(Chiroptera is word which comes from Greek language it was combined with to words Chero and Pteran “Chero” means to “Hands” and “Pteran” means to “Wings”. Chiroptera is second largest as well as smallest mammals in world after rodents. They are representing about 20% of all classified mammal species on earth.
They exist approximately 52 million years ago having approximately 1,240 bat species. They involved rich diversity of roosting as well as feeding. Many species of chiroptera lived on caves, rocks, tree hole, abdomenent buildings and different structures which are man-made. During night time chiroptera will become active because they are known as true nocturnal. According to morphological characters all species are changed from other species as well as changes occur on their feeding, living roosting that’s way chiroptera are divided into two sub orders “Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera”.
(i)Megachiroptera are known as megabats or fruit eating bats they are including in flying foxes and Peteropodids.(ii)Microchiroptera are consider as highly specialized microbats or echolocating microbats. It was observed that 70% of microbats are insectivores other species of this group are fructivores as well as some species are “Hematophagus” or “Sangivorous” which are commonly known as vampire bats usually feed from blood of other mammal species accepted humans.Microchiroptera’s are one of that species of mammals which is considered as true flight mammals.
They are capable of bear powerful air and easily maintain their body weight during the flight because of flapping motion. This flapping motion is present of their arms which is elongated after evolution of their forlimbs. All species of microchiroptera present with various morphological characteristics (e.g.
ears, tragus, eyes, wings, nails, tails as well as membrane of wings or tail) according to their family and genus all species are showing different morphological characteristics because of climatically changes color variation are present on each species.1.3.
2. General study of Microchiroptera:Microchiroptera found in various terrestrial habitats accepted cold regions. This order of chiroptera is also found on that habitat which is known as “typical habitats” included in tropical forest, temperate deserts, open fields, agricultural areas, as well as rural and urban areas. Various species of microchiroptera lived near watering areas including freshwater streams, lakes and ponds, because of feeding purpose they usually eats insects which were emerge from water usually on night time.
Generally, terrestrial habitat provides insectivore’s species proper sites for roosting and appropriate food for eating. Which were included in various type of insect species. All species of microchiroptera wants proper sites for roosting which is different from each and every species of this order. For example, various species make their roost in caves, trees, under tree logs, and even in that places which leave by humans or abdomenent buildings and many other man-made structures. Microchiroptera also used different types of roosts according to seasonal conditions because this species is going in hibernating condition in winter season. On this particular season this species make roost in caves for going hibernating condition.
In summer season they use trees, tree holes, bamboo tress for make their roost.Microchiroptera’s are known as unique flying mammals they have many same hormones as like other mammals but in all hormones some hormones are highly developed because they going in hibernation condition whole winter season. Microchiroptera have well developed which helps to secrete “insulin, leptin as well as melatonin”.
This secretion helps occur to interaction and regulate amount of body fat also saved them for winter season. These hormones also helping in to regulate their reproductive cycle. Various species of microchiroptera which exist in brown color have well developed homeostasis system their thyroid glands stimulate their tissues which are known as adipose tissues. This adipose tissues helping to increase energy level and also regulate particular hormones which is helpful to increase energy in hibernating condition.
Estrogens hormones is also promotes energy level which is comes from leptinergic and melanocortin system and promote females reproductive cycle in hibernating condition but many females avoid to activate their reproductive cycle in this particular season if this cycle is start in hibernating condition make reason of dead for this female. According to physiology of microchiroptera states that their progesterone hormones promote energy by stimulating adrengic signaling it is only present in females. Females also have special hormone which is known as lectogenic hormone this hormone helps to making milk on mammary gland after delivery and secrete milk on time of babies feeding.1.3.
3. Contribution of microchiroptera in world:Microchiroptera are cosmopolitan present most regions of world, excepting most extremely cold regions. They are playing important vital roles in ecology. Many tropical plant species which are entirely depended on order chiroptera for distribution of their seeds.In megachiroptera flying foxes are known as frugivores and in microchiroptera many species are insectivores they all covered distance and dispersed seeds up to (1 to 2 kilometers) in many areas which are favorable as well as humid it is helping to grow completely most species of plant in hot and dry seasons it is clearly has chance up to 50% germination. Many species which are frugivores they playing beneficial role in growing to plants and also helps in regeneration of forest and promote forestry life.
Microchiroptera’s are known as pollinators. They helps to pollinate flowers as well as trees which includes in (Musa) bananas with flowers and including ancient species of (Musa) which known as edible bananas. Microchiroptera pollinated many species of flowers which includes various nocturnal flowers, many flowers are exist with strong characteristic that type of flowers are successful to attracts and encourage microchiroptera’s to sucking nectar and helps to pollinating other species of nocturnal flowers. Microchiroptera’s have strong relationship with and bananas from their co-evolution approximate 50 million years ago included on basis of adaptations for effective dispersion of seeds to promote diversity of plants and flowers.
Ecologically microchiroptera’s provide many benefits of their other wild relatives. They also important for conserving diversity of forest genetically.Century plant (Agave macroacantha) is one of that plants which are only depended on microchiroptera for their growth and development because they are known as nocturnal pollinators (flying only in night time) and century plant is also nocturnal. Some of these pollinator’s species are migratory and flight various types biotops or flora and fauna to helping increase diversity of (Agave macroacantha) plant and promote it diversity.
Honey tree (Madhuca indica) or Mahwah tree is pollinated by many species of microchiroptera. This pollination gives highlighting one of highly valuable ecosystem. Microchiroptera also provide many services in both economically and culturally. That’s way they are considered as important species Peteropodids. Chiroptera’s are one of that species which known to pollinate flowers approximately 168 species included in 100 genera and 41 families of beneficial plants.
They help in feeding on flower’s nectar as well as pollinating easily because of their relatively specialized morphological characters which is their “elongated snout and tongue” few members of these families are considered as obligate pollinators. Their population help to interaction, pollination, and seed dispersal to which type of plants that are providing a nutritional reward and very beneficial for human society (e.g. nectar, pollen, and fruit pulp).Microchiroptera’s are also playing important role in ecology in form of distribution various nutrients and soil fertilities because they use relatively high mobility to communicate and also use of different habitats for roosting.
This conditions help for soil fertility and also to transfer nutrients within ecosystem.Guano (feces) of microchiroptera’s has presented with great ecological potential in form of bats sprinkle. This sprinkle is sprites over landscape throughout whole night time. Microchiroptera’s is also contribute lot of to redistribution of nutrients in those habitats which known as nutrient rich regions like rivers and lakes as well as poor nutrient regions which includes upland landscapes. Their guano is supporting in diversity of many other species (e.g.
arthropods, fungi, bacteria, and lichens). These species are present on various trophic regions or levels. This type of living organisms is presented different guano which is depending on species and particular diet of this particular species.For example, many insectivorous species of microchiroptera is typically depending on “mites, beetles, thrips, moths, and flies”. After observing and study of guana it is revealed that insectivores species has presented with fragment of that insects as well as guano of Frugivorous species of microchiroptera is presented with “spiders, mites, isopods, millipedes, centipedes, springtails, barklice, true bugs, and beetles” both species are feed different types of insects.
Guana of microchiroptera’s is also used as fertilizer in field of agriculture. It has been mined from caves to fertile agricultural crops. This guana have high concentrations of limiting nutrients (e.
g. nitrogen and phosphorous) it is also very rich. Those fertilizer which makes from microchiroptera’s guana known as world’s finest natural fertilizers. Approximately 950 microchiropteran species guana sell as a product because it is valuable in markets as fertilizer product.
This guana is collected from some roosting sides of microchiroptera’s as well as which types of places where are harvesting carried out on a sustainable basis, especially on that caves where microchiroptera’s normally migrate and spend part of their life each year. Various types of bacteria are exists from microchiroptera’s guana. Their guana is also been used to make some detergents to improve their quality as well as making other products which is beneficial for human beings or society.Microchiroptera’s also playing important role economically because they are consuming many harmful insect or pests which highly harmful for our valuable crops as well as they helps in reducing need of pesticides.Various species of microchiroptera only feed upon prominent insect or pests. These insects are identified by presence of insect fragments in their feces samples and also from stomach digestion. Microchiroptera are consuming a big quantity of insect or pests that wasted many cost of farmers and foresters which is approximately billion rupees per year.
These insects are included in (Scarabidae), (Elateridae) beetle species, (Cicadelidae) leaf hoppers and (Delphacidae) plant hoppers species and many other insect species.One of most prominent species of microchiroptera which named as “Mexican free-tailed bats” (T. brasiliensis) only feed upon approximately one million kilogram of the various costly agricultural pest insects included (corn earworm moth) on every night.
Each member of this species will eat 20 female corn earworm moths in a night and helps to save beneficial crops this female of corn moth approximately can lay as many as 500 eggs potentially producing 10,000 crop-damaging caterpillars this eggs and caterpillars of this female are eaten by this specie and helping to reduce damage on beneficial crops. Approximately 150 big megachiroptera which is known as (E. fuscus) help to consume enough adults of cucumber which is known as cucumber beetles in per season of summer they prevent many egg-laying beetles.
These beetles could produce 33 million root-worm larvae and caused to damage beneficial agricultural fields. Brazilian free-tailed microchiroptera consume wide range and various varieties of parasites including in 12 orders of chiroptera which including in 35 families of sub-orders of chiroptera approximately 14,000?kg agricultural pest. Microchiroptera’s are one of that several groups which naturally prey upon mosquitoes. In myotis family on species which known as (Myotis austroriparius) 30,000 southeastern microchiroptera’s bat present in big colony which is found in Florida. They eat 50 tons of insects per year including more than 15 tons of mosquitoes. Another species of northern long-eared bats (Myotis septentrionalis) feed upon the mosquito populations and helps to reducing the population of this harmful insect species and save humans from malaria, dengue and many other several diseases.
Microchiroptera is also been used as food items, source of money as well as medicines many years ago. In many Pacific countries and Asian countries (e.g.
Vietnam, Guam etc.) bats are directly source of human food. Another species of Microchiroptera which is known as (bat bush meat) have sold out in Malaysia and Jakarta they are used as a source of income for making money. Bat bush meat are very beneficial and has highest nutrient (high protein,