Effective Foreshadowing in King Lear
The first scene of a play usually sets up the basic themes and situations that the remainder will work with. In Shakespeare’s play King Lear, the very first scene presents many of the play’s basic themes and images. The recurrent imagery of human senses and of “nothing,” the distortion of familial and social ties, the gradual dissolution of Lear’s kingship, all make their first appearances in the first lines of Shakespeare’s play.
Much of the imagery in King Lear’s first scene presages what is to come in the play. Often characters refer to senses, particularly sight, whether as a comment on the necessity of sensing consequences before acting (as Lear does not), or as yet another of Shakespeare’s comments (most apparent in Hamlet) on “seeming.” The destruction of Gloucester’s eyes and his subsequent musings (“I stumbled when I saw” (IV.i.19) etc.) are a more graphical presentation of this basic theme which originally appears in Lear’s first scene. Goneril declares Lear is “dearer than eyesight” (I.i.56) to her (though she is the one who later suggests putting Gloucester’s eyes out for his “treachery”). Regan goes further, proclaiming “I profess / Myself an enemy to all other joys / Which the most precious square of sense possesses” (I.i. 72-74). Crossed in his wrath by Kent, Lear cries “Out of my sight!” (I.i.157), only to be reproved with Kent’s “See better, Lear, and let me still remain / The true blank of thine eye.” (I.i.158-9).
Lear’s dialogue with Cordelia on “nothing” introduces yet another theme in the play’s imagery, echoing, among other scenes, some of his later conversations with the Fool (I.iv.130 “Can you make no use of nothing, nuncle?”) and others. Indeed, King Lear is, in many ways, about “nothing.” Regan and Goneril seem to offer much in the beginning, but after whittling down the number of Lear’s knights, they leave him with nothing, and in the end their “natural” affection comes to nothing as well. Lear is progressively brought to nothing, stripped of everything — kingdom, knights, dignity, sanity, clothes, his last loving daughter, and finally life itself.
One of the main signals of the growing chaos of Lear’s world is the distortion of familial and social ties. King Lear exiles his favorite daughter, Cordelia, for a trifling offense, and those daughters he does favor soon turn against him.