Geosynthetics are human-made materials made from various types of polymers used to enhance

Geosynthetics are human-made materials made from various types of polymers used to enhance, augment and make possible cost effective environmental, transportation and geotechnical engineering construction projects. Geosynthetics major types are geotextiles, geogrids, geonets, geomembranes, geocells, geofoams and geocomposites. Geosynthetic clay liners and prefabricated vertical drains are most common examples of geocomposites. Geotextiles are indeed textiles in a traditional sense, but consist of synthetic fibres rather than natural ones like cotton, wool and silk. The woven and non-woven geotextiles are manufactured using polypropylene filaments and staple fibers. Non-woven types are manufactured from Staple fibers. Geo-grids are plastics formed into a very open netlike configuration. Single or Multi-layer materials are usually made from extruding and stretching high density polyethylene or by weaving or knitting the polypropylene. Geonets are stacked criss-crossing polymer strands that provide in-plane drainage. Geomembranes are impervious thin sheets of rubber or plastic material primarily used for linings and covers of liquid- or solid-storage impoundments. Thus the primary function is always as a liquid or vapor barrier. 3-D honey comb like structures, they are made of strips of polymer sheets/ geotextiles, connected at staggered points in order to form a large honey comb mat when its strips are pulled apart. Geofoam is manufactured in large blocks which are stacked to form a lightweight and thermally insulating mass buried within the soil or pavement structure. Geocomposite are basically combinations of two or more different types of geosynthetic. Some common geotextile-related products (GTP) and other types of geosynthetic products are geofabric, geomat, geomesh, geopipe, geotube, geospacer, geostrip and electrokinetic geosynthetic (GEK).

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