Depression is a symptom of a clear reluctance, lack of will and ability of man to get himself, and lack of will to live. Will is the energy of life, the power that drives everything and everyone. No motive and no desire for anything engine. Person who is in a state of depression, as he lost his motivation and energy to function in daily life in general. Such a reluctance may be due to many different reasons a person’s various levels, for example, negative thinking patterns such as, “I do not deserve to be here, do not deserve to live” or “not for what, as it is dead end.”
Once listed depression, he asks us to form and language, to stop everything, get into bed and do think in order to repair, balance and restore the joy of living life.
In this article I will present a comprehensive overview of what is depression, symptoms and various diagnoses, how to treat depression conventional perception, some physical processes occurring in the body pathology in depression.
The term “depression” can be misleading because everyday use the word depression to describe a temporary depressed feeling many people have often not necessarily reflect clinical problem. Temporary feelings of sadness and depression are normal and natural part of our lives, especially when they are directly related to unpleasant events or negative internal feelings. Clinical depression, however, these feelings go beyond any reason or proportion of external causes. All life events occur that may bring sadness, but people who are depressed can cope with these events and continue to function.
You can view the term “depression” sadness, depression, or melancholy. However, sadness is not necessarily the dominant emotion in human depressive. Depression can also experience a feeling of drowsiness or emptiness, or sometimes numbness at all. Depressed person may lose the ability to enjoy all around him.
Common to see depression as a disease in which a person experiences a significant change of mood and the way he sees himself and the world around him. Depression is a disorder unique ranged between mild and brief disturbance and a prolonged and severe disorder, which can even be life-threatening.
Depressive disorders appear in different forms, just as other diseases such as heart disease can occur in a variety of forms. The three most common occurrences are – Depression Major, Dyastimia Bipolar – Disorder.
In fact a family of disorders called “mood disorders” or “effective interference.”
Intensity of depression may vary from a mild depressive episode, and medium and severe. The symptoms described in this article features all types of depression but the intensity of symptoms and the extent to which they strike the proper functioning variable. (K. Kaplan, Prof. A.. Kaplan, 2008)
How is depression and normal sadness?
As noted, each of us feels sad from time to time. Most of us feel that as a result of experiences such as serious illness, dismissal, death in the family or divorce, but also as a result of less serious and meaningful experiences. These feelings Shuachachut with time. Depression occurs when feelings of deep sadness and despair continues for a long time and disturb the routine of everyday actions such as working or even eating and sleeping. Depressed people feel helpless and hopeless, and accuse themselves of these feelings. Some sink into thoughts of death or suicide. People with depression often become overwhelmed and exhausted and stop any daily activities. They may even abandon their families and friends. (K. Kaplan, Prof. A.. Kaplan, 2008)
How do I know depression is severe enough to demand help?
First, why hesitate? If there are negative feelings that hurt the quality of life should contact the counseling profession at least one meeting will reassure the concerns. This is not ashamed to get support for professional advice. Obtain professional help when symptoms of depression appear for no reason Image is clear, as are intensely emotional reactions can not be explained by the events of life and especially when symptoms interfere with daily functioning. Immediate assistance is necessary when a person is experiencing suicidal thoughts. (K. Kaplan, Prof. A.. Kaplan, 2008)
Because there is no clear physiological signs of depression (can not verify the existence of depression by physical examination), diagnosis of depression is determined by the appearance of some or most of the following symptoms, over a period of more than two weeks:
Physiological level – physical
Eating disorders: loss of appetite or a small appetite.
Sleep disorders: insomnia, early awakening, or alternatively multi-morning awakening and difficulty sleeping.
· Body weight change – increase or decrease.
· Sense of fatigue and weakness.
On the emotional level
· Minority in energy
· Sadness, despair, anger, outbursts of crying, tantrums, anxiety
· Extreme mood change were not typical in the past
· Severing ties and social withdrawal
· Apathy and loss of interest in activities considered fun (hobbies, sports)
· Decrease desire to have sex
· Criticism and self-hatred
· Sense of helplessness and hopelessness.
· Sense of emptiness.
Cognitive level – mental
· Pessimistic outlook grim
· Decrease in concentration, decreased memory, uncertainty in decision making
· Thoughts of suicide
· Judgment of reality, especially of the self, low self esteem
· Attributing failures to the obligation of self bleak vision of the future world.
Different diagnoses of depression
Depression Major (also sometimes called acute depression / severe / acute / clinical)
Depression Major is characterized by accumulation of symptoms that can plague the ability to work, sleep and eating the concentration of the individual. Depressed person stops also benefit from that once gave him joy, suffers a decline guilty thoughts of self esteem and confidence. Emergence of depression called “depressive episode” and it may appear once, twice or several times during life. Usual treatment is medication, psychotherapy, especially in severe cases – electric therapy (ECT).
Depression is an illness has involves the body, mind and thoughts. It affects the way the individual food and sleeps, feels about himself and grabs the other. Sadness is not temporary or transient mode. People with depression are not able to “pick themselves up” to heal ourselves. Without proper treatment the symptoms may last for weeks, months or years. Appropriate treatment can help to more than 80% depressed. It should be remembered that not every person depressed or manic experiences every symptom severity varies from person to person.
Symptoms of depression
By book’s diagnoses ICD World Health Organization, depressive episode with depressed mood and reducing activity, energy and pleasure that were previously normal. To join additional symptoms such as decreased concentration and attention, reduced self-esteem and confidence, negative thinking and pessimistic, appetite and sleep disorders, etc. (not all are).
According to the American Book DSM IV diagnoses, it is common to examine whether there are at least five symptoms from the list below for two weeks in a row that were not there before. At least one of the symptoms should be section 1 or 2, and to diagnose depression symptoms need to cause suffering or social dysfunction, occupational or other important functioning.
1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day (in adolescents and children can come testy mood expression).
2. Significant reduction in interest and pleasure in all or almost all routine activities, most of the day almost every day.
3. Significant reduction in weight without dieting or making a reduction or enhancement of appetite that occurs almost every day.
4. Injury to sleep – a significant reduction or enhancement of sleep time that occurs almost every day.
5. Motor restlessness or passive, heavy motor.
6. Signal or loss of energy.
7. Feelings of worthlessness or guilt.
8. Injury reasoning ability, concentration and attention or increased uncertainty in making decisions.
9. Recurrent thoughts of death (or fear of death) or suicidal thoughts (with or without a plan of action), or suicide attempts.
(Sometimes called persistent anxiety depression, neurotic depression, depressive personality disorder)
Dyastimia is less severe type of depression, including long-term chronic symptoms on the one hand do not impair the function so severe as in the case of depression and major, but on the other hand are driven from the individual to function at full speed or feel good about himself. Although the disease can last for many years in fact characterize the personality of the individual’s lifestyle. Madstimia sufferers also may experience acute episodes of depression, but they are not necessarily aware that they suffer from depression.
Symptoms of Dyastimia
The criteria are quite similar depression major but milder and lasting over time. The symptoms are not severe enough to meet the criteria of depressive disorder. The disorder often begins in adolescence and continuing for several years or even a lifetime. When the disorder occurs in older age is usually associated with a depressive episode or mourning or other negative life events. Symptoms include depressed mood (or testy in children and adolescents) for most of the day, at least two years (one year in children), and properties such as loss of appetite , or overeating, not sleeping or excessive sleeping, low energy and fatigue, low self-esteem, difficulty concentrating and making decisions, feelings of helplessness and more. the most important criterion for depression Dyastimia major is the fact that during the first two years, there is no evidence of an episode of depression Major, manic or hypomania attack, the diagnosis of depression and major is not an attack.
Two depression – bipolar (manic disorder – depressive)
Another type of depressive disorder is manic depressive disorder, also known as depression and bi – polar. This disorder includes cycles of depression and manic exuberance. Moods can change dramatically and quickly, but usually it is a gradual change. Depressive period, you can experience some symptoms of depressive disorder, or all, and in manic symptoms can experience some of the characteristics of mania, or all. Mania affects most cases the reasoning capacity, jurisdiction of social behavior. She expressed worry-free joy uncontrollable excitement. This effect causes a lot of problems and confusion. For example, business and financial decision-making errors can occur during a manic period. Elation with great energy cause hyperactivity, loss of inhibitions, and a sense of growing optimism.
Basically there can be a manic depressive episode that is not accompanied by then be given a diagnosis of mania or bipolar disorder. Hiaponia This is a more moderate level of mania when the other side of an old hardware scale mania with psychotic symptoms in which there is a loss of reality testing that may even endanger the individual severely.
Cyaklevtimia is a state of constant instability and mood that includes a large number of periods of depression or elation moderate level. Phenomenon is not severe enough to meet the criteria of bipolar disorder but causes many difficulties in the proper functioning and quality of life.
Symptoms of mania include effects such as excessive vigilance and arousal, insomnia (not sleeping) severe growing sense of transcendence, an endless speech, confused thinking that the other chase (pressure speech), increased sexual desire, a significant increase in energy, poor judgment inappropriate social behavior .
Depression in adolescents
Suicide rate among adolescents has increased by over 200% over the last decade. Recent U.S. studies have shown that more than 20% of adolescents in the general population, suffer from any emotional problems and one-third of adolescents suffer from depression at some stage of adolescence.
Depression Major, including two-affective disorder – disorder, usually first appear during adolescence and early identification of those conditions that led to the outbreak of the disease, significantly affect the adolescent’s emotional state.
American research has shown that suicide among adolescents is a factor responsible for the deaths of teenagers between the ages of 15-19 than cancer and heart disease. Despite this fact, many times there is a failure in diagnosing depression in this age group, which leads to serious problems in school, work and relationships, problems often persist even in adult life.
Why Easy “miss” depression among adolescents? Adolescence is the age which occur naturally in crises, emotional imbalance, bleak vision of reality, hypersensitivity and a tendency to dramatize. This period of rebellion and testing limits. Psychologist’s challenge is to identify the depressive symptoms that may hide under the veil of normal developmental agitation. Diagnosis should rely not only on formal clinical interview, but the information can be obtained from parents, teachers and counselors at school. Must take into account the patient’s personality before the crisis and a state of overt or covert stress or trauma may have caused the clinical situation. States the most important therapeutic, because the adolescent himself is not always willing to share his feelings with an adult stranger, unless the trust created between them. Must maintain the confidentiality principle, but not enough that parents will be completely treatment. Diagnosis can have more than one interview, so no use to accelerate the process. Directly should be investigated suicidal intention and fear that it “will bring him ideas.” Teenager who did not consider suicide risk avoidance clarify the issue price directly can be costly.
What are the symptoms characteristic of depression in adolescence? Adolescent depression is accompanied by similar symptoms of adult depression, but requires a certain amount of sophistication and adolescent’s symptoms translated into terms of an adult. Severe sadness can be expressed by wearing black clothes, writing songs that deal with death or excessive preoccupation with music anarchist content. Sleep disorders can manifest excessive television watching throughout the night, difficulty to get up in the morning to school, or sleeping during the day. Lack of motivation or low energy is expressed missing classes. A dramatic decline in grades might indicate a lack of concentration and thinking slow. Boredom can attest to the feeling of depression. Loss of appetite may develop bulimia or anorexia. Depression in adolescence can be associated with conduct disorder at first, some family trauma response or rebellion, and can include alcohol or drug addiction. More serious cases, will require a variety of tests and treatments to separate the clinical depression and other developmental disorders.
How to identify suicide risk? Among adolescents, dealing with issues related to death and wondering how their deaths affect family members and close friends, not a rare phenomenon. Fortunately, these thoughts usually do not come into existence. Suicide attempts usually communicate a unique and profound crisis of adolescent life that can include depression. It is important to note that the crisis can seem small margins in the eyes of adults, but very significant for the adolescent. Farewell friend, or reproach decrease negative marks a significant adult (especially a parent or teacher) can be a catalyst to attempt suicide. Suicide attempts are more common among teens who have experienced acute stress situations in their lives. These can be the parents’ divorce, serious family quarrels, physical or sexual abuse and addiction to alcohol or drugs. Suicide of a close friend or relative can also be a catalyst for those in risk group anyway. Teenager goes through distinct personality changes, including social withdrawal, or divide the property and things dear to him, can check that he was going to kill himself. More suicidal attempts suicide really successful, and the ways in which attempts are made can be quite innocent. There is a tendency to refer to attempts Minoreim as ways to get attention, or not to treat them at all. This error, as a teenager he tried to commit suicide and felt some relief after that or find the impossible situation where he is, may attempt suicide again. Any suicidal attempt is a cry for help and treat it very seriously.
Depression in children
Only the last two decades has begun serious attention to depression in children. Until then, people used to think that children can not receive a diagnosis of depression. Depressed child may pretend to be sick, refuse to go to school, cling to a parent or parent’s death to fear. Older children can get into trouble at school, become irritable and feel that no one understands them. Because normal behaviors vary from stage to stage in childhood, it is difficult to know whether the child goes through a temporary crisis, or that he was suffering from depression. Sometimes, parents take care of the child’s behavior change, or the teacher indicates that the child is not the same. In this case Iomlc usually turn to be reviewed by a psychologist or psychiatrist who specializes in children. Subject of depression in children has been investigated only in recent years ink out publications that discuss the topic seriously. If the child distress transmitter should not hesitate. Parents can turn to, even without the participation or child mixing process , a professional and get advice.
Depression in women
Women suffer from depression at a rate double that of men. Hormonal factors contribute to seem high rate of depression among women, especially factors such as menstrual cycle changes, pregnancy, abortion and depression after childbirth. Many women face in addition to pressures of combining work and family care, single mothers and treatment of both children and parents and adults. A recent study showed that women with PMS were relieved the emotional and physical symptoms when their sex hormones were suppressed. When the hormones return to their level standard, those women who developed symptoms again. Women who did not have PMS, did not respond to this manipulation. Hence there is a connection between hormonal activity to stress and depression. Many women suffer from hypersensitivity after the birth of a baby. Hormonal and physical changes, the new responsibility of infant care, may lead to depression after childbirth. Moderate sadness very common after childbirth, but when symptoms are increasing and last more than a few days, you should get help. Postpartum depression may be dangerous to both mother and baby.
Depression in men
Although the rate of depression among men and less women are still the most common phenomenon. Men may also admit as depression and doctors diagnose it less. Suicide rate among men is four times more than women, though more women attempt suicide. Over 70 suicide rate among men rose, reaching a peak after age 85. Depression can affect the physical health of men differently than women. New research shows that although depression is associated with higher risk of heart disease in women and in men, more men die as a result. Depression in men often hiding behind the veil of alcohol and drugs, or behind the common habit of multiple hours. Depression in men often expressed not so much a sense of helplessness and hope, but anger and irritability, and therefore more difficult to diagnose. Even if the man is aware of depression, less likely to refer for help, than a woman in a similar situation. Support and encouragement from the family can make a difference.
Depression in elderly
There is an incorrect opinion that the sense of depression in old age is normal. On the contrary, most elderly people feel satisfied with their lives. Sometimes Achsahdyachaon develops is seen as normal aging. Depression in old age, without diagnosis and treatment, causing unnecessary suffering man and his family. When that person turns to the doctor, he usually complain about physical symptoms, and less will tend to complain about feelings of sadness, helplessness and loss of enjoyment of life interest, or but persistent. Because there is a tendency to miss the symptoms of depression among the elderly, learning professionals that diagnose and treat depression. They learn that some of the symptoms are side effects of taking the older drugs because of physical illness, or they are caused by any illness. If it is diagnosed depression, psychological therapy can make the person happy supplied more. A recent study showed that brief psychotherapy (brief targeted therapy that helps a person in his daily life or help him get rid of negative thinking) is effective and reduces the symptoms of depression in older people. Psychotherapy is also effective for what they can not receive drug treatment. Effective diagnosis and treatment of depression in old age can make these years providing fun for the elderly, family and surroundings.
Grieving process that accompanies depression and the difference between clinical depression
Feelings of depression are a normal reaction to the death of a loved one (mourning) and can be accompanied by loss of appetite, weight loss, insomnia and more. Although the symptoms are similar to a state of clinical depression this is a natural response. The problem requires treatment when there is no change in depression for a long time, when there is a great preoccupation with death, combined with feelings of futility, guilt, self depreciation, and other ongoing dysfunction. In some cases may go up thoughts or suicide attempts. Mourning drew a “normal” varies from company to company. Jewish society is acceptable to think of a period of years from death of a loved one in a reasonable time, although the application definitely needs professional help may come earlier. Social support is an important basis to prevent transformation of the process, but clinical depression.
What is depression internal (endogenous)?
Depression is considered to be internal when he appears without a negative external event or stressful situation that preceded it. Required drug treatment of depression in most cases internally. Some professionals do not treat this depression as a category in itself but believe every depression there is an internal component depression.
What is depression “not typical”?
This is not an official category, but some refer to it as a type of depression separately. A person with depression is, experiencing an increase in appetite and sleeping more than usual. Is able to experience pleasure, though not invest effort in search of fun elements. Such depression is depression different from “typical”, which usually involves a loss of appetite, difficulty sleeping and lack of ability to enjoy talking.