Cognitive View of Depressive Disorders

Compare and contrast the psychoanalytic explanation with the cognitive view of depressive disorders.

Freud debated that people whose requirements weren’t met during the uttered stage of psychosexual occurrence are exposed to emerging melancholy in maturity because this causes low self-respect and extreme reliance.Persons who are exceptionally reliant on another people are notably expected to arise recession after such a demise. Resentment at the death is vicarious onto the self, which influences self-respect and affects the person to re discover damage that appeared in nonage. Has frontage authority, Early harm does not constantly foretell dejection and the main flaw of Freud’s theory is the lacking firsthand support and so is neither provable nor falsifiable. As stated in this approach, gloominess is caused because of maladaptive education. The mores of operant conditioning have been realistic to clarify misery with the help of boosting and mistreatment. Lack of positive support or too much rough treatment leads towards depression. As stated by Lewinsohn (1974,) that sadness is because of decline in positive backup as a outcome of certain type of damage, e.g. redundancy, relationship breakdown. Moreover, once depressed, the person may get encouraging vibes such as kindness and devotion. In 1974 Hiroto run down three clusters of human members: such as wide open to a booming noise they couldn’t break; exposed to a rowdy noise they could stay by pressing a button; and was unable to hear a loud pitch. All candidates were then positioned in face of a rectangular pack with a knob on it and exposed to loud pitch. Unidentified to the candidates, the pitch could be switched off by affecting the grip from one side to another. The participants previously exposed to a loud pitch they couldn’t end showed experienced helplessness by failing to move the handle.

Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot

Premium Partner
From $18.00 per page
4,8 / 5
Writers Experience
Recommended Service
From $13.90 per page
4,6 / 5
Writers Experience
From $20.00 per page
4,5 / 5
Writers Experience
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team

Environmentally deterministic
Ignores nature
Face validity
Ecological validity
Population validity

Cognitive dysfunction in attribution way (attribution model of Abramson et al.’s ) and theory of self, the universe, and the expectations (Beck’s cognitive triad) have been interconnected to the growth of depression. Negative schemas develop at some stage in childhood as a result of serious interpersonal outcomes, and are started when the entity facing the same situations in upcoming life. Abramson, Seligman, and Teasdale (1978) established Seligman’s effort with the model, which visualizes how people react to failure. Abramson again with Metalsky, and Alloy (1989) presented the actual theory because they linked few significance to the focused attributions and more significance to the concept that depressed person present a general logic of hopelessness. Evans et al. (2005) also presented a prospective theory and found that females with the highest ranking for negative self-beliefs at the time of pregnancy were 60% more possible to become depressed consequently than those at the bottom side.

An upper number of stressful life events mainly precede depression. During the survey, Interviews of depressed women resulted that 61% of affected women had badly faced at least one very stressful event in her life as compared to 19% of a non-depressed normal women. Social and family support was recognized as an entity that protected from depression, only 10% of women having a close and true friend faced depression compared to 37% of the women without an warm and dear friend (Brown & Harris, 1978). According to socio-cultural theorists the frequency of key depressive disorder is inclined strongly by demographic factors. Marital rank is one more important social and demographic factor. Blazer et al. (1994) noticed that individuals with divorce were high depressed than those who are married or had never been into any relation. Culture has an impact on the natural world of the symptoms experienced because people in non-Western countries state mostly physical symptoms (e.g. sleep, fatigue and disturbances), on the other hand self-blame and guilt are more common symptoms in Western countries.

Throughout the whole discussion it can be observed that Freud’s’ ideas are very explicit in making a clear direction about the components to make up a human personality in different stages of life (Lanea). According to Sigmund Freud’s theory, there are two basic components of the conscious and unconscious mind. These parts contribute in identification of the self-personality by the human. Every personality has different states of mind as conscious and unconscious mind together makes interaction to develop human personality. His ideas also helped in revealing the elements dividing the human personality like id, ego and superego. The fundamental structure of human mind is actually the primary base of the human behaviors and personality in different life stages.


Lanea, Christopher. “Philosophy of the unconscious: Vacillating on the scene of writing in Freud’s project.” Prose Studies: History, Theory, Criticism (1994): 98-129.

Brown & Harris, Vulnerability Factors, 1978.

Blazer et al, Lifetime risk of Depression, 1994.

Abramson, Metalsky, and Alloy, Hopelessness Depression, 1989.

Why is the concept of disease not suitable when discussing personality disorder?

Sigmund Freud is a prominent figure in psychology known as a creator of psychoanalysis i.e. analysis of the mind. He was the one who presented a complete set of theories and ideas about the personality and ultimately made composition of an interchange between the psychic structures and events within psychosexual stages of development (Gallinek). Despite his theories and ideas faced high level of criticism in terms of their circularity and gender specificity, a relative fact cannot be undermined that reflects his theories and ideas can be used to make identification of person’s personality in different life stages (Vivas).

Both the Abraham Maslow and Dostoevsky have showed and given their perceptions and descriptions about concept of disease not suitable when discussing personality disorder and the needs of an individual in life and their priorities in their individual statements. However, Abraham Maslow’s idea looks more practical and realistic as the major population in the world first seeks for the necessity like food (Caldwell and Mou). It can be noted here that how the person is capable of doing anything in his life even searching for his identity or the purpose in his life, in the absence of the physical energy provided by him in the form of food. Some needs of the people hold priorities over others. The Maslows hierarchy of need place fundamental emphasis upon the need for the satisfaction of the hunger. Order of prioritization can be deemed as a basic element of the disagreement between two statements (Frankl). In order to understand how Freud’s theories and ideas are helpful for the identification of the personality in different life stages, it is necessary to understand the new way introduced by him in making analysis of the human behavior. According to him, metal energy is the basic source of devising a human behavior (Ahmed). These energies are produced by the libido, which is a part of Id and creates the energy through survival and sexual instincts. A worth noting point about his theories and ideas is that these revolves around the unconscious mind as according to him unconscious mind play a vital role in developing human behaviors and ultimately his personality (Harvard Women’s Health Watch).

On the other hand, when we consider the statement written by the novelist, Fyodor Dosteovsky, he gave the priority to self-actualization needs of an individual, which means search for the personal identity (Ndimunkum). His individual believes can be proved from the verses of Bible as the book gave the same idea in the place of different references representing that man does not survive only on the bread alone, but also all those things that are made available by the God for him (Coleman). The individuals accepting the teachings of Bible would be capable of reacting and sensing in the same way (Green). The another example supporting the statement of the Dostoevsky is the act of fasting that is experienced by the humans in their life, sacrificing their need of love for the sake of accomplishment of the purpose. Additionally there are number of individuals suffering from the different types of mental confusions and disorders, and in this situation, they do not give any importance to the food or diet simply because of the depression, anxiety and insecurity practiced by them (Frankl). However, both the statements can be implemented with respect to certain situations and even with the mutual integration. It can be depicted that though the priorities of the two psychologists are different, yet there are numerous activities that are used to satisfy the human needs can at the same time respond to both the priorities including food and hunger. Farming, planting and transportation activities on the one hand can provide the platform for earning money to get food for the satisfaction of hunger as well as also become an edge for the searching of the individual purpose to lead the live (Green). It is true that no man can survive without food and give reference to it over love and self-esteem, yet without a clear purpose and identification, individual would soon be bored with the life he is leading, even though he has enough food to eat.

Conclusively, these needs cannot be studied in isolation as they have great significance on the quality of life of a man and upon the psychological satisfaction of him. Nothing is less important as each element in the life possess its individual place (Hessong and Weeks; Journal of human behavior)


Hessong, Robert F. and Thomas Harold Weeks. Introduction to education. Macmillan, 1987.

Green, Christopher D. “A Theory of Human Motivation.” 2000. Classics in the History of Psychology. 20 July 2012 .

Frankl, Viktor. Man’s Search for Meaning. Beacon Press,, 2006.

Coleman, James Kaii. Living by Bread Alone: Man’s Quest for the Good Life. iUniverse, 2008.

Ndimunkum, Mike Tangunu. The Greatness of America. AuthorHouse, 2009.

Harvard Women’s Health Watch. “Psychoanalysis: Theory and treatment.” Harvard Women’s Health Watch (2006): 4-5.

Ahmed, Sofe. “Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory Oedipus complex: A critical study with reference to D. H. Lawrence’s “Sons and Lovers”.” Internal journal of English and literature (2012): 60-70.

Frankl, Viktor. Man’s Search for Meaning. Beacon Press,, 2006.

Caldwell, Linda and Shela Mou. Integrating Social Science & Ecosystem Management: A National Challenge. DIANE Publishing, 1997.

Vivas, Eliseo. “THE LEGACY OF SIGMUND FREUD.” Kenyon Review (1989): 110-118.

Gallinek, M.D. Alfred. “The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud.” (1964): 87-91.

Explain the difference between positive and negative symptoms. How do these symptoms affect the functional outcomes and quality of life for individuals with schizophrenia?

The conceptualization of stress and schizophrenia along with their impact on mental and physical health of patients has gained significant importance. It is obvious that the organisms are subjected to evolutionary pressures from the environment. The ability to respond to environmental threats along with stressors has enhanced survival along with the physiological responses. Alzheimer’s disease responses to stressful situations can be the part of adaptive responses because the risks inherent in the situation (Harrell). Therefore, the paper is discussing the conceptualization of stress and immunity regarding the stress and immunity on health of patients. These aspects are discussed in the context of the counseling while discussing the consequent impacts on normal functioning abilities of patients.

There are different studies contributing to the conceptualizing of Alzheimer’s disease as situations that can be considered as stressful. The taxonomy can be adopted to characterize the stressors, which has the advantage of differentiating the stressors on important dimensions namely duration and course. It further includes five categories of stressors. Acute time limited stressors involve laboratory related challenges such as public speaking (Cervantes and Castro). The brief naturalistic stressors involve a person confronting a real life challenge for short term period. In stressful event sequences, a focal event causes the emergence of a related sequential events and challenges. It is found that affected people do not know when these challenges will subside but they are aware of the fact that the challenges will subside in future.

It can be said that the situation in which a body perceives a threat, series of chemical and physical responses occur. The major response is the activation of the autonomic nervous system involving a part of the nervous system that is abnormally under control. The sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the stress response while the relaxation response is controlled by parasympathetic nervous system (Hwang and Ting). The body secretes catecholamines helping in preparation of the person to fight or turn from the threat and run. The release of such hormones triggers the fight or flight response in patients. The increase in the chronic stress can affect the human body negatively as it can increase the risk for developing heart disease, asthma, arthritis, hypertension, migraine, and ulcers (Cervantes and Castro).

According to experts panel report of Experimental biology 2004, it is identified that mechanisms as well as pathways through which the hormonal response to situations of schizophrenia influence functions of person social responses. These changes represent to have effects on susceptibility, onset and exacerbation of different mental as well as health diseases such as atherosclerotic, depression, multiple sclerosis and others. It is observed that stress makes interface in between endocrine hormonal and the immune system active. However, if the perception of stress represents to lie for short-term basis hormonal alterations ultimately fade away (Eisenman, Bergner and Cohen).

In reference to the cases when the stressful sensory input continues it initiates dysregulation of immune system, at the same time it tends to influence the production of distinctive soluble aspects that refers to have impacts on brain. Specifically these intense responses of clients preferably linked with enhanced vulnerability in order to create a clinically considerable depression in between chronic immune stimulation. There are number of stressful situations of patients that ultimately influence immune system of client such as divorce that preferably generate chronic stress. It is observe that stress immediately affects immune system as grabbling with swirl of different negatively influencing thoughts and emotions, as there is not a surprise if immune system of patient takes a abrupt nosedive.

Disease generates profound impacts on biological functions of individual, it is due to the reason that central nervous system of human body is directly associated with brain, spinal cord as well as closely functions with endocrine system that is responsible for hormonal distribution. In the similar way, stress also enhances chances of heart disease, causes blood pressure, chest pain and other heart related problems.

In conclusion, there are also some other stress related issues other than heart disease that most of the depression patients represent these involves asthma, obesity, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal issues, accelerated aging and most obvious is premature death. While conducting analysis it is identified that the death rate it almost 63% of patients with persistent stress in comparison with normal (Berk). However, there are number of studies that denote that there are number of ways through which people can fight against stress such as deep breathing or reframing the situation can generate higher positive responses. In the similar way, stress also make patients crave for fats and carbohydrates that cause weight gain and rises risk of diabetes.


Berk, Jay H. ” Trauma and resilience during war: A look at the children and humanitarian aid workers of Bosnia.” Psychoanalytic Review 85.4 (1998): 639-65.

David P,Eisenman and Sharone Bergner and Ilene Cohen. “A model victim: idealizing trauma wounds causes traumatic stress in person rights workers.” Person Rights 4 Review (2000): 106-114.

Cervantes, Richard C. and Felipe G. Castro. “Stress, Coping, and Mexican American Mental Health: A Systematic Review.” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 7.1 (2003): 1-73.

Hwang, Wei-Chin and Julia Y. Ting. “Disaggregating the effects of acculturation and acculturative stress on the mental health of Asian Americans.” Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 14.2 (2008): 147-154.

Harrell, Shelly P. “A Multidimensional Conceptualization of Racism-Related Stress: Implications for the Well-Being of People of Color.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 70.1 (2000): 42–57.

You Might Also Like

I'm Alejandro!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out