Chapter 1IntroductionBackground of the StudyAcademic performance is the outcome done by the student for a specific goal CITATION Ste17 l 1033 (Steinmayr, meirner, Weidinger, & wirthwein, 2017).Attaining good performance in academic is the main goal of every schools and institutions. However, some studies found that there is a decline in academic performance of students.
In America, students are not fully interested in teaching and learning process and disengagement in academic is very evident resulting to lower scores in achievement test and drop out count is increasing CITATION Sbr09 l 13321 (Sbrocco, 2009).There are many contributing factors that affect the students’ academic performance in school. Factors such as gender, age, teaching faculty, students schooling, father/guardian social economic status, residential area of students, medium of instructions in schools, tuition trend, daily study hour and accommodation as hostelries or day scholar CITATION Sho13 l 1033 (Ali, Haider, Munir, Khan, ; Ahmed, 2013).But, despite of these circumstances, some researchers found that involving the students to sport will help aid this alarming issue. Involvement in sports activities increased students learning efficacy, higher degree of academic performance which results to obtaining higher grade successfully and students and participating in sports activities makes a student likely to become naturally competitive not just in sports but also in academic aspects CITATION Ron17 l 13321 (Montecalbo-Ignacio, Ignacio, ; Merites, 2017). Sports involvement is important part of students’ education and academic performance, moreover students who participate in these kind of activity tend to be academically achiever that those who don’t participate CITATION Pau13 l 13321 (Eggen ; Kauchak, 2013).Participation in sports help enhance social and personal development, lessons like team work, competition and learning to win and acceptance of losing (Daniels and Keeper, 2006) as cited in CITATION Pau13 l 13321 (Eggen ; Kauchak, 2013).
In addition, it will boost students’ self-esteem and social acceptance that may lead to having confidence and positive feelings with themselves which is a great factor on performing better academically CITATION Sin l 13321 (Singleton, 2016). However, sports activities requires much time on the part of the student for practice, games and pre-training which may result for not having enough time in attaining high grades CITATION Lau16 l 1033 (Straub, 2016). Also, student athletes are pressured in accomplishing requirements because of their dual priorities which are athletics and academics, where most of the time academics are given lesser emphasis CITATION Jer13 l 13321 (Rosario, 2013).
In La Salle Bacolod, academic performance was given less emphasis among student athlete, survey was conducted on men’s basketball team for their course preference, most of them enrolled a course which is not actually their choice but because of the conflict on their class schedule and training time they preferred to enroll other course that suits their schedule CITATION Joa13 l 1033 (Henson, 2013). On the other hand, active involvement in sports by many college students is still very evident. Sports activities boost confidence and positive feelings with themselves which is a great factor on performing better in academic CITATION Sin l 1033 (Singleton, 2016).
However, sports activities requires much time on the part of the student for practice, games and pre-training which may result for not having enough time in attaining high grades CITATION Lau16 l 1033 (Straub, 2016).Many studies support the claim that sports participations has positive effects on students’ academic performance. However, some researchers contradict the said findings and believe that involvement in sports by students will affect negatively their studies. With these uncertain result findings, the researchers decide to conduct further studies to the BSE-SPE students of University of Mindanao, Matina campus and see if there is a correlation between intramural sports involvement and academic performance of the student athlete.Statement of the ProblemThe study aim to determine the correlation of intramural sports involvement and academic performance of University of Mindanao BPE-SPE students. This study aim to answer the following question:What is the level of intramurals sports involvement of students in terms of:Constrains,Negotiation Strategies,Motivation, andEgo Involvement.What is the level of academic performance of the BPE-SPE students in terms of:2.
1 GPA (General Point Average)Is there a relationship between intramurals sports involvement and academic performance of the students?Hypothesis of the studyThe following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.There is no significant difference of the level of intramurals sports involvement of the BPE-SPE students in terms of constraints, negotiation strategies, motivation and ego involvement.There is no significant difference of BPE-SPE students’ academic performance in terms of GPA (General Point Average).There is no relationship between intramurals sports involvement and academic performance of the students.
Review of Related LiteratureThis section will provide important information to provide references or strong framework of the variables under this study which are intramural sports involvement and academic performance.The next paragraph will talk about the independent variable which is the sports involvement that has four indicators as what have given by Wood (2011) the constrains, negotiation strategies, motivation and ego involvement. On the other hand the GPA (General Point Average) of the previous semester of the student is the indicator for the dependent variable.Sports Involvement.
Emie, Young, Harvey, Charity, ; Payne(2013) define sports involvement as a binary categorical variable that don’t have specific level of involvement but they concluded that there is a significant relationship of the degree of participating sports or physical activity to psychological, social health. This was supported by the study of Donaldson and Ronan (2006) they investigated about the participation of students in both formal and informal sports and they’ve found out that greater participation on sport. According to Maffulli (2010) there are widespread participation or physical activity engagementin the western countries since they believe that through this participation it can improve the quality of life in which it is well documented there most importantly health and fitness activity has positive impact to cardiovascular health. As contrasted by Gougoulias (2010) he also documented some negative factors about involvement in sports and other physical activity such as leg deformation and other physical problem which resulted to dropped outs of the atheletes but Goncalves (2013) generalized that we can view positive impact of sports involvement of individual is of greater value rather than it’s negative effect.Sports participation or involvement are not only limited to organized events of sports club but also it is one way of putting accountability of participating any sporting event even if it wasn’t organized it will come into different form maybe a ball game as long as it is a sport Participation in sport(2017) as what have they define it. the significance of sports participation in indirect or indirect form are primarily the development of physical strength and endurance, great value of sportsmanship and developing the idea of teamwork and in order to build the motivation of sports participation one must have muscular strength, muscular endurance, self confidence, comprehension, self regulation, balance and coordination.
In the study of Kondric (2013) he noted that motivation is a great factor to the increase of student participation in sport and it most likely due to the intrensic motivation that they’ve encountered throughout there school days. Most likely student are motivated to join in the Grade School since it is pure fun and enjoyment but there are some factors also such as gender differences that hinder them into sports participation and it difinitely elevates the idea of sedentary living that will involve low quality of life and obesity. Sports participation as what have supported by his study that it really helps in achieving a well-rounded prsonality and the need to engage in physical exercises is a must to different student especially the youth.As what have reviewed in Sports Participation intervventions (2017)students that were engaged in any sporting activity will have a additional educational engagement means it is correlated. This has been done to a lot of programs set by the sports coordinator or any group organizing such programs and it is also let the enthusiasm of the students into peak level with the combination of sports activity to a any lessons such as ICT, Mathematics and literacy. Furthermore they generalize the effect of sports engagement or participation has a positive outcome to the student but cathegorizing it as low since it took for a dual month for the progress but according to the recent study in UK they empahasized a phenomenal effect of this sports participation to the students and they incorporated in with social and health benefits with with array of teaching approaches.
One of the most known standards for getting into physical activity with proper setting of accomplishment is through sports Visek et al.,(2017) . They found out that in the United states more than half of the adolescent population are involved into at lest one organized sporting events. With this participation physiological health benefits are very evident and that because of the wide array of support that was provided by the community, stakeholders and significant others.
In addition to their claim they have also gathered very alarming numbers of drop outs of adolescents in participation because of the deficiency of experiences youngsters get but Visek et al.,(2017) found out that having fun really motivates children from engaging into organized sporting events. Because of this Merkel (2013) arrived into conclusion that these activities-the sporting events is a must and must be the basic founadtion of youth even if there are records of negative impact because sporting events gave connection to children’s social skills such as bridging friendship and other developmental skills in every phase of learning. There are numerous health benefits of sports engagement as what have documented above by several authors thus, focusing on fundamental such as incorporating fun, positivity of immediate environment and an equilibrium of physical fitness together with lifelong lesson can weild greater success of youth progress.Based on the study of Humphreys; Huang (2012) there are greater correlation of physical activities such as sports involvement and self reported happiness in the United States. Based on the survey the’ve found out that people who live in a state or country where they can mazimize the utilization or accessibility of the equipment in sports tend to have greater satisfaction in life.
Even if men and women get ample happiness towards participation yet it shows that men are more beneficial from it this claim was also supported by Harris (2012) based on the longitudinal study he made then he found inderect and direct effect of sports engagement or participation to mens in which pertains to American-African male to their educational endeavour or attainment.The impact of sports participation not only limited to some positive outcomes such as health benefits or physiological but also a greater foundation of childhood motor coordination Barbara, et al., (2012). It is when a children is set into consistent or stabilized sports activity over a period of time consistently and it can lead into better coordination levels compared to a children who did not participate at all. This research further noticed that the stabilization or consistency of motor coordination can greatly predict the talent or will help in identification process throughout the life span. Gross motor (physical) skills(2017) supported the claim above that the idea of gross motor skills or the motor coordination is a paramount in everyday function of the children and one of it is the impact of learning and endurance towrads coping.
There are a lot of factors affecting the sports participation such as, gender, socio-economic status to name a few (Watters, Anderson, Wall, & Sztainer, 2009) In sports participation, gender and socio economic status have greater positive impact. Where as the moderate to vigorous physical activity is lessen during high school and adolescent stage wether for male and female. This shows that the economic status affect the participation of adolescence usually in organized sports that needed some funds and it is documented as a downward slope. Then it is tantamount to put or design any physical activities that could cater the differences of these youngsters. Relatively, a sports involvement model was developed which presents sports participation components including coonstraints, negotiation strategies, motivation and ego involvement which served as indicators measuring the level of students’ sports involvement (Hubbard and Mannel,2001; Wood 2011) as cited in CITATION Rod16 l 13321 (Emboscado, 2016).Constraints.
In this study constraints can be dissected into three parts the interpersonal, intrapersonal and structured constraints (Crawford ; Godbey, 1987; Godbey et al., 2010; Jackson, Crawford, ; Godbey, 1993). Constraints as define by Collins English dictionary (2014) as the threat or use of force to prevent, restrict, or dictate the action or thought of others. First dissected is the interpersonal skills which are asserted by the authors above that it is a psychological condition of one self be it a stress, anxiety, religion, social preferrence, attitude, kin or non kin and biased evaluation of various social activities. According to the study of CITATION Siq15 l 13321 (Cai, 2015) he interpreted that in China there are about 36.5 % of there population are satisfied with the given liessure activities while there are about 25% who are unsattisfied this constraints can be paralleled to the interpersonal constraints in which he found out that there are students who preferred easy activities.
Furthermore, intrapersonal skills can be define as the absent of support from the immediate environment such as family, friends to partake in different liesure activity (Crawford ; Godbey, 1987) this can be attributed also as the absence of interpersonal constraints. The last one is structured constraints in which define by sociology as about factors that restraining the persons ability to make decision on it’s own that can be subdued into any political, social, cultural and economical aspect in which also the claim of Põder, Lauri, Ivaniushina and Alexandrov (2016).Negotiation Constraints. Rintaugu et al (2013) define negotitation constraints as tactics of individual in order to lessen up the effect of constraints to participation in sports and involvement. Son, Kersteller & Mowen (2008) states that negotiating constraints is use when applying as mediating effect both the affirmative and undesirable impacts of constraints in sports involvement and participation. Lyu (2012) made an assertion that the notion of negotiation lead to a perspective that of theoritical development which hypothesize the perceived effect of constraints.
Based on the studies mention above human still on the pursuit of strategizing how to overcome constraints on the sports participation to mitigate the certain effects of constraints. This was proved by Jackson, Crawford, & Godbey (1993) that the result of non participation can be better negate if diverse or different tactics will be used.Motivation. In psychology, motivation can be define as an inside process in which it is a drive of a person to do his goals in life and it can be percieved by certain behavior of man .
Moran (2017) distinguish five theories of motivation and that are intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, Theory of vitality, Sandwich theory and Amotivation. an intrinsic motivation which can be define as motivation of own interest and own inclination . Extrinsic motivation which can be define as a motivation caused by external factor that affect one’s decision such as financial or rewards.
Third, is the Theory of vitality which is closely related to the two motivations above and can be characterized as the determining factor of athelete performances given that he is passionate in sports and constantly getting the desired outcome his vitality will rise and vice versa. Fourth is sandwhich theory is like putting criticism to athlete performance and as well as putting admiration to athlete desire to play and win. The last one is amotivation it is the absence of motivation. This claim was also supported by Taylor (2009).Ego Involvement. Nugent (2013) define ego involvement as imperative to one’s self and it is base on how person see it and how they identify it as vital to their lives.
Wilson et al., (2015) describe ego involvement as an internal motivation of field of interest and inspiration towards sports involvement. This was supported by Eiser (1996) in which he asserted that it’s all about own motivating factor of an individual that will result to self confidence and self understanding on different situation. He also asserts that this may not be pleasant to somebody because it is a satisfaction of one’s self.
Whereas, Kyle, Absher, Norman, Hammitt, and Jodice (2007) suggested that ego involvement can be classified into five categories that are first, it is the attraction to activity second, social bonding third, identity affirmation fourth,centrality of activity to lifestyle and last the identity expression in which they senthesized that in constitutes the innate motivation of one self to a certain situation. The first one which is attraction to activity deals with having inclination towards a liesure activity. Second the social bonding in which characterized by it is the degree of closeness towards participating individuals.
Third, the identity affirmation in which can be define as the verification of self to self relationship. The fourth one is centrality of activity lifestyle which denotes the coonection of everyday living on the organization of lifestyle connected to sports participation. Last the identity expression it’s all about not being reluctant to show self identity to everyone that is participating. These claims of the author above supported by the studies of Rothschild (1984) and Potwarka, McCarville, Johnson Tew, ; Kaczynski, (2009)Furthermore, Sherif and Hovland (1961) made an invistegation that ego involvement somehow it will result to biases of peoples judgement of one thing and a limited range of acceptance to another point of view . The same findings also by Adams (2013) in which she contextualize that ego involvement is the stimulation of attitude base on resilient belief. This simply signifies that having high ego involvement is parallel to showing higher belief and higher stimulation of agressiveness towards certain concern of ones self. This is also an assertion of Prebensen et al (2012) that involvement can be seen as the inclination of one person to a certain passion that makes him involved to a situation.
Academic Performance.Academic Performance. (IGI Global, 2017) define Academic performance as performance of students from past semester Grade Point Average and their expected GPA for the current semester. The grade point average or GPA is now used by most of the tertiary institutions as a convenient summary measure of the academic performance of their students. The GPA is a better measurement because it provides a greater insight into the relative level of performance of individuals and different group of students.
(Williams, 2017)also added that academic performance to common understanding it is the grade that student received at the end of every semester and he also said that it was different since there a lot to consider when getting the academic performance of the students he added that extra-curricular activity and leadership also factors in academic performance. It was supported by (Bell, 2017) she solidifies the definition of academic performance as the indicator of success in students since it is the set of standards put up the local government and institution itself. Every day is a competition so having greater academic performance will cement the student spot in corporate world. She also emphasized the subjectivity in this part since it only focuses on visual learners during assessment not giving opportunity to kinesthetic learner but it is the fact that most of the teachers and administrator commit. Academic performance as what have common people say it is a grade point average student received in every semester since it is one of the variable here in the research. But always remember that academic performance does not stop on the academic performance alone but it also emphasizes on extra-curricular activity or the total performance of the student.
Theoretical and Conceptual FrameworkThis study is anchored on J.Sanchez-Bueno;AntonioVos-Saz, (2017) which they found out academic performance of sports participants compared with those of non-participants in terms of their outcomes in the form of grades reveals that participation in formal sporting activities is associated with higher grades and lower grades among students. The analysis reinforces the idea that apart from their health benefits for practitioners, sporting activities lead to the attainment of the performance goals to which higher education institutions aspire.(Mahoney, Cairns, ; Farmer, 2003; Gorry, 2016) asserts that in the athletic context, success has often been associated with self-discipline, the ability to concentrate, staying focused, showing perseverance and determination, and working hard.
Whether these qualities are transferred to the academic field will provide a strong signal for earning good grades. When motivated not only towards the athletic domain but also towards the academic one, physically active students manifest self-confidence, maturity, focus of control or a work ethic, and develop certain skills that are consistent with educational values that may lead to a successful academic outcome Furthermore, participating in extracurricular activities such as sports helps students to develop their own personal initiative, as they feel they are doing something they really like because they are doing so on a voluntary basis, and it is something they have chosen to do, so they are willing to make an effort to achieve the challenge they have set themselves. All this is highly conducive to good academic performance, as within this context students will be capable of learning and acquiring new skills, setting goals, and identifying those factors and resources that will enable them to achieve the desired outcome.The figure below represents framework of the two variables of the study and it’s indicators.
Academic PerformanceGPA (grade point average )INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLEIntramural Sports InvolvementConstraintsNegotiation StrategiesMotivationEgo InvolvementFigure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1. Conceptual Framework of Variables of the StudyDelimitations and Limitations of the StudyThe limitation of the study is the use of the definition of sports involvement and the respondents of it. The sports participation that where included mainly on Basketball, Softball or Baseball and Volleyball where the respondent of the study where only 50 Bachelor of Physical Education Major in School Physical Education and must not be a varsity student in the University of Mindanao SY (2017-2018). Though the result were deliberately measured to improve its reliability and validity there are possibility that are some factors will come out but will focused mainly on these indicators. Thus, for further indicators future studies should add another indicator.
The Academic Performance will focus on the grade point average of second semester only and the respondents were randomly selected.Significance of the StudyThis study would genuinely help the following stakeholders.Students. This study will serve as their inspiration in putting more motivation in studying, which in return, may affect their academic performance. Moreover, students will inculcate in their minds the effect of sports involvement.Clinical Instructors. As mentors or teacher, they will let their student encourage some activities so that it will become a strategy for a better mindset or academic performance of the student that will become a technique somedayAdministration.
This study will serve as basis for them to assess the degree of effectiveness of the teacher’s teaching strategies and some factors affecting the academic performance of the students and later will be structuring developmental plan for the sports involvement of students.Parents. This study will serve as their instrument in giving information on what will be the effect of sports involvement to the students. And will add some strategies to the parents in line within the academic performance of the students.
Future Researchers. This study will serve as their reference for their future research undertakings and they may use the gathered data as basis in conducting research studies of their own.Definition of TermsThis are the following terms that we will use in this research. For better understanding here are some of the terms.Intramural Sports Involvement.
This was an organized event or any sporting event that where participated by the students it maybe comes in team sports but only limited to basketball Volleyball, Softball or Baseball in this study.Academic Performance. The Grade Point Average of the BPE-SPE students during the survey conducted.Chapter 2MethodDiscussed in this chapter were the presentations of the research design, research respondents, research instruments, data gathering procedure, and data analysis approach.
It provides the necessary explanation of the instrument employ in the gathering of data and statistical treatment used for valid interpretations and analysis.Research DesignThis study used the descriptive correlation method of research. Descriptive correlation research, according to CITATION Goe16 l 13321 (Goes, J., Simon, M., 2011) is for identifying relationships between variables and for making predictions.
It seeks to find out the extent of the correlation of two or more variables using statistical data without manipulating any of the variables, only identifying and analyzing as it occurs naturally. In addition, CITATION Lom13 l 13321 (Lomax, R. ; Li, J. , 2013) described descriptive research as a phenomena being study.This study describes the relationship that may exist among natural emerging relationship between intramural sports involvement and academic performance of BPE-SPE students of the University of Mindanao. This method of research involves drawing forth of information regarding current issues.
Relevant data obtained for the questionnaire were subject to statistical test. The data presented in tabular form, integrated and inferred to be able to answer the questions under conditions. In this study, the researchers correlated the sports involvement of Bachelor of Physical Education – School Physical Education (BPE-SPE) student and their academic performance.
Research RespondentsThe respondents of this study were the fifty (50) BPE-SPE students who are officially enrolled in the University of Mindanao during 2nd semester, school year 2017-2018, Matina Campus, Davao City. The sampling technique was employed in the selection of the respondents is random sampling. Since, there are only 97 BPE students enrolled in 2nd semester, the random sampling formula was used to determine the number of percent.
Research InstrumentsThis study is carried out with the use of a survey questionnaire comprised with two parts (1) the Demographic Data, this instrument will be developed by the researcher to gather the data of the respondents which includes the age, gender, and year level), (2) the Likert Scale Questionnaire of Intramural Sports Involvement, this instrument was adopted and modified from the Continued Sports Participation and the Negotiation of Constraints by Laura Wood, 2011. It has 30 items which measures the indicators in involving intramural sports (8 items for Constraints, 8 items for Negotiation Strategy, 7 items for motivation and 7 items for Ego Involvement. The tool was used in this study was adopted and modified from the study conducted by CITATION Woo11 l 13321 (Wood, 2011) on the Continued Sports Participation and the Negotiation of ConstraintsThe development of the questionnaire will be done by presenting it first to the adviser for comments and suggestions and after which the subject matter experts validated the questionnaire. The rating scale as well as the ranges of mean value has an assigned numerical as well as descriptive value as follows:Scale Descriptive Equivalent Interpretation5 strongly agree This indicates if the statement is extremely affect sports involvement.4 agree This indicates if the statement is moderately affect sports involvement.
3 undecided This indicates if the statement is somewhat affect sports involvement.2 disagree This indicates if the statement is slightly affect sports involvement.1 strongly disagree This indicates if the statement is not at all affect sports involvement.Range of Means Descriptive Equivalent Interpretation4.20 – 5.00 Very High The student expressed strong agreement with the item.3.
40 – 4.19 High The student expressed agreement with the item.2.60 – 3.
39 Average The student expressed neither agreement nor disagreement with the item.1.80 – 2. 59 Low The student expressed disagreement with the item.1.
00 – 1. 79 Low The student expressed strong disagreement with the item.Data Gathering ProcedureThe data was gathered through the following proceduresPermission to conduct study. The researchers asked permission from the Dean, College of Teacher Education of the University of Mindanao regarding the conduct of the study.
Upon approval, the letter is a part of their research work.Administration and retrieval of the questionnaire. The researchers administered the instruments personally to BPE-SPE students in the University of Mindanao. Retrieval of the questionnaire. The data were gathered, tallied and tabulated subjects to statistical analysis.
Data Analysis ApproachThe following statistical tools were used in the computation of the data.Mean. This tool was used to determine the sports involvement and academic performance of the respondents.Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation. It was used to determine the correlation between the intramural sports involvement and the level of academic performance of BPE-SPE students in the University of Mindanao. Chapter 3Results and DiscussionPresented in this chapter are analysis, interpretation and findings of data gathered based in the statistical results used in this study to determine the intramural sports involvement and academic performance of physical education students.
The specific topic discussed in the study are the level of intramural sports involvement, level of academic performance, and the relationship between sports involvement and academic performance of physical education students.Level of Intramural Sports InvolvementOne of the purposes of this study was to determine the level of sports involvement of physical education students. The sports involvement was measured in terms of constraints, negotiation strategies, motivation, and ego involvement.Presented in Table 1 is the summary of respondent’s response with the overall mean score 3.58 or high level with standard deviation of 0.665 indicating that the sports involvement of students was oftentimes observed.
The level of sports involvement is derived based on the mean of the indicators from the data noted that the negotiation strategies in sports involvement obtained a highest mean rating of 3.92 or high with a standard deviation of 1.08. On contrary, constraints in sports involvement attained the lowest mean rating of 2.89 or average with the standard deviation of 0.59.
On the other hand, the second highest indicator of sports involvement was the motivation rated as high with a mean rating of 3.86 and a standard deviation of 0.97, followed by ego evolvement rated as high with a mean of 3.67 and a standard deviation of 0.82. Table 1. Level of Intramural Sports Involvement of Physical Education Students Indicator x? SDConstraints 2.
89 0.59Negotiation Strategies 3.92 1.
08Motivation 3.86 0.97Ego Involvement 3.
67 0.82Overall 3.58 0.665Presented in Appended Table 1.1 is the sports involvement of physical education students in terms of constrains.
It is shown that among the eight (8) statement listed, statement two (2) I wouldn’t participate in intramurals if I have school commitments is mostly agreed with a mean value3.20, followed by statement one (1)I am too shy to start participating in intramurals, 3.08;statement three (3) I don’t have the right clothes or equipment required to participate in intramurals, 3.00; statement four (4) I wouldn’t participate in intramurals if the facilities aren’t convenient, 2.
98. Also, statement six (6)I am not in good enough shape to participate in intramurals with its mean value of 2.84; statement eight (8) I have a preference for activities other than intramurals, 2.82; and statement five (5) the people I know usually don’t have enough skills to participate in intramurals, 2.
74 is considered as moderately agreed. On the other hand, statement seven (7) I am too busy with physical activities outside of school to participate in intramurals, with its mean value of 2.46 is considered as the low agreed by the physical education students. The overall rating was average with a mean value of 2.89 and standard deviation of 0.59.Based on the Appended Table 1.
2 is the sports involvement and academic performance in terms of negotiation strategies. Among the indicators it has a high level or overall mean score of 3.92. It is shown that seven items were rated as high the I try to participate in intramurals that fit with my class/work schedule, with a mean value of 3.94; I try to meet people with similar interests, 3.
92; Sometimes, if I need some recreation time, I just drop what I am doing and I will participate in the game that day, 3.92; I set aside time for intramurals, 3.90; I try to be organized, 3.78; I participate in intramurals that meet my ability, 3.72; and I try to find people to do intramurals with, 3.42.
However one item were rated moderate, I ask for help with the required skills, with a mean value of 3.32.Meanwhile, based on Appended Table 1.
3 is the sports involvement and academic performance in terms of motivation. It is shown that physical education students mostly perceived that they are motivated when they are involved in intramural sports. Statement two (2) I participate intramurals to interact with others, rated as the highest level perceived by students with a mean value of 4.22 and standard deviation of 1.00, followed by statement five (5) I partake intramurals to enhance my overall mood, 4.
12, statement six (6) I inclined myself in intramurals to meet new and different people, 4.06, statement seven (7) I willingly participate intramurals to challenge my abilities, 4.00, statement one (1) I joined intramurals to renew mu energy levels, 3.98, and statement four (4) I indulge myself in intramurals to meet new and different people, 3.90.
On the other hand, statement three (3) I involve intramurals to develop physical skills and abilities was also rated as high with a lowest mean value of 3.86 and a standard deviation of 0.93.Likewise, further analyzed in the Appended Table 1.4 intramural sports involvement in terms of ego involvement revealed that the overall mean rating is high with a mean of 3.
67 and standard deviation of 0.8. This means that academic performance in terms of eco involvement is sometimes manifested. The item When I’m participating in intramurals, I don’t have to be concerned with the way I look, was rated with a highest mean value of 4.00, followed by statement four (4) To change my preference from intramurals to another recreation, 3.
84, statement seven (7) Participating in intramurals provides me with an opportunity to be with friends, 3.67, statement five (5) When I participate in intramurals, I can really be myself, 3.64, statement three (3) Intramurals is very important to me, 3.48, and statement two (2) Intramurals occupies a central role in my life,3.46. Meanwhile, statement one (1) intramurals is one of the most satisfying things I do, was rated as high with a lowest mean value of 3.
44. It is shown that students perceived most in intramural sports involvement in terms of ego involvement. Level of Academic PerformancePresented in Table 2 is the level of academic performance of random physical education students for the second semester school year 2017-2018. It is shows that the Grade Point Average (GPA) got the low descriptive equivalent with the mean rating of 2.85 and standard deviation of 0.43. This manifested those physical education students who were officially enrolled for the second semester school year 2017-2018 got a low Grade Point Average.
Table 3. Level of Academic Performance of Physical Education Students Items x? SDGrade Point Average2.85 0.43Correlation Matrix of the Measures Presented in Table 2 is the significance on the relationship between intramurals sports involvement and academic performance. It is shown that among the four indicators were not significant and the overall r-value of 0.
158 and p-value of 0.272 were rated also as not significant. Therefore, there is no significant relationship between academic performance and the independent variable whether by indicator or overall.The summary of the results shows that intramural sports involvement in terms of constraints and grades based on the correlational coefficient value of 0.02, which means not significant the same with the negotiation constraints, motivation and ego involvement which are 0.106, 0.
149 and 0.139 respectively which has an over all of 0.158 thus, the null hypothesis have been accepted. Moreover, the relationship of academic performance or the grade point average of Bachelor of Physical Education students, which is low, compared to intramural sports involvement that yielded to p-value of 0.272, which means a high p-value but no correlation at all, which has 0.02 coefficient value. This further means that there is no enough evidence of rejecting the null hypothesis of non-significance of the relationship between Intramural Sports Involvement and Academic Performance of Bachelor of Physical Education students.
Table 2. Correlation Matrix of the Measures of Intramurals Sports Involvement and Academic PerformanceIntramurals Sports Involvement Academic Performance Significancer – value p – value Constraints 0.020 0.888 Not SignificantNegotiation0.
106 0.463 Not SignificantMotivation0.149 0.300 Not SignificantEgo0.
139 0.334 Not SignificantOverall0.158 0.272 Not Significant**.
Correlation is significant at the 0.1 level (2-tailed)Discussion Presented in this chapter are the discussion, conclusion and recommendations derived from the results of the study.Level of Sports Involvement of StudentsThe overall sports involvement of the students is high, which means that the students’ sports involvement was oftentimes observed. It is observable that the motivation of students towards involvement in sports is very evident base on the result presented. Students enjoy participating in sports because they will have a chance to meet and interact with other people.
However, it is unavoidable that some of the students tend to decline from involving in sports due to some constraints to consider, one of those is not having enough time or too busy with other activities than involving in intramurals. Others also say that having enough clothes or equipment results them from not being involve in sports. Despite of that, students find ways on how to overcome this dilemma, like they set aside time for intramurals and involvement in sports and they choose sports that will fit their schedules.
Nevertheless, students find time to involve in sports and intramurals because it is way of experiencing their selves and letting other people see who they really are that they don’t need to be concerned on how they look and just be themselves. Also, students think that involving in sports provide them to be with them friends which has the same interest. Hence, this study proved that the Bachelor of Physical Education students of University of Mindanao have high level of sports involvement which in turn benefits them positively. As confirmed with various authors ( Montecalbo-Ignacio, Ignacio,& Merites,2017; Eggen & Kauchak, 2013; Daniels and Keeper, 2006; Singleton, 2016). Sports involvement is linked with different benefits towards students’ physical, mental and social aspects. Moreover, students’ sports involvement help them boost self-esteem and social acceptance that may lead to having confidence and positive feelings with themselves which is a great factor on performing better academically CITATION Sin l 13321 (Singleton, 2016).Among the four indicators in sports involvement, motivation domain dominated over the rest three indicators, namely ego involvement, Negotiation strategies and constraints.
Based on the data the students are highly motivated in involving in sports in order for them to enhance their social aspects. The students indicated that they participate in sports activity to interact with other people. This finding of the study is articulated by CITATION DrJ15 l 13321 (Partridge, 2015)that involving in sports gives not just the students but also children the opportunity to be with friends or meet other people and getting hang-out and share experience of working hard while committing with others. Further, social energy and involvement is seen as imperative of students for sports participation.Based on above result, the students revealed that they actively take part in sports not just to interact others and meet new people but also to enhance overall mood. Sports participation improves mental health, when doing sports, parts of the body are moving and also the brain is very active which results in release of endorphin that elevates mood CITATION Sco07 l 13321 (Scottsdale, 2017). Also, people who actively involved in sports of their choice are less likely to be depressed than who are not CITATION Tan17 l 13321 (Singh, 2017).
At the same time, in terms of ego involvement which was the second highest indicator, the data indicated that the students find sports as an opportunity to be with friends with the same interest. As mention above they don’t just involve in sports to meet new friends but also strengthen their bonds with their existing friends by joining and doing the sports that they both like. In addition, they perceive that joining sports they can be confidently of themselves and they don’t need to be concerned with their look. Leisure activities like sports help us to gain information of ourselves and understand ourselves in a way we want to see it and relay it to people around us CITATION Loi18 l 13321 (Haggard & Williams, 2018). In the same manner, in terms of negotiation strategies which is the third highest indicator, it is noted in the given data that the students choose to involve in sports in order to meet people with same interest.
However, some students find it difficult to participate in sports because of the availability of time. Thus, being student athlete is not easy, they have to balance their time in trainings and sports events with their academic responsibilities and commitments which more likely they spend more time in sports training and practices CITATION Sta16 l 13321 (Starub, 2016). In result students likely to join sports that only fits their schedule.In addition to the above result, the data indicated that students tend to set aside time for intramurals and sports activities. Like any other physical activities, one should plan ahead and make time and commitment like any other commitment of the day CITATION May16 l 13321 (Staff, 2016).
In that way, students can be actively involved in sports and intramurals because they already put plans ahead of time.Lastly the lowest indicator is constraint which showed a moderate level. The data shows that there are some constraints that the students experience and the reasons why some of them not involve themselves in sports. This includes students’ intrapersonal restrictions such as too shy to participate in intramurals. Also, factors like not having enough time for sports involvement due to other school commitments.
Moreover, other reasons of the students are due to other not having enough financial support to provide right clothes or equipment that are required to participate in intramurals. As confirmed by various authors ((Crawford ; Godbey, 1987; Godbey et al., 2010; Jackson, Crawford, ; Godbey, 1993) that constraints is divided into three parts, the intrapersonal, interpersonal and structured contrains. Some intrapersonal contraints that students may eperience are shyness and having low self-confidence. Also, interpersonal contraints are to be considered because some students may find it hard to find someone who has the same interest with them while structural constraints includes financial support CITATION Rod162 l 13321 (Emboscado, 2016).
ConclusionBased on the findings obtained in this study, the following conclusions are drawn:The level of intramural sports involvement of students in terms of constraints is moderate; in terms of negotiation constraints, it is high; in terms of motivation most of the items responds are high; in terms of ego involvement, the descriptive level is high.The level of academic performance of BPE-SPE students in terms of grade point average (GPA) was rated as low.There is no significant relationship between academic performance of BPE-SPE students in terms of General Point Average and intramural sports involvement.RecommendationsBased on the forgoing finding and conclusion, the following recommendations are suggested:Students to be responsible with their academics as well as sports activities which they are involve. Maintain effective time management and make sure that all of their responsibilities are given time and priorities. In addition, Teachers should maintain their supports and motivations to enhance more the skills of the student athletes. Moreover, Administrator should continue their supports toward the involvement of BPE-SPE students in involving in sports and other activities during intramurals.
Lastly, to the researchers that at least focus on respondents who are really joining sports not just on intramurals but outside of the school events also. Also, increase the population of the respondents in order to get reliable result.REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY Ali, S.
, Haider, Z., Munir, F., Khan, H., ; Ahmed, A.
(2013). Factors Contributing to the Students Academic Performance: A Case Study of Islamia University Sub-Campus. American Journal of Educational Research.
Bhat, B. A., Ahmad, I., Bano, T., Khan, S., Anees, S.
U., ; Sharma, A. T. (2016, August).
Research Gate. Retrieved October 23, 2017, from researchgatepublication.co: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308948092Cai, S.
(2015). Google.com. Retrieved from uwspace.
pdf?sequence=1Eggen, P., ; Kauchak, D. (2013). Educational Psychology.Emboscado, R.
F. (2016). Sports Involvement and Core Values of Students in Cateel Vocational High School.
Davao.Emboscado, R. F. (2016). Sports Involvemetn and Core values of Students in Cateel Vocational High School. Davao.
Farez, M. (2017). Academic Performance and Sport Involvement of LIU Post Athletes. Undergraduate Honors College Theses.Goes, J., Simon, M. (2011).
Correlational Research. Retrieved from http://dissertationrecipes.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/Correlational-ResearchX.pdfGrimit, N.
(2014). Effects of Students Athletics on Academic performance. The Journal of Unergraduate Research, 38-41.
Haggard, L. M., ; Williams, D. R. (2018, February 13).
Leisure Symbols of the Self. Retrieved April 23, 2018, from tandfonline.com: www.tandfonlineHenson, J. M. (2013).
Education Beyond Sports. The Dean’s Corner.Isenberg, M., & Rhoads, R. (2001).
Student Athlete Survival Guide.Lomax, R. & Li, J. .
(2013). Correlational Research. Retrieved from http://www.education.
com/reference/aticle/correlational-research/Montecalbo-Ignacio, R. C., Ignacio, R. A.
, & M. M. (2017). Academic Achievement as Influenced by Sports Participation in Selected Universities in the Philippines. 56.Partridge, D. J.
(2015, February 11). Retrieved April 19, 2018, from Nays Training and Membership.Rosario, J. D. (2013). Academic Motivation and Outcomes of Student Athletes: A correlational Analysis.
Rosario, J. d. (2013).
Academic Motivation and Outcomes of Student Athletes:A correlational Analysis. 7.Sbrocco, R. (2009).
Student Academic Engagement and the Academic Achievement Gap between Black and.Scottsdale, B. (2017, September 11). How do Playiing Sports Affect Us Mentally. Retrieved April 23, 2018, from Livestrong.com: www.
livestrong.comSingh, T. (2017, October 06).
Playing sports improve mental health. Retrieved April 23, 2018, from Onlymyhealth: www.onlymyhealth.comSingleton, S. (2016).
The Impact of Sports Participation on the Academic Achievement of African American Girls. 11-15.Staff, M. C.
(2016). Fitting in fitness: Finding time for Physical Activity. Healthy Lifestyle Fitness.Starub, L. (2016). Athketics and Classroom: The effect of Participation in School- Sponsored Sports and Academic.
6.Steinmayr, R., meirner, A., Weidinger, A.
F., & wirthwein, L. (2017).
Academic Achievement. Oxford Bibliographies.Straub, L. (2016). Athletics and Classroom:The effect of Participation in School-Sponsored Sports on Acdemic Achievement and Perception of Classrroom Work Habits.
6.Tower, D. (2008). Relationship Between Athletic and Academic Success.
4-11.Wijsman, L. A.
, Warrens, M. J., Saab, N., Driel, J. H., & Westenberg, P.
M. (2016, October). Springer Link. Retrieved December 15, 2017Williams, E. (n.
d.). Chron. Retrieved December 15, 2017, from http://work.chron.com/meaning-academic-performance-17332.htmlWood, L.
(2011). Continued Sport Participation of the Negotiation Constraints. Western Graduate & Postdoctoral Studies, 130.Zephyrhawke, K. (2011, March 31).
Addressing the Decline of Academic Performance. Retrieved December 13, 2017, from Scholar Common, University of South Florida: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4615&context=etd