Dry Yeast and Hydrogen Peroxide – Acid Base Catalysis

Introduction

1. The rlcpcndent-ormanipulated variable in this experiment is the amount of lemon juice or baking soda poured into the different containers and thus, the acidity or basicity in each container.

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2. The iodepor responding variable in this experiment is the height and amount of

bubbles formed as a result of the chemical reaction.

3.A The controlled variable or the variable held constant in this experiment is the amount of yeast and the amount of hydrogen peroxide put in each container and the containers themselves.

StepbyStep Directions

1. Label the containers: 1- Control, 2- Low Acid, 3- High Acid, 4- Low Base, and 5-High Base.

2. Put a spoon in each of the containers, and make sure to never move a spoon from one container to the other.

3. Add two teaspoons of distilled water to container 1- Control.

4. Stir in 1 4 cup of hydrogen peroxide to container 1-Control.

5. Stir in 1 teaspoon of yeast to container 1- Control.

6. Place the ruler alongside the container, and record the highest height the bubbles reach

7.Of the other containers, record predictions first, and actual results after on a chart.

8.A To create the acidic containers, add one teaspoon oflemonjuice to container 2- Low Acid and two teaspoons oflemonjuice to container 3-High Acid.

9. Add one teaspoon of distilled water to container 2- Low Acid so it is the same volume as con iner 3.

1O.Stir in V4 cup of hydrogen peroxide to containers 2 and 3.

ll.Add 1 teaspoon yeast to both container 2 and 3. Stir and observe.

12.Record the maximum height ofthe yeast bubbles.

13.To create the basic containers, add one teaspoon ofthe baking soda solution to container

4- Low Base and two teaspoons of the baking soda solution to container 5- High Base.

14.Add one teaspoon of distilled water to container 4- Low Base so it has the same volume as container 5.

15.Stir in V4 cup ofhydrogen peroxide to containers 4 and 5.

16.Add 1 8 teaspoon of yeast to both container 4 and 5. Stir and observe

17.Record the maximum height ofthe yeast bubbles. (Compare your predictions with your actual observations)

Results

The acidic reactions reacted in a very similar way to each other. The low-acid reaction acted in a very similar way to the control reaction in every single trial I conducted. The bubbles in this reaction reached a slightly lower height than that of the control reaction; approximately 1.2 inches. The pH of this composition was slightly more acidic; about a 6 or 5 on the pH scale. The pH being lower is what caused the bubbles to perform in a more decelerated rate. The high-acid reaction also performed at a lesser magnitude than the control reaction. The height of the bubbles reached a height of slightly more than 1 inch. Due to the fact that the high-acid reaction had a lower pH and strayed further from the desired neutral status, it performed the worst of all the reactions thus far. However, this reaction reached its maximum height in a shorter amount of time.

The low-base mixture reacted in approximately the same way as the low-acid mixture. This is because the two mixtures were the same amount of pH away from the desired neutral pH. This concoction was at a pH of roughly 9 or 10. The height ofthis mixture was approximately

Due to the fact that the different reactions reacted in quite a similar way to one another, I decided to conduct an additional experiment. This one consisted of one teaspoon of lemon juice and one teaspoon of baking soda in the beginning. This was to discover if a mixture of the two would accelerate or decelerate the Catalase reaction. I had previous knowledge that a mixture of baking soda and lemon juice resulted in a foamy liquid that helped with indigestion and to fight off minor cancer cells, so I put it to the test with the catalytic enzyme. This concoction reacted in a way like no other. The maximum height of the reaction was approximately 5 inches. This reaction also reached its maximum height quicker than any other reaction. The initial foam of the mixture of the acid and the base caused the yeast bubbles to be larger and whiter in color in comparison to the other reactions.

Bibliography

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