Connected PHYSICS

Task 2

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Segment ECE-1, G-2

Question 1: Explain piezoelectric transducer in detail.

Reply: The Piezoelectric transducer is an?electro acoustic transducer utilize for?conversion?of?pressure?or mechanical worry into a substituting electrical force.?It is utilized for estimating the physical amount like power, weight, stretch, and so forth., or, in other words conceivable to gauge.

The piezotransducer changes over the physical amount into an electrical voltage which is effectively estimated by simple and computerized meter.

It is a reversible impact and the different material that exihibit this property are quartz precious stone which is produced using silicon and oxygen masterminded in gem structure. Piezoelectric precious stone is electrically unbiased. It doesn’t require electric voltage hotspot for activity. The electric voltage created by piezoelectric transducer is straightly shifts to connected pressure or power.

It takes a shot at the important of piezoelectric effect.It has high affectability so it likewise fill in as sensor in accelerometerfor magnificent recurrence reaction.

Points of interest of Piezoelectric Transducer

No need of outside power.

Simple to deal with and use as it has little measurements.

High recurrence reaction it implies the parameters change quickly.

Drawbacks of Piezoelectric Transducer

It isn’t reasonable for estimation in static condition.

It is influenced by temperatures.

Yield is low so some outer circuit is joined to it.

It is exceptionally hard to give wanted shape to this material and furthermore wanted quality.

Question 2: Explain about presser sensor.

Reply: Pressure sensor?is an instrument comprising of a weight touchy component to decide the real weight connected to the sensor and a few segments to change over this data into a yield signal.?Pressure is a declaration of the power required to prevent a liquid from extending, and is normally expressed regarding power per unit territory.

A weight sensor generally goes about as a?transducer; it produces a flag as a?function?of the weight forced.

Utilization of weight sensor:-

1. Weight detecting: – climate instrument, air ship, autos and other apparatus that has weight work

2. Height detecting: – air ships, rockets, satellite, climate expand

3. Stream detecting

4. Level/Depth detecting:- submarine or jumper

5. Break testing

Question 3: Explain about temperature sensor.

Reply: A temperature sensor is a gadget, regularly, a thermocouple or RTD that accommodates temperature estimation through an electrical flag. A thermocouple (T/C) is produced using two unique metals that create electrical voltage in direct extent to changes in temperature. A RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) is a variable resistor that will change its electrical obstruction in direct extent to changes in temperature in an exact, repeatable and almost straight way.

Standards of Operation


A thermocouple is produced using two unique metal wires. The wires are consolidated toward one side to frame an estimating (hot) intersection. The opposite end, known as the reference (chilly) intersection, is associated over an electronic estimation gadget (controller or computerized marker). A thermocouple will create an estimation flag not in light of genuine temperature, but rather in light of a distinction in temperature between the estimating and reference intersections. A little encompassing temperature sensor is incorporated with the electronic estimating gadget close to the point where the reference intersection is connected. The surrounding temperature is then added to the thermocouple differential temperature by the estimating gadget with the end goal to decide and show the genuine estimated temperature. Just two wires are important to associate a thermocouple to an electrical circuit; be that as it may, these interfacing wires must be produced using indistinguishable metals from the thermocouple itself. Including wire produced using different materials, (for example, basic copper wire) will make new estimating intersections that will result in off base readings.


To more prominent or lesser degrees, all electrical directing materials have some measure of protection from the stream of power. At the point when a known electric voltage goes through a conduit, the obstruction fluctuates dependent on the temperature of the transmitter. This opposition can be estimated and will relate to a particular temperature. While different components are influenced by temperature in various ways, platinum is ordinarily utilized in a RTD because of its virtue, linearity and soundness over an extensive variety of temperatures. An electronic readout gadget, for example, a controller or advanced marker intended to gauge opposition, is required for use with RTD sensors.

Question 4: Explain optical sensors.

Reply: An optical sensoer is a gadget which is utilized to changes over light beams into electrical flag . it measure physical amount of light and after that translaste it into a shape lucid by an instrument. An optical sensor is for the most part a piece of an extensive framework that coordinates a wellspring of light.?An optical sensor can gauge the progressions from one or a few light bars. At the point when a change happens, the light sensor works as a photoelectric trigger and thusly either increments or declines the electrical yield.

Utilization of optical sensor:

1.It is utilized in mobilephones to alter screen brightnes

2.It is utilized to associate one circuit to another.

3.It is ideal for oil and gas application.

Question 5: Explain electrostatic actuator.

Reply: An?actuator?is a segment of a machine that is in charge of moving and controlling a component or framework, for instance by opening a?valve. In straightforward terms, it is a “mover”.

An actuator requires a control flag and a wellspring of vitality. The control flag is generally low vitality and might be electric voltage or present, pneumatic or water driven weight, or even human power. Its primary vitality source might be an?electric current,?hydraulic fluid?pressure, or?pneumatic?pressure. When it gets a control flag, an actuator reacts by changing over the flag’s vitality into mechanical movement.

An actuator is the instrument by which a control framework follows up on a situation. The control framework can be straightforward (a settled mechanical or electronic framework), programming based (e.g. a printer driver, robot control framework), a human, or some other information.

An actuator is an engine that believers vitality into torque which at that point moves or controls a component or a framework into which it has been fused. It can present movement and additionally anticipate it. An actuator ordinarily keeps running on electric or weight, (for example, water driven or pneumatic). The control framework can be controlled mechanically or electronically, programming driven or human worked.

What makes engines work? The rotor and stator gatherings. These are ordinarily known as the essential and auxiliary windings inside the engine. Voltage is connected to the stator gathering – the essential winding – which brings about actuating the stream of current to the rotor get together, or the auxiliary winding. The cooperation of these two makes an attractive field which results in movement. There are two sorts of engines: AC engines, which normally move at a consistent speed; and DC engines, which move at variable rates.

The speed of an AC engine is controlled by the recurrence of voltage connected by the quantity of attractive shafts. Inside the AC engine are the stator gathering and the rotor get together. On the off chance that the AC engine is an acceptance engine, the rotor pivots slower that the stator’s field. On the off chance that it is a synchronous engine, the rotor and the stator move in synchronization.

In DC engines, the rotor get together pivots trying to adjust itself to the stator gathering however is counteracted by a section known as the commutator. At the exact minute, the commutator switches the rotor field while the stator gathering stays stationary. This gives the way to control speed and situating.

There are a few sorts of actuators, every one of which work fairly uniquely in contrast to the next.

Pneumatic engines are air driven, utilizing either vacuum or compacted air, which changes over vitality into straight or rotational movement. Pneumatic stress and stream decide both speed and torque. These are utilized in applications in which positional precision isn’t a necessity.

Water powered engines move a cylinder through a tube utilizing pressurized liquid. The higher the liquid weight, the higher the torque created. Water powered engines yield direct, rotating, or swaying movement however increasing speed is restricted. Water driven engines are normally wasteful, can be a fire peril and require more than expected upkeep.

Grip/Brake engine works by coupling a persistently pivoting shaft with a heap, ceasing just when the heap is uncoupled. While this engine is anything but difficult to apply, generally cheap, and extraordinary for light loads, its increasing speed is uncontrolled and additionally mistaken.

Stepper motors?(DC engine) are electromechanical, changing over a computerized beat into rotational development or removal. While stepper engines are bad to change stacks and are regularly not vitality productive, they are awesome for consistent burdens and positional precision.

Air conditioning Motors (enlistment compose) utilize electric starters to give associations, startup, and additionally over-burden assurance. While Induction engines are all the more usually thought of as having steady speeds, the presentation of microchip innovation gives some factor speed capacities.

Servo motors?(DC engine) are to a great degree high performing with couple of shortcomings. Servos give speed control and position precision because of its criticism gadget, are little, and estimated moderately low.

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