In cognitive psychology, memory is included in the approach. Memory is considered to be a complex process in humans that functions by involving most part of the brain to maintain information for periods of time (Matlin, 2005). According to Atkinson and Shiffrin’s theory, memory can be proposed into a model known as multi-store memory model that are composed of sensory memory, short-term memory (STM), and long-term memory (LTM) store. In general, this works via encoding every incoming information, so that it can enter the sensory memory that are limited to our sense of perception. If individuals really give their attention, that information would be transferred and stored in the STM from the sensory memory. Then, the information would be transferred to the LTM store if it has been rehearsed repetitively for periods of time. Generally, the information in LTM store could be recalled via retrieval to be stored back into STM.
A research that was conducted by Alesha B. Humphrey (2006) had aimed to determine the effect of rehearsal methods on the recollection of words. This study sample had involved undergraduate introductory psychology students in which they would eventually be divided into three groups. Each participant would receive set of paper that consists of instructions and spaces to recall words according to the group that they were in. Then, in next 60 seconds, participants in the first or control group were asked to see list of 20 words in the slides while for the second and third group, they were asked to study those words with rehearsal method of either highlighting or writing down words. After that, they were given distractor tasks before they recalled the words for another 60 seconds. Results showed that participants who recalled words without rehearsal method and with highlighting method tend to have same number of words recalled with the mean score of 5.00 and 5.06. However, the participants who undergo the writing method showed to be able to recall more words with the mean score of 6.94. Thus, this suggests that writing down words tend to help individuals to produce greater number of words recalled rather than the highlighting method and no rehearsal.
That research would be replicated in this investigation with the aim to investigate whether highlighting method and no rehearsal are more likely to increase the number of words recalled among the high school students. I believe it is an interesting topic to investigate because it could provide an evidence to support and give an idea for high school students, who tend to have lots of tasks to complete, on the effective way for them to read or study a text within a short amount of time.