Pulse rate: a measurement of the heart rate, or the number of times the heart beats per minute (University of Virginia Health System, 2008). The normal pulse for healthy adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute. The pulse rate may fluctuate and increase with exercise, illness, injury, and emotions (University of Virginia Health System, 2008). Brain function to fear: Two main pathways through the brain are involved in a fear reaction ( Arendal, 2000). The thalamic pathways to the amygdale do not differentiate among stimuli (which helps the message move as quickly as it does), so the information that reaches the amygdale is something along the lines of: “Danger! Danger!” The amygdale sends signals to other regions of the brain–including the anterior cingulated and the basal ganglia. Nerves pulsing their message of fear reach the gut, heart, blood vessels, sweat glands, and salivary glands, causing the stomach to tighten, the heart to race, blood pressure to rise, the feet and hands to turn clammy, and the mouth to go dry( Arendal, 2000). How to measure pulse rate: Turn the palm side of your hand facing up (NEMA, 2003). Place your index and middle fingers of your opposite hand on your wrist, approximately 1 inch below the base of your hand (NEMA, 2003). Press your fingers down in the grove between your middle tendons and your outside bone. You should feel a throbbing – your pulse (NEMA, 2003). Count the number of beats for 10 seconds then multiply this number by 6 (NEMA, 2003). This will give you your heat rate for a minute (NEMA, 2003). The researcher’s hypothesis for the investigation was if the fear in a human is high, then their pulse rate will increase. The reason for making this hypothesis was to predict a testable statement (Access Excellence, 2008) to help the researcher compare her data and results she found in her experiment to the prediction she made. The hypothesis has told the researcher that her prediction was correct about the heart rate of a human. The pulse rate will increase if someone is very frightened. This experiment is biological or scientifically important because it helps the researcher understands how fear can manipulate or affect the pulse rate of a human and give more understanding of the heart. The researcher also learned more about the relationship between emotions, brain, and body (Lafferty, 2002-2008). This information the researcher gathered in her experiment give data to study on the subject of the heart and brain functions. This have gave the researcher the information needed to create a correct and functional experiment that another scientist can reuse. The method used will produce information relevant to the researcher’s hypothesis by showing where the researcher received or found the information used to support her hypothesis. This helps show that the information the researcher used in developing her hypothesis is accurate and can be found and proven correct. The researcher’s control group in the experiment is the group of volunteers that is the reference that shows how the testable groups are changing among each other, when the researcher goes back to compare her data collected when conducting the experiment. The test groups of the experiment is the volunteers or subjects that rides the roller coasters that are great in speed and excitement. Also the volunteers watched a series of scary movies that is very thrilling. Then the testable group had their pulse rate taken and recorded which was later compared to each other in graphs, charts, or tables. The control and test groups gave the researcher the data that supports the hypothesis by proving if the researcher’s statement or prediction was correct. The data collected during the testing session of the experiment showed that the person’s pulse rate did increase when they were in the high peak of their fear.
Materials and Methods
When constructing this science project the researcher had to conduct an experiment to collect data from the results. The procedures that the researcher created and followed to conduct the experiment was to first, recruit 150 volunteers who are willing to participate in the experiment. When 150 volunteers were found, the researcher introduced the experiment to the volunteers and explained what tasks were included in the experiment. The experiment is how fear affects human’s pulse rate and the rides that were included was high speed roller coasters that were also scary. Then the researcher asked if any of the volunteers had high blood pressure, a weak heart, on medication, panic attacks, or phobias of roller coasters. Panic attacks are sudden surges of overwhelming fear that comes without warning and without any obvious reason (Anxiety Panic Attack Resource Site, 1997). The volunteers who had these conditions were still used but did not ride any rides. The researcher then continued and explained the safety procedures which was, if the volunteers become to afraid then the volunteer would sit down for a few minutes or hours until ready to proceed with the experiment. Also explained the experiment’s precautions which are, after riding one roller coaster make sure to sit down and wait until pulse rate returns to normal. Then the researcher taught the volunteers how to check pulse rate. To check the pulse rate Use two fingers (index and middle) to locate the pulse on the wrist at the base of the thumb (Brouhard, 2008) see Figure 1. The pulse feels like a rhythmic thumping (Brouhard, 2008). Using a clock or watch with a second hand, time yourself counting the pulsating beats for 15 seconds (Brouhard, 2008). Multiply the pulses you counted in 15 seconds by 4 to get the pulse rate (Brouhard, 2008). The researcher practiced with the volunteers until done perfectly. The day of the experiment, the researcher scouted out 3 high speed rides or tasks (see figure 2) at a local amusement park and included a ride that was calm and slow. When the volunteers arrived at the amusement park, the researcher reminded the volunteers about the experiment being conducted and went over how to take pulse one more time. Then the researcher splits up the 150 volunteers into 10 groups of 15 people. The groups were recorded as colors such as group red or group blue. Out of 10 groups one of the groups was identified as the control group. The control group was the group that didn’t ride on a roller coaster but rode on the calm ride the researcher picked. The data that was collected from the control group showed the difference in the experimental groups. The researcher then asked the volunteers to take their pulse rate before going on each task and recorded the pulse rate while the volunteers were at rest. Then after the volunteers completed all 3 tasks the final recording of their pulse rate was taken. The number of repeated trials that were done was 150 considering the volunteers. When all the data was collected and recorded on a sheet of paper, the researcher gave the volunteers a survey to complete (see figure 3). The survey consisted of questions which asked if the volunteers enjoyed participating in the experiment. Would the volunteers go on those rides again? And, the volunteers are asked to rate the rides from a scale of 1 to 5 in scariness (1 least scary- 5 scariest). The data collected by the researcher was then put into graphs, tables, or charts. Those graphs, tables, and charts showed the results and how the results changed over to repeated trials.
Description: the volunteer’s pulse rate before and after they rode the three roller coasters. Description: this show the percentage of the volunteers pulse rate on the ride Ring Of Fire. Description: this show the percentage of the volunteers pulse rate on the ride Hurricane. Description: this show the percentage of the volunteers pulse rate on the ride Yo-yo Description: the volunteer’s pulse rates are different compared to each other `Discussion The results that were concluded were that human’s plus rates do increase when riding a roller coaster or watching a scary movie. The results show that the volunteer’s pulse rate was the highest when riding the 2nd test: the Hurricane. This is because the Hurricane is high-speed, have dives, and fast turns that gives the rider a lot of adrenaline. The results significance is to help prove the researcher’s hypothesis correct. Also to support the experiment so that other researchers who wants to conduct this experiment have a source to look at and compare their results with. Weaknesses of this experiment are that not all the volunteers knew how to take their pulse rate. Some took a long time to catch on how to calculate their pulse rate. Other weaknesses are that the volunteers didn’t have enough money to go on theses rides and we couldn’t conduct the experiment in time before the fair left. The researcher’s hypothesis was supported because the results showed that the volunteer’s pulses did increase when they were faced with fear or excitement.
The conclusion of the experiment was that the pulse of human’s does increase when the fear in the human is higher then normal. This showed that the researcher’s hypothesis was correct, and proven by the experiment. The volunteer’s pulse rate raised above average pulse rate for teens. Also each age varied in pulse from high to low and compared different to each other.
Description: the volunteer’s pulse rate before and after they rode the three roller coasters. Description: this show the percentage of the volunteers pulse rate on the ride Ring Of Fire. Description: this show the percentage of the volunteers pulse rate on the ride Hurricane. Description: this show the percentage of the volunteers pulse rate on the ride Yo-yo Description: the volunteer’s pulse rates are different compared to each other