CBT is assumed. In treating a variety of conditions, including mood, anxiety, personality disorders, substance abuse, and psychotic disorders Many treatment programs for specific disorders to evaluate the efficacy CBT, the trend of medical treatment on evidence, which recommended specific treatments for symptom-based diagnosis has CBT approaches such as psychodynamic treatments favors.
CBT was developed mainly by the integration of behavioral therapy with cognitive psychology research. This tradition later merged with previous work of some clinicians, labeled as cognitive therapy (CT). Common features of the CBT techniques are the focus on the “here and now”, a role Directive or the therapist structuring psychotherapy sessions and the path, and the reduction of symptoms and vulnerability patients.
Several approaches to Cognitive Behavioral Approaches are as followed:
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Rational Behavior Therapy
Rational Living Therapy
Cognitive Therapy and
Dialectic Behavior Therapy
CBT has been applied in clinical and non-clinical to treat disorders such as conditions of personality and behavior. A systematic review of CBT for depression and anxiety disorders concluded that “CBT in primary care, including self-help software and Internet, delivered potentially more effective than usual care can be in a therapist effectively provided in primary care available.”
Adults has been shown CBT to play a role in the treatment plans for anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, chronic low back pain, personality disorders, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders, substance abuse, the adaptation of depression and anxiety with fibromyalgiaand with spinal associated cord after .
Children or adolescents, CBT is an effective treatment plan for anxiety disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, depression and suicidal tendencies, eating disorders and obesity, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic tics, trichotillomania, and other repetitive behavior disorders.
Recent evidence suggests a potential role of CBT in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), hypochondria, multiple sclerosis, sleep disorders associated with aging, dysmenorrhea and bipolar disorder, but additional study results should be interpreted with caution. CBT has been studied as a means connected in the treatment of anxiety associated with stuttering. Preliminary studies have shown that effective TCC reduce social anxiety in adults who stutter, but no reduction of his frequency of stuttering.
CBT training helps managing challenging behaviors of young people in their care, and it was not useful in the treatment of men who abuse their intimate partners
Cognitive Behavior Theory
Cognitive Behavior Theory: some argues that mental events had to be taken into account as mediators between stimulus and response, others going so far as to claim that learning was itself a mental event. Cognitive theorists becoming more interested in classic methods of behavior change while behaviorists have become more concerned with cognition. This combined movement, known as cognitive behaviorism, has become more and more influential. The central claim of the cognitive behaviorists is that cognition affects behavior independently of the stimulusaa‚¬”indeed, that people’s actions are often responses not so much to external stimuli as to their own individual mental processing of those stimuli. These theorists claim that though cognitive events are not objectively observable, they are learned responses, and thus are subject to the same laws as other behavior.
Cognitive Behavior Theory: Variables Affecting Behavior
There are five basic categories of cognitive variables that help to determine individual responses to a given stimulus:
Each of us has a unique set of skills, acquired through past learning, for dealing with various situations. If person A has learned to respond to pushiness by giving in, while person B has learned to stand up for her, then these two people will react differently when someone squeezes in front of them in the checkout line at the supermarket.
Each of us has a special way of perceiving and categorizing experience. If a woman who strongly supports the feminist agenda finds a copy of Penthouse under her teenage son’s bed, she may have a talk with the boy on the injustice of viewing women as sex objects. Another woman may say to herself, “Boys will be boys,” and push the magazine back under the bed.
Through learning, each of us forms different expectations as to which circumstances are likely to lead to rewards and punishments. A child who last year ate too much cotton candy at the circus and vomited on her new dress may turn down an invitation to go to the circus again this year, whereas another child would eagerly accept.
Each of us, as a result of learning, places different values on different stimuli. A person raised in a large city may go on calmly reading his newspaper when the man sitting next to him on the bus begins talking to himself out loud. A person raised in a small, well-behaved community might get up nervously and change seats.
Through learning we also formulate plans and rules that guide our behavior.
TCC has effective in the treatment of all diseases of the fear.
A basic concept in CBT treatment is used in some anxiety disorders in vivo exposure to a term that describes a technique in which the patient is gradually exposed to the fear stimulus current. The treatment is based on the theory that the reaction was classically conditioned fear based and prevent negatively reinforces it and sustains fear. These differences with age. Among the challenges to TCC because of their age are:
1. The Cohort Effect
The time that each generation lives thanks in part to shape their thought processes and values, so a 70 years may react very differently to therapy than 30 years, due to the difference in culture, they grew up in. A tie in the sense that each generation must interact with one another, and different values hitting another can make the treatment more difficult.
2. Established Role
When they reach old age, the person has to invest a particular view of their role in life and in this paper. This social role that can control a person believes they are, and can be difficult to adapt to the changes required in the CBT therapy.
3. Mentality toward Aging
If the older person sees aging as a negative, which may aggravate the disease despite treatment, is to try to help (depression and anxiety, for example). Negative stereotypes and prejudices against depression stereotypes lead over self-reference.
4. Processing Speed Decreases
As we age, we have more time to learn new information, and therefore may take longer to learn and retain cognitive therapy. Therefore, therapists should slow the pace of therapy and use tools both written and verbal will improve retention of cognitive-behavioral therapy.
5. Later Age Hardships
Problems found later in life compared dealing with younger subjects, such as chronic illness, disability and pain of the loss of loved ones, may also affect the mentality of the patient and a large influence on the work and effectiveness of any therapy CBT.
Society and culture
The National Health Service in Britain announced in 2008 that most therapists are trained to provide CBT at public expense under an initiative called Improving access to psychological therapies (IAPT). CBT would be the mainstay of treatment for severe depression to, a drug used only in cases where the TCC failed. Therapists have complained that the data are not fully support the attention and funding received CBT. Everyone was impressed by the apparent cheap CBT. The UK Council for Psychotherapy published a press release in 2012 stating that policies undermined traditional psychotherapy and proposals that would restrict criticized certain therapies approved CBT, claiming they restricted to patients “a watered down version of cognitive -behavioral therapy (CBT), often provided by a qualified slightly. “