 MB of RAM as a recommended minimum recollection. 26
XII.Android 5.0 Lollipop
Android Lollipop hit our phones in 2014 and brought multiple profiles on one contrivance, and the feature “Do Not Perturb” to get some tranquility and alerts of each incipient bar. You could additionally now open your phone with a Bluetooth contrivance unreliable. 27
Post your contrivance securely with the guest utilizer mode. Or engender multiple accounts to enable friends to authenticate on your computer. In both cases, no one will be able to access any of your things. You can utilize Android astute lock to secure the phone or tablet by pairing with reliable contrivance, such as your wearable or even your car. 28
XIII. Android 6.0 Marshmallow
Android Marshmallow was unveiled by Google in September 2015, ameliorating battery life and integrating cool incipient features like now on Tap and dactylogram sensor support. 29
XIV. Android 7.0 Nougat
Android Nougat’s features came first and the public availed pick the designation, which was made official at the cessation of June, 2016. As well as ameliorating general performance and battery management thanks to a feature called Doze, Nougat additionally brought handy features like native split-screen multitasking to the stock Android experience. 30
Figure 1: Different Versions of Android 31
Figure 2: Different Versions of Android 32
2.3.3 Android Architecture
Android gives you the liberation to implement your own contrivance designations and drivers. The hardware abstraction layer (HAL) provides a standard method for engendering software hooks between the Android platform stack and your hardware. The Android operating system is withal open source, so you can contribute your own interfaces and enhancements.
To ascertain contrivances a high caliber of quality and offer a consistent utilizer experience, each contrivance must pass tests in the compatibility test suite (CTS). The CTS verifies contrivances meet a quality standard that ascertains apps run reliably and users have a good experience.
Afore converting Android to hardware, it is obligatory to understand architecture of Android system at high caliber. Because files (drivers) that enables hardware to communicate with Android interact Hardware Abstraction Layer and Android. 33
Figure 3: Architecture of Android 34
2.3.4 Linux Kernel
The foundation of the Android platform is the Linux kernel. 35
Placed at the bottom of the pile Android software, provides the Linux kernel level of abstraction between the hardware device and the upper layers of the Android software stack. Based on Linux version 2.6, the kernel provides multiple protective functions, and the low level of basic system services such as memory, process, and energy management, in addition to providing the stack and device network drivers such as the device’s screen, Wi-Fi and sound.
The development of the original Linux kernel in 1991 by Linus Torvalds, and along with a set of tools and utilities complexes developed by Richard Stallman at the Free Software Foundation to create a complete operating system referred to as GNU / Linux. Different Linux distributions have been derived from these basic foundations such as Ubuntu and Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
It is important to note, however, that the robot only uses the Linux kernel. That said, it should be noted that the Linux kernel was originally for use in traditional computers in the form of desktop computers and servers developed. In fact, it is now deploy Linux on a large scale server environments in mission-critical enterprise. It is a testament to both the power of mobile devices today, and the efficiency and performance of the Linux kernel to find this program in the heart of the Android software stack. 36
2.3.5 Android Runtime
This is the third part of the architecture and available on the second layer from the bottom. This provides a key component called the Dalvik virtual machine, which is a type of Java virtual machine specifically designed and optimized for Android section.
In Dalvik VM makes use of the basic features of Linux, such as memory and multithreading, which is fundamental in the management of the Java language. In all Android Dalvik VM application enables to run in its own process, with a particular instance of the Dalvik virtual machine.
Android operating time also provides a set of core libraries that enable developers to write android applications using standard Java programming language. 37
On top of the Linux kernel there is a set of libraries, including open-source web browser engine Web Kit, LIBC known library, database SQLite a useful repository for storing and sharing application data and libraries for playing and recording audio and video, SSL responsible for Internet security libraries etc. 38
126.96.36.199 Android Libraries
This category includes those Java-based libraries that are specific to the development of the robot. Examples include libraries in this class library application framework in addition to those that make it easier to build user interface, draw graphics and database access. A summary of some key basic libraries available to the Android developer Android is as follows –
android.app – provides access to the application form, which is the cornerstone of all Android applications.
Android. Content – facile access to content, publishing and messages between applications and application components.
Android. Database – used to access the data published by the content providers include SQLite database management categories.
android.opengl – Interface Java API to provide graphics OpenGL ES 3D.
android.os – provides applications with access to the standard operating system accommodations, including messaging, system accommodations and communication between processes.
android.text – used to make and manipulate text on the screen of the contrivance.
Android. View – the rudimentary building blocks of utilizer interfaces and application.
Android. Widget – an opulent set of utilizer interface built afore such as buttons and posters components, views list, and orchestrating managers, radio buttons
android.webkit – A set of customized to sanction Internet browsing capabilities that will be built in applications rows.
Having covered the basic Java libraries in the Android runtime, it is time to turn our attention to the C / C ++ libraries based contained in this layer of the Android software
188.8.131.52 C/C++ Libraries
Core Libraries Android operating time set forth in the preceding paragraph on Java and provides basic applications programming interfaces for developers writing Android applications. It is important to note, however, that the basic libraries do not result in actual fact a lot of work when they are dry, “wrapped” around a set of C / C ++ libraries based, in fact, basically. When making calls, for example, to the library android.opengl to draw 3D graphics on the screen of the device, the library actually end up making calls to OpenGL ES C ++ software library, which, in turn, work with the underlying Linux kernel to perform drawing tasks.
And respond / C C ++ libraries to achieve a wide variety of tasks, including 2D and 3D draw graphics, and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) communications, and management of SQLite database, audio, video, bitmap and vector font rendering, sub-display layer drawing management and implementation C standard library system (LIBC).
In fact, the typical Android application developer access to these libraries only through Java-based APIs Android core library. In the event that there is a need for direct access to these libraries, and this can be achieved by using the Android Native Development Tools (NDK), and the purpose is to call the original methods of Java is the programming languages (such as C and C ++) from within the code Java using Java native interface
2.3.7 Hardware Abstraction Layer
Hardware abstraction layer (HAL) provides standard interfaces that the hardware capabilities of your device to the Java standard API highest frame. It consists of multiple modules HAL library, each of which implements the interface for a specific type of hardware components such as the camera or Bluetooth unit. When making a call API framework for access to the hardware device, and the Android system load module library for this hardware component. 41
2.3.8 Java Application Framework
It provides the framework of the application of many of the high-level accommodations for applications in the form of Java class’s layer. It sanctions applications developers to capitalize on these accommodations in their applications. The framework includes the robot following key accommodations: –
Activity manager – controls all aspects of the application life cycle and a pile activity.
Content providers – sanctions applications to publish and apportion data with other applications.
Resource Manager – provides access to the code is an integral part of resources such as strings, and color settings, designs and utilizer interface.
Notifications Manager – applications to exhibit alerts and notifications to the utilizer sanctions.
View system – a group extensible views used to engender the application utilizer interfaces.
2.4 System Apps
Android comes with a set of basic applications for e-mail and SMS messages, calendars, and browse the Internet, telecommunications, and more. Applications included with the platform does not have a special status among the applications the user chooses to install. Therefore the application a third party can become the default browser used on the web, SMS Messenger, or even a virtual keyboard (there are some exceptions, such as the Application System Settings).
System applications running on both as applications for users and provide basic capabilities that developers can access from their own apps. For example, if the application would like to deliver a short message, you do not need to build it yourself job you can, rather than protest, whichever application is already installed SMS to deliver a message to the recipient that you specify. 43
2.4.1 Android Application
It is software application designed on Android platform. Android platform is specially designed for android devices, commonly android applications are designed for tablets and smartphones that runs on the Android operating system. 44
There is no doubt to accept the fact that android apps are the way to get most of tablets and smart phones. 45
If we look back at the history of android applications we can see that only few apps like calendar, address books, world clock, calculator, notepad, email etc. were included in the category of android applications. 46
First android phone was introduced in 1993 by IBM contacting touch screen functionality instead of buttons which contain app like calendar, Address book, world clock ,calculator, notepad, email few java games and fax capability.
The next development was Black Berry by Rim in 2002 which was later integrated with the initiative concept.
In 2007, Apple releases first IPhone which contain Maps, photos, texts and weather android applications.
In 2008, apple release IPhone 3G, store and launches the applications. HTC releases its first smart phone HTC.
In 2009, downloading of apps exceeded 1 billion.
Apple and Samsung releases their first IPAD in 2010.these two are the first tablet computers with Android operating system in the U.S.
IPHONE 4S and IPAD2 released in 2011 and the apps downloading rate exceeds 1 million.
2012, android market was renamed as “Google Play”. And downloads of apps increases rapidly.
In May 2012, Microsoft releases window 8, which enables users to use smart phone apps on desktop-pc also.47
2.4.2 Tablets vs. Smartphones
In marketing, there is difference between android phone and tablet in the same their users are different and their needs and demands are different. In U.S more than 60% people use smartphones. 48
Due to different screen sizes its usage is different. Long time video streaming, capturing HD size pictures, lots if other online activities are more suitable on tablet rather than smart phones.
Due to smaller size smart phones can be carried to anywhere rather than tablets, people mostly use tablets at home. Smart phones are mostly used for social apps, than gaming and texting applications whereas tablets are used for mostly video apps and games. 49
Figure 4: Smart Phone V/S Tablet App Usage 50
2.4.3 Currently Used apps examples
Some currently apps using in different industries are:
Figure 5: Applications Used in Markets 51
2.4.4 Evolution of first Android with Google apps
Android 1.0 was the first android phone with Google apps, released in October 2008 and named as G1.
G1 became the first android phone running on actual hardware rather than slow emulator.it was not good as apple IPhone, HTC or windows phones but it was a good beginning. It proves to be the best selling phone of 2008 and compete Nokia 1680 classic, which was dominating market at that time. It contains apps like messaging, Gmail, maps. Google play store. 52
Figure 6: Evolution of Android 53
2.4.5 Secret of Successful App Brands
In Indian university research it was claimed that apps provide users information, privacy and a secure connection becomes more successful.
Figure 7: Successful Branded App 54
2.5 Mobile Application Market
In early time the mobile apps have to choose between wire line network and pure wireless solution to synchronized cradle based. Anyhow android applications becomes the rising stars of international mobile market that can perform different tasks for the user containing software on mobile device. Users mostly used phone applications because of simpler user interface of basic phone and messaging and social services .however mobile apps are continuously rapidly increasing business due to increasing number of mobile app developers.
In new research it is described that in two years international market of mobile applications will burst. In next two years mobile market will rise to $17.5bn and downloads will increase 92% i.e. To 50bn from 7bn by 2012.
This research was done on the second biggest app store Getjar. 55
2.5.1 Existing Mobile Applications
Technically mobile apps are divided according to the run time environment executed.
Linux, windows Symbian operating systems and native platforms.
Web browser such as Opera, Mozilla fire fox, Web kit and Rim some examples of mobile web applications.
Virtual machines like java, flash and silver light, J2ME and some other platforms also using now a days.
The latest technology “Windows mobile application “every smart phone use it. To browse internet, sending and receiving e-mails, preparing presentations and checking schedule becomes possible, it can handle your whole business with the functionality of your mobile.?
IPhone brings revolution in international mobile market.it becomes a platform to develop mobile applications of different types providing better user-interface picture of apps in mobile computing.it has numerous advantages .it includes the features of multi-touch interface, Global Positioning System, sensor ,accelerometer, databases like sqlite3,Open Graphics Library, animation, encryption, scanner, audio, games, calendar and Quartz.?
Black Berry introduced in 2002 is another name for smart and trendy.it is the first mass market smart phone for wireless email and integrated communication device.it was designed to fulfill the needs of not only a single person but can handle the usage of full enterprise.?
Latest innovation of mobile computing provide applications directly for end-user and easy downloading becomes easier.56?
2.5.2 Mobile Indoor Positioning Conceptual
Mobile Indoor Positioning can be defined as:
The advances of personal mobile technologies have made possible to create new concepts to interact with the environment and the objects in it through mobile devices. In this direction, augmented reality (AR) relies on combining and superimposing virtual information over the real world, providing the user with extra (even real time) computer-based information about resources, objects or points of interest. The ‘augmented reality’ concept is not new, but has been revisited since the sixties, when Sutherland (Sutherland, 1968) designed a head-mounted display tracked by both mechanical and ultrasonic trackers. Nevertheless, the term, as it is, is in use since 1992 (Caudell and Mizell, 1992). Nowadays, the generalization of high-resolution cameras and embedded compasses and inertial systems in mobile devices has created the technological breeding ground for the democratization of mobile AR services.
The two most important components that you need to differentiate between are:
Indoor positioning is simply determining the location of the cellphone of the user who moves into a building. Outside that is very easy. Outdoors your location can be determined by GPS satellites with an accuracy of about 10 -2 0 meters. Inside buildings, however, GPS does not work, so we have to find other ways to determine the location of a cell phone
2.5.3 Mobile IPS Services
Mobile services includes;
With the rapid development of mobile communication and the pervasive computing technology, the requirement of obtaining location-aware services is rapidly increasing. Dramatic performance improvements in mobile communications standards have propelled mobile technology to become the fastest adopted technology of all times. Mobile network infrastructure costs have also fallen dramatically, while performance has soared.
Over the past decade, we have seen great improvements in downsizing of the computer hardware, arrival of various new technologies like wireless networks, battery capacities, high performance chips etc, which made mobile devices a smartphone. These technologies allowed the manufacturers to build mobile devices that can be carried around and have the same performance as traditional computers. The benefit of mobile devices can be leveraged by the so-called location-based services. Applications that act differently depending on the location or the context of the user or, even better, proactively offer location dependent information to the user are currently a hot topic in research and are considered a promising market.
Nowadays, the Global Positioning System (GPS) can provide accurate and reliable position information for location services. GPS cannot be used effectively under indoor environment since there is a signal degradation. Thus various positioning-enabled sensors such as GPS receivers, accelerometers, gyroscopes, digital compasses, cameras, Wi-Fi etc. have been built in smartphones for communication, entertainment and location-based services.
An indoor positioning system made using the Wi-Fi routers which are called Access Points (APs) and a Wi-Fi enabled android smartphone. But before moving further, what all technologies are available for indoor positioning.
Indoor Positioning, available through HERE Mobile SDK for iOS and Android, provides fast and accurate global positioning inside buildings using HERE Indoor Radio Mapper, and can even determine which floor you are on for a full 3D experience. Whether you’re in an office, airport, shopping mall, or any other kind of indoor venue, you can still know exactly where you are.
By integrating into other Mobile SDK services, including HERE Venue Maps, HERE Indoor Positioning can power engaging indoor applications for enterprises, governments and consumers across multiple use cases by providing a seamless indoor-outdoor-indoor navigation experience from the start until the end of your journey.
Smartphone users can get their fine-tuned locations according to the function of the GPS receiver. This is the primary reason why there is a sizably voluminous demand for authentic-time location information of mobile users. However, the GPS receiver is often not efficacious in indoor environments due to signal attenuation, even as the major situating contrivances have a puissant precision for alfresco situating.
Using Wi-Fi signal strength for fingerprint-based approaches attract more and more attention due to the wide deployment of Wi-Fi access points or routers.
Indoor localization systems employ a wide range of different technologies; these systems could use any combination of the following:
• Ultra-wideband (UWB)
• Radio frequency identification (RFID)
• Inertial sensors, magnetic sensors etc.
• Sound (ultra-sound or audible sound)
• Camera The first five positioning systems in the above listing are able to localize users with high accuracies.
2.5.4 Future Functionalities of IPS
Indoor Situating and Mobile Wayfinding has found its way into many different business areas and is often used to avail smartphone users navigate inside airports, shopping malls, trade shows, hospitals and many more.
Despite the growing acceptance of Indoor Situating systems in perpetually more diversified industries, many are still hesitant to adopt this technology. Reasons for this may be the flood of different technologies on the market, e.g. Wifi, Beacons, Ultra-wideband, Ultra-sound, etc., leading to perplexity on the client side as to which one distributes the best results for their desiderata. Subsisting Indoor Mobile Wayfinding solutions do require a certain level of expertise to setup the system professionally.
AGENT (“Automatic GENeration of dactylograms for innovative consummate indoor localization systems”) is designed to address these issues and take out some of the intricacy to eliminate barriers to adopting Indoor Mobile Wayfinding solutions.
In lieu of time consuming manual orchestrating and taking recordings of the building, AGENT will enable computer-availed orchestrating with automated engenderment of a 3D digital map. Furthermore, a sophisticated simulation of the Beacon installation will avail assess the amount of Beacons required and where to place them in order to get the most precise situating results.
This way no mazuma will be wasted on authoritatively mandating excess hardware or vice versa, faulty installations due to inadequate hardware or misplacements can be eschewed. The AGENT innovation avails increase efficiency substantially by cutting down on the time needed for the implementation process and optimizing resource orchestrating.
2.5.5 Challenges for a IPS
Key challenges in developing a sophisticated mobile IPS application are:
By precision quandary we denote that the system didn’t always provide the correct position within the designated allowances.
Client-based indoor positioning with beacons or WiFi, as used for indoor navigation, is basically extremely safe for the user and does not restrict privacy. In client-based settings, the location is determined directly on the user’s smartphone without further communication with a server. The data are not passed on or evaluated.Additionally, beacons are no storage media on which personal data are kept. They only contain certain key figures by means of which they can be assigned, differentiated and parameterized. For example, it is completely without risk to use beacons for indoor navigation in sensitive environments such as hospitals. The beacon will never store details from the health records or other personal data.
The indoor positioning systems which are client-based with Wi-Fi or Bluetooth transmitters also called beacons are extremely safe. They do not restrict user privacy in anyway. In client-based indoor positioning systems, location is not further communicated with server of the service provider rather directly with user’s smartphone. The location data is not evaluated on any account.
Also, the beacons which are extensively used in indoor positioning systems aren’t storage media to store user’s personal data. They become extremely useful in indoor navigation especially in sensitive environments like hospitals. Beacons will not store any kind of personal data or health records. So, it is safe to say that user data is protected and his privacy is guaranteed in the indoor positioning systems (most of the time).
One-time password (OTPs) are the latest tool used by financial and banking service providers in the fight against cyber fraud. Instead of relying on traditional memorized passwords, OTPs are requested by consumers each time they want to perform transactions using the online or mobile banking interface. When the request is received the password is sent to the consumer’s phone via SMS. The password is expired once it has been used or once its scheduled life-cycle has expired.
Because of the concerns made explicit above, it is extremely important that SMS gateway providers can provide a decent quality of service for banks and financial institutions in regards to SMS services. Therefore, the provision of service level agreements (SLAs) is a requirement for this industry; it is necessary to give the bank customer delivery guarantees of all messages, as well as measurements on the speed of delivery, throughput etc. SLAs give the service parameters in which a messaging solution is guaranteed to perform. 62
184.108.40.206 Scalability and Reliability
Another challenge for the CIOs and CTOs of the banks is to scale-up the mobile banking infrastructure to handle exponential growth of the customer base. With mobile banking, the customer may be sitting in any part of the world (true anytime, anywhere banking) and hence banks need to ensure that the systems are up and running in a true 24 x 7 fashion. As customers will find mobile banking more and more useful, their expectations from the solution will increase. Banks unable to meet the performance and reliability expectations may lose customer confidence. There are systems such as Mobile Transaction Platform which allow quick and secure mobile enabling of various banking services. Recently in India there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of Mobile Banking applications, with leading banks adopting Mobile Transaction Platform and the Central Bank publishing guidelines for mobile banking operations. 63
220.127.116.11 Availability and Stability
Availability quandaries are defined as not providing results within a constrained time limit. Stability quandaries refer to not providing consistent results (especially when a utilizer is in a borderline position).
Intrinsical refers to the fact that this is a built in feature of such systems. For
example a ZigBee system can’t determine the line of gaze (i.e. which exhibit is the utilizer is optically canvassing).
18.104.22.168 Constrained and Implementation
Constrained concerns itself with the fact that the system in its present technology has certain limits (i.e a position can be determined only within. Implementation quandaries are connected with the concrete implementation of the system, like bugs, ill-defined API, responsiveness, etc2.6 Indoor Positioning System App
There are many ways to apply indoor situating, and many technologies to optate from. Indoor situating is an area of emerging and evolving technology. Business applications are the primary driver for IPS adoption, whose purposes include incremented revenue generation, reduced operating costs and amended customer contentment. The return on investment for business applications facilely justifies their cost. The business applications are what drives the rapidly growing rate of IPS technology adoption, and often security applications can utilize the IPS infrastructure installed. This is most facile to do when security applications are a component of the overall discussion right from the commencement.
Virtually all indoor situating systems that use smartphones can be of security and life- safety value. This makes it consequential for security technology designators, security practitioners and security system providers to understand IPS technologies and their capabilities, so that the potential security benefits can be achieved as an integral part of a orchestrated business IPS deployment.
? Location-predicated accommodations advanced by leaps and bounds in 2016, and that caliber of magnification and innovation is set to reach incipient heights in 2017, according to the More astute Insights analysis of the top eight mobile technology trends.3 Apps exploiting precise indoor location currently use technologies such as Wi-Fi, Li-Fi, photo and video imaging, ultrasonic beacons and geo-magnetics — alone or in cumulation.
Astute building systems now commonly incorporate IPS technologies for purposes of ameliorating the indoor building experience of occupants. One accomodation and cost-preserving application is providing personal control of lighting and HVAC in a building occupant’s work area. This is a location-predicated function. The utilization of mobile phones as both physical and logical access credentials is additionally a growing trend.
2.7 Review on Existing Methods
There are sundry applications of indoor situating system. Indoor situating is utilized in
Autonomous Robot navigation
Augmented/ Virtual Authenticity
Indoor Situating games
Theses are some of the applications of indoor situating.
2.8 Comparative Analysis with Existing Methods
An indoor situating system (IPS) is dependent on the nearby anchors i.e. nodes with a kenned position, they either provide
environment context or actively locate tags for contrivances to sense. The localized nature of an IPS results in design fragmentation
which has systems that makes utilization of sundry radios, optical or even acoustic technologies.
Since GPS does not work on indoors, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are good alternatives for indoor situating and indoor navigation.
Indoor navigation uses Wi-Fi and senses when it has to supersede GPS in buildings. it is uses Bluetooth and Wi-Fi and aims at providing the comparative analysis of Indoor situating system .
? Bluetooth – A wireless technology standard to exchange the data overshot distances (via ISM band from 2400-2480 MHZ in
short-wavelength radio transmissions) from mobile and fine-tuned contrivances. It engenders personal area networks for high caliber security.
? Wi-Fi – Any wireless local network product which is predicated on the IEEE 802.11 standards. The merit of Wi-Fi over Bluetooth is that it essentially needs no infrastructure effort to track applications if the indoor area is covered through Wi-Fi signal.
The merits of utilizing a wireless solution in industrial applications are as follows:
1) Higher mobility and more preponderant possibility to move contrivances and eventually connect to tablets or perspicacious phones liberatingly without
constraining to cables,
2) Elimination of costly transmission media and its maintenance like the swivels, flexible cables and by-passing long distances
areas where cables could not be virtually fit
3) For expeditious and facile installation process,
4) For higher flexibility if a desideratum arises to modify a subsisting installation
5) To increment the personnel safety by maintaining distance between contrivances during maintenance and configuration
6) To simplify integration of contrivances inside the network.
2.8.1 Current Working System
Indoor situating systems cannot make utilization of GPS signals because they are too impotent to perforate indoors. Instead, they utilize other methods such as:
Wi-Fi signal vigor fingerprinting – The advantage of this technique is that Wi-Fi sultry spots are assuredly everywhere. The disadvantage is that Wi-Fi signals undergo extreme variation (bounce of walls, reflect off objects, etc.)
RFID tags and fiduciary markers – Very stable, but require the installation of a hardware infrastructure.
Cell phone localization – These signals are very impotent, and systems that rigorously utilize them have been profoundly erroneous, up to several hundred meters.
Inertial Navigation – Equipment needed (gyroscopes and accelerometer) are frugal and built into most smartphones. However, errors accumulate expeditiously with this method.
Earth’s Geomagnetic Field – The earth’s magnetic field is transmuted by ferrous objects, such as steel beams in a building. Fingerprinting of the field vigor throughout a building can thus potentially be utilized for situating. The advantage of this technique is that magnetic field sensors are frugal and built into most smartphones.