The above chart is shown as different states of drug abusers in Malaysia for 2008. Based on the chart, Georgetown is the highest number of drug abusers in Malaysia which is 730, followed by Kuala Lumpur (669 drug abusers), Ipoh (280 drug abusers), Johor Bahru (267 drug abusers) and Alor Setar (221 drug abusers). From the chart, Georgetown, kuala lumpur, ipoh, johor bahru and alor setar are the top 5 states of drug abusers if compared with other states. This is because of most of the drug abusers are stay in a big city. Besides that, the lowest number of drug abusers is kota kinabalu, that is only one abusers, this is because of kota kinabalu is a small city and the number of population in kota kinabalu is smallest if compared with other states.
Statistic of drug abusers in Malaysia with regarding to race for 2008
For the month of January to July 2008, statistics show that ethnic Malays are the largest number of drug abusers which is 5992 people (74.97%), this is because of ethnic Malays are the largest number of population in Malaysia, when the number of population is increase, the drug abusers will also increase greatly. The second largest number of drug abuser is ethic Chinese which 1088 people (12.61%), followed by ethnic india which is 779 people (9.75%). Besides that, Warga asing, Pribumi Sabah and Sarawak are the smallest number of population in Malaysia, so total number of drug abusers is smallest if compare with other ethnic.
Statistic of drug abusers in Malaysia with regarding to gender for 2008
Based on the above table, the total number of male is 7798 people (97.57%), whereas female is 194 people (2.43%), that mean male is a largest number of drug abuser if compared with female. In my opinion, most of the male, they are easily influenced by friend and they do not think what would happen in their future.
Statistic of drug abusers in Malaysia with regarding to age for 2008
The above graph is shown as the total number of drug abuser breakdown by age. When the age from 0 to 15, we can be considered as children, if the age from 16 to 34, we can be considered as teenagers and the age is more than 35, we can be considered as adult.
Based on the statistic result, the age from 0 to 15 is the lowest number of drug abusers, if compare with teenagers and adults, in my opinion most of the children are not interested about the drug, the only interested to play with their friend and some of the children are only interested about the toys. In addition, most of the children they only listen to their family member, so they are not easy influenced by their friend who is drug abuser.
Besides that, the age from 16 to 34 is the highest number of drug abuser, this is because of most of the teenagers like to try and want to know everything. Besides that, teenagers are easy influenced by friend, so the number of drug abuser will be increased in teenagers.
In addition, the number of drug abusers are decreasing form 35 to 50 year old, this is because, most of the adults are know about the drugs are the dangerous substance and they only want maintain their healthy life, so they reject to take any drugs in their life.
Q2 (b) Discuss the different types of drugs that are found in Malaysia and how will these drugs affect the abuser physically, socially, psychologically and economically.
Alcohol abuser will experience loss of balance, impotence, numbness of the feet and hands, tremor and in blindness. Abuser will sometimes cause injury to themselves or others.
Children who grow up in an alcoholic home will suffer a deep emotional, behavioral damage into adulthood and some mental disorders such as gambling, drugs, sex and food. Abuser home will always fill with conflict, confusion and embarrassment. They will also feel that they are disorder into their adult lives. According to Priory Healthcare survey, girls who have an alcoholic home are four times more likely to suffer from sexual abuse.
Alcohols will also cause a person to loss their intellectual abilities, impaired ability to learn and have mental confusion. Alcohol abuser will suffer from mental confusion, extreme excitement, anxiety, trembling, rapid in heart pulse and hallucinations.
Alcohol will cause the loss of employment, earnings, cost for treatment and hospitalization and reduced productivity. The case of motor vehicle crashes, crime, property loss and damage and social welfare programs can take a large toll in dollars. The court and prison is cost have keep increasing. According to NIAAA, it was reported in 2000 alcohol problems cost about $184 billion in health care, business and criminal justice costs and will cause more than 100,000 deaths.
Opiates (Morphine, Heroin, Codeine, Opium)
Opiates may cause sedation and euphori. A person can become impaired vision, pulmonary complications, menstrual irregularity, gall bladder to become inflamed, eyes and skin to turn to bilious yellow. In some cases, the membranes of the nose will turn to a flaming red and the partition separating the nostrils are eaten away-breathing is difficult. Oxygen in the blood will decreases, the bronchitis and tuberculosis will then develop. Sex organs will also affect. The veins will collapse and livid purplish scars will remain.
High doses can strongly impair judgment and cause highly aggressive and suicidal behavior. Opiates can cause fatal overdose because the treatment options for overdose of opiates are limited. It will also cause a person to falls asleep. If this happen when an individual is driving. This may also harm others passenger.
Opiates will cause drowsiness, dizziness, mental confusion, constriction of pupils, and euphoria. Abuser may lost their consciousness and do something which is unexpected.
It will cause an individual to have infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis if they inject the drug. To treat this disease, government must buy or produce the medicine to treat the affected patients which is costly. Hence, government must spend extra money to solve this problem. If the number of affected patient is high, this may affect the economic status of the particular country. From nationwide, heroin was no changes from 2001 to 2002, but there is an increased in 35% since 1995.
Cocaine will give short-term effects and long-term effects. The short-term cocaine effects include increased in blood pressure, energy, heart rate, and temperature; decreased appetite constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, and mental alertness. The long-tem effects of cocaine are addiction, paranoia, irritability, restlessness, auditory hallucinations and mood disturbances. Cocaine is a highly addictive drugs, it can cause major users to suffer from heart disease, gastrointestinal problems, convulsions, nausea, blurred vision, chest pain, fever, muscle spasms and coma.
Cocaine may cause withdrawal from social relationships which is changing of friends to “druggie friends”, marital quarrel, estrangement from children and cause the user to suffer from job disrupt, financial crises and spiritual estrangement. People who taking high amount will cause the intoxication level to be high, and cause the useraa‚¬a„?s group to create the social background for this type of frequent high intensity use. They will also have deeply disturbed in their social relations, complete ostracism and even death.
Most user of cocaine will normally become anxiety, hallucination and depression. They will face severe sleeping and eating disorder can also progress from continuous use.
Cocaine is the second most important export after petroleum. Cocaine is approximately two-thirds of all United States spending on illicit drugs is $31 billion of the country’s $49 billion retail market in 1993. Americans have spends most money on cocaine. Cocaine is a costly enterprise for the Americas politically and socially for a long time.
Nicotine will cause headaches, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, tiredness, changes in appetite and constipation. Some nicotine users have low urine excretion, and fluid secretions of the airway with salivations becoming initial more productive followed by a period of dryness. It will also cause children to have asthma or young babies to suffer from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).Inhalation of nicotine will cause heart and arterial disease because other components of cigarettes are harmful to physical health.
Nicotine will cause secrecy financial, criminal consequences and behavior changes of the user. This may cause breakdown of many relationships, marriages and leaves of many families in single parent homes, who are struggle to pay their debts and usually have lower living standard. It will also cause some education problem because the pupil lost their concentration levels and grades.
The stimulant properties of nicotine will cause temporary mental clearing because they relieve the nagging nicotine cravings which can be distracting.
The average of youth smoking is about 5.77 cigarettes/day, an increase of 10% in NRT advertising would increase the average to about 5.82 cigarettes/day. This will cause the smoker to spend more money to buy the cigarettes.
Individual who are taking marijuana will have rapid heart rate, increased in blood pressure, appetite and breathing rate; red eyes, dry mouth, and slowed in reaction time.
Marijuana will reduce the ability of learning, and critical thinking for a person approximate 24 hours after the last dose was taken. They cannot make a quick decision during critical condition. User may do something harmful to others but they cannot remember.
The main marijuana effect is euphoria. Users will also faces distorted sense of time, paranoia, magical or “random” thinking, anxiety and depression. User may feel anxiety when they face short term memory lost.
Marijuana helps to repair the economy. Legalizing marijuana and subsequently taxing marijuana will have a large effect on the US economy and the other nation economy. Because of large demand for a circulation product, the government will have benefit from taxes on marijuana.
MDMA cause increases in heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, faintness, and chills or sweating. High doses of MDMA will cause body temperature to increase (hyperthermia); liver, kidney, cardiovascular system failure, or death.
Marijuana will cause an increased sociability, feelings of closeness to others and reduced interpersonal defensiveness. However, MDMA may increase sociability in humans both by diminishing responses to threatening stimuli and enhancing responses to rewarding social signals.
MDMA can also cause confusion, depression, sleep problems, drug craving, and anxiety.
To repairs the damage car from accident, government must spend extra money to buy the accessory of the car. To treatment hyperthermia, it requires prompt medical attentions because it can rapidly cause muscle breakdown and cause kidney failure. The expenses of the medicine are high.