World, the tense situation in any action or person who physically or psychologically, whatever the balance individual can not rest on the particular application space. Although physical demand answers to such strange clothes, and pressure are countless forms. Unconscious tension, but also the city or the sound of driving a daily chore. Perhaps a statement like that about stress can be businessmen and university professors that it is for all mother, and their children, factory workers. Stress is a part of the fabric of life, nothing can isolated from human pressure, as is evident from various research and studies. Manage stress, but simply not get them. Today, in front with views through large-scale tension around new research accepted, result is a strong set completely changed around.
The continuous and frequently heated debates about how to define stress are a measure of how much it now permeates everyday language. In the course of given day, each of us will hear or use the word in variety of contexts, it is variously, a term of derision or abuse; it may be used to dismiss or critique colleagues or alternatively, to validate a ‘high-octane ‘style of working. The term attaches itself to feelings of pressure, anticipation or even read as in meeting deadlines or watching one’s football team participate in a penalty shootout, it is arguable that the term is now so ubiquitous that it as been entirely cut adrift from both professional discourse and real life experience.
2.2- Concept of stress
Stress is a complex process. This experience is very subjective. The other pressure can be challenging. This experience largely in the background, creation, depending on environmental conditions. Stress of living with changing circumstances, a person must face the race. Pressure conditions inside the country, conditions or results with despair are not satisfied. Degree of pressure needed is special. Due to the complexity is due to pressure studied psychology, sociology and medicine for many years.
2.3- Define stress
Definition of stress is a very complicated case that the various analysis and debate among experts is underway. No discussion, general consensus around the idea of stress can be defined as emotions that reached the center, both an imbalance in the interface between environment and other people. Other, or physical or mental environment requires that they are not able to respond appropriately to think people with demand when the reaction conditions make active organism faces. Consuming nature of this reaction, personal attributes and personal management resources, and help others trying to solve the various elements, including a ban on one depends on a combination) physical and mental reaction to a combination of pressure. Logical events challenge or threaten us. Under normal conditions, to a strong security system in response to stress that we allow the risk of sudden changes or requirements will have an immediate response. Unusual (for example, a successful and long-term pressure) conditions, we stress safety in order to overcome the adverse health outcomes is critical. This definition is very important that both physical and psychological stressors are the result of a combination. Thus, the regular definition of Europe has been a work-related stress: patterns of emotional, cognitive, hazardous materials and dangerous aspect of behavioral and physical reactions work organization and work environment. Carrel, et al.(1996:418) defined stress as a discrepancy between employees’ perceived state and desired state, when the employee considered such a discrepancy important. Stress influenced an employee’s psychological and physical well-being, as well as the employee’s efforts to cope with the stress by preventing it.
Du Brin (1996:442) defined stress as an internal reaction to any force that threatens to disturb a person’s equilibrium. The researcher viewed stress as a state of psychological and physical discomfort induced by a threat in a person’s environment.
NIOSH (2004)Some work stress as follows: adverse physical and emotional reaction when the job requirements of capacity, resources and staff to meet their needs can be defined as stress. Tensions between us and our activities and the role of struggle to control their work and reasonably in their work, not even a poor match between the two because. According to this definition, stress is found in work demands and workers between the degree of control a weak match. Body and soul, so we pressure requirements. Our response is called a general response to stress. Factors that lead to such reactions, and give us an attempt to emphasize that so-called pressure. Tensions creep of the person they least expect. Must first understand stress, certain medications can treat stressed the need to ensure that the material can reduce stress, but full drugs as highlighted. Today the pressure to reduce global production is one of the main causes of work problems is a major cause of stress.
2.4- Stress: A health and safety hazard
Stress is a health and safety threat and a clear and simple. Employers may be willing to believe that stress does not exist. Might say, to emphasize that “in your imagination, and the problems,” “personal” and therefore the choice of the lives of workers. “Or, they can be assured only the work, and these employers recognize that the pressure of work can be said, we should not be considered a healthy and peaceful, because the pressure was not seen as a risk more pronounced, such as contact with chemical products and wastes, or Xianzhi of risks of space.
2.5- Normal and toxic stress
The definition used previously described normal conditions for stress: Stress is considered, and it’s over. Our instinctive response to stress or struggle for power supplies, known as fight or flight response on the run. The normal stress, we can fight or flee. The reaction is very fast and after stress. These three phases of normal stress. Stress comes (facing an imminent threat / demand) in the stress (stress management). Stress is at an end (leave the body no longer feel stressed). An example of normal stress is short-term fear, because you forgot something important (eg, keys), or a temporary feeling stressed because his bus was stuck in traffic and late for work. If the item is found, or the bus may be operated during the stress disappears and the department. There are many events each day, when the normal stresses. Toxic stress is another matter. As the name apparent toxic stress is like a poison. This form causes the most damage to human body is not equipped to deal with toxic stress. Unlike normal stress that comes and goes, toxic stress is to stay with you, building harmful effects. These three phases are toxic stress: stress is coming (on demand or threat ends). Stress is always with you (you have no way of dealing with stress). Stress builds (can never relax and stress is not excluded). Workers may experience stress when they are exposed to toxic staff shortages, bullying, harassment, noise and other risks. This kind of stress often leads to negative physical and psychosocial consequences. Both normal and toxic stress affects the physical body, but toxic effects are more severe stress.
2.6- Job Stress and health
Stress causes health and physical problems, accounting for fifty percent of all absenteeism and contributing to the phenomenon of “presenteeism.” Absenteeism costs the employer in terms of both sick time paid and overtime paid to replace the employee.
Presentees are people who are present at work in body but not in mind, and are typically those who make mistakes, jeopardize quality and have accidents. The result of these effects is decreased productivity and profit margins. Some common health and physical stress symptoms include inability to sleep, fatigue, poor decision making, chronic ailments and illnesses, substance abuse, depression, anxiety and job burnout.
The cost of drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace is estimated by the Bureau of National Affairs to be as high as $100 billion dollars annually in lost productivity, medical costs, absenteeism and accidents. Furthermore, cases of depression, anxiety and job burnout result in a loss of approximately 200 million working days per year. The effects of these stress symptoms can result in increased health care costs, high turnover, and a negative impact on organization goals and morale. The negative effects of stress only starts to show when stress remained high without providing any forms of relief. This often leads to many stress related symptoms, which if left unattended will ultimately affect your overall health. In fact, recent studies reported that up to 90% of all visits to doctors are stress related diseases which include headaches, high blood pressure, stomach upset, weight loss or gain, heart problems and many more.
2.7- Early warning signs of stress
Early warning signs of job stress are Headache, Sleep disturbances, Difficulty in concentrating, Short temper, Upset stomach, Job dissatisfaction, Low morale. An individual’s adaptability is determined by personal characteristics, e.g. their stress tolerance, and by the environment, e.g. the availability of social support.(Le Blanc et al,2000)The term “stress” is a complex construct with many theoretical definitions. Some have defined it in terms of stimuli, while others have focused on responses. In addition there are other definitions that emphasize the stimulus-response interaction(transactional approach) (Jex and Beehr,1991).Contemporary approaches to understanding job stress are based on the transactional perspective. One of the main elements of this perspective is the awareness of events, issues and objects that may function as stressors for the work organization members. Quick and Nelson’s (1997) definition of job stress is “the mind-body arousal resulting from physical and psychological demands associated with a job. Stress outcomes can occur at the individual, group and organizational levels (Jex and Beehr,1991).Both organizations and individuals benefit from an optimal level of stress, and both pay a price for mismanaged stress.
Qulliuian-Wolever and Wolever(2003)reviewed large-scale studies demonstrating that job stress is responsible for billions of dollars of lost income, is a major factor in lost workdays and affects the quantity and quality of performance. The adverse effects of occupational stress on productivity, absenteeism, and health-related problems are substantial and well documented.
(Hurrell,Nelson,andSimmons,1998andKasl1983,andQuick1998,Quick,Nelsonand Hurrell,1997;Sauter1989Sutherlad and Cooper,1988).Highly stressed workers are less productive, change jobs much more frequently, and experience more negative health consequences than their less stressed colleagues(Northwestern National Life,1991,1992).They are also more than twice as likely to experience burnout. In the 1990s, according to Wright and Smye (1996), occupational stress cost U.S business and industry” between $150 billion and $180 billion a year”. The effects of workplace stress costs employers an estimated$100 billion dollars a year in lost productivity, medical costs, absenteeism and accidents. The effects on employees can also result in a myriad of negative effects such as cardiovascular disease, psychological disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, depression and substance abuse. To combat the effects of counter-productive workplace stress, more and more employers are becoming more proactive in promoting employees’ happiness and good health by implementing stress relief initiatives that help employees manage their time, personal lives and workplace stress. There are several definitions of job stress depending on the research field (WFMH 2004) defines stress at work and respond to harmful physical and emotional, which occurs when the work requirements differ from the opportunities, resources and needs of workers and may lead to tension and ill-health posts and even injury. Long-term exposure to work stress is associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal disorders and depression and to stop work and contribute in a number of debilitating diseases, from heart disease and the blood vessels to cancer.
2.8-Work place stress
The study begins by defining stress as a perception that can vary greatly between individuals and takes two forms: eustress and distress.
2.8.1- Eustress and distress
Eustress is “good” stress that can be motivational and improve performance.
Distress is the negative and most familiar form of stress that causes anxiety and agitation and costs employers billions of dollars per year. Workplace stress can be further broken down into two differing sources: situational and dispositional.
2.8.2- Dispositional and Situational Stress
Dispositional stress is caused by the characteristics of an employee’s personality traits and that person’s individual reaction to perceived stressors.
Situational stress is derived from organizational sources and the types of stressors encountered within the workplace. It can take the form of task-related stress, such as work overload or underutilization, and role-related stress, which is stress associated with employee role ambiguity, relationships with co-workers and poor person-environment fit. Thus all of these various types of stress accumulate and add to overall stress levels in the work environment. According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, workers who must take time off work because of stress, anxiety, or a related disorder will be off the job for about 20 days.(Bureau of Labor Statistics) (Lazarus’ 1966, 1991; Lazarus and Folkman, 1984)
2.10- Antecedents of Stress
2.10.1 Role ambiguity and Stress
Role ambiguity occurs when employees do not know what is expected or what tasks to perform. For example, they may not have any information about the goals or mission to be accomplished, or they may be unaware of the deadlines to be met. If this happens, it will be hard for them to make progress in their work. Role ambiguity refers to the absence of clarity about one’s role. The ambiguity arises because of lack of information about the scope of one’s responsibilities, i.e. what exactly one is supposed to do and achieve in that position, about how one is supposed go about fulfilling the responsibilities of the role, and absence of clarity about the behaviors that would be rewarded or punished. An employee can face role ambiguity when first inducted into a position or when changes are introduced in the organizational structure and processes (Ivancevich and Matteson, 1980).The stress arising due to role ambiguity leads to job dissatisfaction, low self confidence and self-esteem, depression and hypertension (Sutherland and Cooper,2000).Both role conflict and role ambiguity have been implicated in the etiology of job dissatisfaction across occupations (Sell, Brief and Schuler, 1981). Several studies suggest that it is especially role ambiguity that leads to burnout (Schaufeli and Buunk, 1996).
This possibility is also borne out by the findings that role conflict is mainly related to irritation but role ambiguity is mainly related to anxiety (Dijkhuizen, 1980),and that role ambiguity, rather than role conflict, is a better predictor of job dissatisfaction and anxiety (Keenan and Newton, 1984).The latter finding is implied in the findings of a study that attempted to explore the relationship of the role ambiguity and role conflict stresses to job performance. The results revealed the existence of a negative relation between role ambiguity and job performance though this was moderated by job type and rating source, but no significant relation could be found between role-conflict and job performance (Tubre and Collins, 1985).People in BPOs are sometimes not clear about their roles and experience stress and anxiety and quit jobs. In addition, role ambiguity has been hypothesized to possess Multi dimensional properties (Bedeian and Armenakis, 1981; Sawyer, 1992; Singh and Rhoads 1991). For purposes of this paper role stress will be defined as including role ambiguity, role conflict, and role overload. While the debate continues on the various instruments and methods used to measure the effects of role ambiguity. It is now time to make this information available to practicing managers, along with offering some viable insights and possible remedies for the ambiguity issue.
Perhaps the debate can now focus on the possible solutions to role ambiguity, including role clarification and role negotiation. These role clarification techniques warrant the attention that role ambiguity has received over the past 35 plus years, in order to determine if these concepts can indeed reduce role
ambiguity and produce better outcomes for the role incumbents, role senders, and organizations. One has to wonder, for starters, why the study of role ambiguity is so intriguing. There as on is that if employees do not know what is expected of them, they may be working on the wrong things (Van Sell, et al. 1981).
10.1.2- Linear model of role ambiguity
The linear models of role ambiguity imply that ambiguity should be avoided, and that if it is present, then increasing levels of ambiguity are going to create an increasingly dysfunctional and counter productive environment for the role incumbent. In evaluating the curvilinear impact of role ambiguity, however Singh (1998) concludes that beyond a certain point (i.e. the intermediate level),further decreases in role ambiguity through detailed procedural guidelines are likely to increase job tension and turnover intentions, especially if the task environment has low feedback and task variety. We must ask ourselves what the impact of technology will have the role of the dark. It will be a chance, e-mail and telephone conferences, and information through the company intranet or the Internet (online) access to information that would help to reduce levels of moderate or vague or ambiguous role of staff will get worse. This is important because the amount of data available today as a major contributor to the ambiguous role (Sawyer, 1992), cited the greater pressure from the research.
: There is no relationship between role ambiguity and stress
: Stress increases with increase in role ambiguity
2.11- Work Overload and stress
2.11.1- Work Overload
An employee is in a work overload situation when there is too much work to be performed within too short a time.
184.108.40.206- Quantitatively Work overload
Quantitatively work overload occurs when there are too many things to do and not enough time to do them. Jimmieson (2000) defines quantitative work overload as the belief by an employee that the demands of a job exceed the volume of work required to be completed within a specific timeframe. While having to work under pressure to meet strict deadlines is a major source of quantitative overload, this situation leading to high levels of strain, anxiety and depression (Cooper et al, 2001).
220.127.116.11- Qualitatively Work overload
Qualitatively work overload is defined as an individual’s perception of their lack of ability to complete a task or reach expected performance standards. Qualitative overload refers to the individuals conviction that they do not have the necessary skills or capabilities to complete the tasks required of them (Cooper et al, 2001).
2.11.2 Work overload and stress relationship
Many organizations are dealing with an economic context that has led them to slash jobs. The employees who remain must perform more tasks and should more responsibilities to compensate for less staff. As well as having a major impact on individual mental health, work overload also contributes to certain physical disorders such as heart disease and high cholesterol. Stress is among the many negative health effects caused by overwork and accelerated paces of work. Overwork – like stress is a work organization health and safety issue.It is characterized by: TQM -can take away our real control and lead to more stress.
In 2001,The Communications Workers Union (CWU) in the United Kingdom surveyed 2,729 of its members about stress.CWU members were asked to rank causes of stress in order of importance. These workers ranked bad management, excessive workloads, staff shortages, and other poor work organization factors as the leading causes of stress.
In Desseler (2000:580),role-overload was significantly associated with unsafe behaviors. Similarly, other researchers have suggested that as work overload increases, workers are likely to adopt more risky work methods. Johns (1996:465) emphasized that role overload would be a most common stressor for managers especially in today’s downsized organizations.
Similarly role under utilization would occur when employees are allowed to use only a few of their skills and abilities. The most prevalent characteristic of role under utilization is monotony, where the worker performed the same routine task over and over.
High caseloads are the major source of stress. It is no wonder that officers report heavy caseloads to be the most stressful aspect of their work the average supervision caseload of a probation officer is very high.Paperwork follows as the next most significant stress factor for many officers face on the job. Both general and academic staff of universities consistently reported that a major source of stress was the increasing workload and number of responsibilities that they were expected to perform. Staff described the difficulty they experienced in trying to complete any one task properly, due to this task overload. To complete the high volume of work, many staff reported consistently working a high number of unpaid overtime hours, which further contributed to their experience of stress. Several common factors contributing to the rise in workload were discussed. These included, the decline in staff numbers;an increase in student numbers; the changing nature of students; the introduction of new technologies; and unrealistic deadlines. Staff reported that the decline in staff numbers resulted in a loss of skills and knowledge, and an increased workload for the remaining staff. General staff, particularly in public relations areas, also reported difficulty in taking breaks (e.g.lunch or morning tea) due to their high workload and a lack of substitute staff.The increase in student numbers had resulted in a dramatic increase in the student: staff ratio. Staff described the changing nature of students, referring to an increase in the number of fee paying and international students, a poorer standard of student, and an increasingly consumer-oriented approach to study by students. Staff reported that students now had higher expectations of an academic’s availability for consultation and the support services provided by general staff. In addition, staff reported that more time and skills were required to deal with the increasing diversity of students.
A third of all groups reported that the introduction of new technologies (e.g. internet communication, web-based and on-line teaching) and software packages, increased their workload and contributed to stress. Staff commonly referred to a lack of adequate training and time allocated to developing the required skills and knowledge to use these systems efficiently.
Unrealistic deadlines imposed by management and administration further contributed to task overload at specific times of the year. For example, despite a rise in the number of students and a decrease in the number of staff, deadlines for finalizing student grades were reported to have remained the same, placing enormous pressure on academics.
: There is a no relationship between work overload and stress
:As work overload increases stress also increases
2.12- Introduction of new technology, Lack of Technology knowledge and stress
With the need to keep up with swiftly changing technology in the workplace,
many people may experience stress or overload as a result of inadequate training and preparation in order to cope with new innovations. Cartwright and Cooper (1997) found that business executives and managers often experience strain when attempting to keep up with new technology, and Korunka, Weis, Huemer and Karetta (1995)noted that changes in employee job satisfaction and physical health were related to the introduction of new technology. Similarly, inadequate or outdated technology in the workplace can contribute to strain. Employees are unable to properly complete tasks assigned to them when the equipment given them to complete such tasks constantly breaks down or is ineffective and unable to assist them. As such, the time an employee takes to fulfill the tasks increases and the employee may experience frustration and strain as a result.
Living in an information society”, we are bombarded with information technology, especially at work environment whether or not we actually want to. Now a days ever fewer number of working environments are IT free and the trend seems to continue. IT is spreading both vertically and horizontally throughout different organizations, also ones with limited resources to adapt to it. Successful implementation of a given IT is no guarantee that it will have the planned effects on the adopting organization (Klein, Conn and Sorra,2001).A growing body of literature documents the failure of many organizations to achieve the expected returns on their investments in computerized technologies(Attewell,1994;Klein,2001).
Many of these implementation failures are due to non-technical factors (Martinsons and Chong,1999).
The literature on implementing computerized technologies offers several management strategies designed to influence the effectiveness of an implementation process (Klein and Ralls1995).
These involve, for example, organizational culture(Stock and McDermott2001;Zakay,1984)training(KleinRalls1995)reward(Rousseau1998)Echnical help (usersupport) (Rivard,1987), communication(Zuboff1988)and the characteristics of the new technology(i.e., quality, accessibility and user-friendliness)(Beatty and Gordon,1988).Given the importance of job stress in the organizational context, it is surprising that most studies did not consider preventing users’ stress among these strategies. A literature search reveals that relatively few researchers have attempted to explore the relationships between new IT and user stress. Moreover, up until now, studies on the impact of technology in the workplace have reported mixed evidence as to whether new technologies increase have no effect on or decrease stress related, reactions (Korunka.etal.,1993,1995,1996,1999) Stellman, Klitzmn Gordon and Snow, 1987, Agervold,1987). Mullarkey, Jackson, Wall, Wilson and Grey Taylor, 1997) (Kalimo Leppanen1985).Many of the early studies attempted to test the stressors arising from the new technology itself and identify the strains.For example, in a study investigating sources of stress among executive in ten countries(Cooper,1984)Japanese executive suffered particularly from pressure to “keep up with new technology”, that is, to maintain their technological superiority. Agervold (1987)investigating the impact of the introduction of the new technology in a sample of Danish bank staff, found that the employees indicated that both pressure and psychological strain had increased after the introduction of the new technology Korunka et al.(1996)found that the introduction of new technology was connected to increased levels of catecholamine indicating a high stress level. Korunka et al. (1999).Research from the perspective of information technology as a source of stress is limited. However, some studies have been conducted.
Techno-stress has been suggested as a term to describe the state of mental and physiological arousal observed in certain employees who are heavily dependent on computers at their work.
As the word “stress” techno-stress “is defined in many ways – sometimes by the same author – that the usefulness of his concept in question (Fischer 1996). The original and still popular definition is that Craig Brod, their stress-described as” modern adaptation disease caused by the inability to cope with new technologies in a healthy manner “(Ford 1984:16). Brod is the definition requires a deeper than it often receives. Although it may be wrong to techno-stress such as illness, the second sentence provides working definition: “techno-stress” refers to the area of chronic human psychological and physiological problems that can arise using sounds automation.This a sufficiently broad definition, but still has a broad definition possible if we understand “Techn” in the original Greek means “skill”.
While wandering talk about “new technology” (although the term sounds dated), how about a librarian struggling with these procedures, such as adopting the use of the library system and traffic tickets, such as Brown’s system to enable the worker Even a manual system for a new technology is new, it will tell the employee. Although the word itself is a neologism, “techno-stress” is hardly a new conflict concept.On, the belief that Westerners are subject to devastating psychological, technological developments may strain the nineteenth century to meet the industrial revolution (Rosen 1968 for an overview on). But how techno-stress influence on modern librarians and IT staff. The growing volume of literature on this issue certainly is not any hard evidence of the “epidemic” of libraries techno-stress. As Fisher writes one of the best articles on the topic: “There are enough problems with ford original definition is the word for it unreliable. Most commentators in the library and information field is built on these unreasonable unstable ground and then showed that solid techno-stress (1996:13-14). However, common sense and a growing amount of anecdotal evidence that the explosion of automation in the libraries of a number of specific problems for those librarians our goals, we can say, that fall under the umbrella of techno-stress. Although different in nature, psychological and organizational issues, physical, be a little easier to identify than those caused by stress as a whole. Techno-stress is proposed as a term describes the state of psychological and physiological arousal in some workers who rely heavily on computers work.It suggested that organizational structure and the introduction of information technology vormen potential stressors uitdagende cognitive resources. Garrison and lead (1997:421)
stated that robotics, computers, faxes, video-displays all have their stresses. Learning about these machines that carry out work means acquiring skills to run them and repair them.
Computers and all the new communication technology involve high-speed transmission and processing of information.
Using computers and word processors has even added for many people the stress of looking at a video monitor for much of the day. These authors further note that the intense anxiety about technology can be debilitating in many kinds of jobs, from secretarial positions to warehouse management, from assembly line. Although the stress related to IT-driven change is, obviously, to be disappear eventually when people learn to cope with new information systems, IT has also more stable characteristics increasing job demands. There has been an increasing demand for speed in most business and instead of computers gaining us more leisure time, it has gained us the pressure to perform even faster (Meadow,1998).From this perspective IT is clearly increasing the job demands. Not only by changing the environment but also by increasing the expectations of more effective work. Coping often simultaneously with change and demand for more effective performance