Behavioral Intervention Plan (for student: Dayia)Grace ParkIn order to develop an FBA (Functional Behavioral Analysis), I observed a student, Dayia, to define problem behaviors including peer conflicts, non-compliance, inappropriate noises, disruptions, disrespect to teacher, threats to staff or peers, walk-outs, and pull-outs from class. Positive reinforcement and edible reinforcement (treat awards) have been positive motivational factors for Dayia to avoid problem behaviors and to think before she acts out in a way that would result to negative consequences. In her FBA, I had discussed and analyzed through several graphs and charts that Dayia shows certain behaviors to serve specific purposes. The most common possible functions for Dayia’s behavior were to “gain control” and to “attempt to communicate needs.
” Whenever Dayia feels that her needs are not met or that she is not getting specific attention or control over a situation or in an environment, she exhibits a behavior to get something out of the situation. Dayia shows disrespectful, inappropriate, and less-than-ideal behaviors when she senses a feeling of shame, attack, or failure, has a sense of losing personal power, wants attention, has displaced anger issues, experiences physiological issues, or thinks the behavior will maintain her self-esteem. In this BIP (Behavioral Intervention Plan), I will be designing an intervention for Dayia. Preventative strategies, Modifications, and/or replacement behavior interventions to implementIn order to help Dayia achieve maximum student success, the following strategies, modifications, and behavioral interventions are recommended:1. I, the teacher, will stop, take a breath, and think in order to react to Dayia’s actions in the most proactive way possible. Dayia often looks for a reaction to see what she can get out of a person (teachers and peers). The more upset Dayia becomes, the calmer I will need to become to let Dayia know I am sincere in trying to resolve the situation with her.
Planned ignoring does not bode well as an intervention strategy for Dayia, so I will start with preventative cueing, nonverbal warnings, proximity control, and private discipline (whispering reminder near Dayia if she is not on task so she does not feel shamed in front of the whole class). Prompts, cues, and pre-correction strategies will be used throughout lass to increase the likelihood of replacement behaviors. Less intrusive prompts will be preferred. 2. The environment will be manipulated to increase the probability of success for FBA.
I will arrange seating and lab groups for Dayia so that she is near strong-performing peers who are high-achieving and focused even during disruptive moments. If I know that Dayia will be unlikely to engage in a replacement behavior when seated next to a particular peer and know that reinforcement will be unlikely, I will locate Dayia in an area of the room where she is not face-to-face with the particular student. Tasks (such as pre-lab time) will be timed to reinforce time-sensitivity. Procedures will be repeated clearly to give Dayia a clear sign and communication of expectations and to increase the likelihood that replacement behaviors will be used at the appropriate time so that reinforcement can be delivered. 3. Emails will be sent periodically to Dayia’s case manager or behavioral learning support school staff specialist if she starts to show signs of being overwhelmed, frustrated from an event before class, or if Dayia asks for permission to leave to take a break, get some water, take a deep breath, or shows need to be by herself for a couple minutes without social triggers (classmates who may provoke her emotional state).
4. Dayia’s case manager and the learning support department head at my school will both be contacted by email and/or by mouth to meet with Dayia in the morning or afternoon to preview the school day and reflect upon a past week so that Dayia can keep track of her weekly behavioral goals and progress or lack of progress to get a clear picture of where she is and where she wants to go. (goal-based)5.
Dayia will be given a progress tracking sheet so that each of her teachers can indicate the degree (percentage) of agreement with behaviors that Dayia is displaying in each class and to provide opportunities for her teachers in each subject area to note exceptional and problematic behaviors for each day. Dayia will provide this sheet to her daily/weekly meetings with her case manager. Failure to get this sheet filled for each class will result in parent contact and administrative interventions. This sheet will serve as a data collection system for the entire/rest of the year to ascertain whether replacement behavior has been effective in decreasing the frequency, duration, or intensity of targeted inappropriate behavior. This progress sheet will facilitate conversations for evaluating intervention effectiveness.
The teacher, case manager, and department head will continue writing and filling out updates from this progress tracking sheet in the SIS (Schoolwide note-taking system) in the computer so that we are all streamlined on what actions have been implemented by each staff member in response to behavioral strategies and modifications.LEVEL 1 – Reinforcement, Encouragement, and PBIS for Replacement BehaviorIn order to help Dayia achieve maximum student success, the following reinforcement, encouragement, and PBIS steps have been listed to prevent and remove potential triggers (antecedent) for unwanted behaviors. This level serves as a preventative intervention designed to limit escalation of negative behaviors.
The following reinforcements will be presented to maintain or increase the frequency of a behavior and consequences to a behavior. Reinforcers have been listed in order of the steps I will usually go through to fully engage Dayia to buy-in to positive behavior. In order to reinforce, to make stronger and more resistant to elimination, I have identified reinforcements that Dayia responds well to and associates with desireable outcomes. Rather than as a reward, for simply having met some kind of criterion established by the teacher, Dayia is expected to keep a consistent action plan to increase positive replacement behaviors. The following positive reinforcers serve to help Dayia have a sense of safety and structure in the classroom, gain control over her academic and behavioral life while maintain positive environments in the school, help Dayia accomplish something that the teacher expresses is important, gain more positive interactions in class, and give her a sense of open access to class activities and cooperative relational experiences (better group time).
1. Social reinforcers such as proximity, contact, words and phrases (PBIS), feedback, post-it note with encouraging message, seating arrangement.a. Intervention: positive narration of student actions that exhibits positive engagement with peers, on-task behavior, productive academic conversations. E.
g. “Dayia is completing her pre-lab silently and independently.” Address peers around Dayia positively to redirect negative behaviors that Dayia may be displaying or to prohibit Dayia from interacting with.
“Cameron (student near Dayia) has put away his cell phone and put on his goggles as asked and his eyes are on me.”2. Edible reinforcers such as foods, liquids (e.g. Gatorade, gum, chips, sandwich, dessert).
3. Sensory reinforcers such as exposure to controlled auditory, visual, tactile, olfactory, or kinesthetic experience (e.g., music of choice through headphones, access to fidget spinners, stress balls, and various toy-like devices).4. Material (tangible) reinforcers such as stamps, stickers, certificates, name on recognition board in class. 5.
Privilege reinforcers such as team captain, allowed excuse from homework assignment with pre-approved notice note, partner papers (can receive credit for turning in work completed jointly with a partner).6. Activity reinforcers such as access to media, puzzles/riddles sheet, special projects that take the place of certain labs.7.
Other general reinforcers such as tokens, points, extra credit, and free make-up assignment opportunity.LEVEL 2 – Decreasing (inappropriate, disruptive, negative) BehaviorsIn order to help Dayia achieve maximum student success, and if level 1 interventions do not work, this level of interventions will be active. Interventions include:• Non-verbal reminders (eye contact, hand cues, sticky notes) will be given. (E.g.
Sticky note with a message stating “Please put your phone away now.” Eye contact will be made immediately after delivery of the sticky note.• Verbal redirections will be given and Dayia will have 1 minute to comply after warning and choice. Latency recording will take place. Teacher will measure the approximate time for Dayia to start a task from the time instructions are given.
Behavior will need a clear beginning. • Dayia will be given the option to take a 5 minute break (water, case manager time) if she exhibits frustrated, overwhelmed behavior.LEVEL 3 – Decreasing (inappropriate, disruptive, negative) BehaviorsIn order to help Dayia achieve maximum student success, and if level 2 interventions do not work, this level of interventions will be active. When Dayia shows deliberate, non-compliant, disrespectful, disruptive, or inappropriate behavior and does not choose the redirection choices given to her or take any cues from her teacher, Dayia will be moved to another space to regain control of herself and to take reflective moments to re-enter the classroom environment with a better focus and influence. I have already established and taught clear expectations and modeled behaviors I want to see from Dayia. She has already been made aware that the teacher will not tolerate inappropriate behaviors to continue and will provide Dayia with positive supports to calmly redirect Dayia before behaviors escalate.
Interventions include:• Non-verbal reminders (eye contact, hand cues, sticky notes) will be given. (E.g. Sticky note with a message stating “Please put your phone away now.
” Eye contact will be made immediately after delivery of the sticky note.• Verbal redirections will be given and Dayia will have 1 minute to comply after warning and choice. (E.
g. “Dayia, you have 1 minute to begin the reading and explication work or go to the buddy room across the hallway to work on your own. You have 40 more seconds to make your choice.”) Latency recording will take place.
Teacher will measure the approximate time for Dayia to start a task from the time instructions are given. Behavior will need a clear beginning. • Dayia will be given the option to take a 5 minute break (water, case manager time) if she exhibits frustrated, overwhelmed behavior. Words, body language, and prompts will be used to reduce tension, communicate support, and provide calm redirection.
I will acknowledge when Dayia seems to need a break. There is a “Buddy Teacher” in my school across the hall with a planning period who Dayia can also refer to during my class in the case that she needs a space without too many peers. The buddy teacher will be given full understanding of expectations for Dayia’s behavior while she is in his/her room verbally or by email. o If Dayia does not choose an option, she will be reminded, “Dayia, you have received another warning and given the option to take a break. You are still choosing to not follow expectations. It’s time to go to the buddy room/ Mr. Papaleo’s room.
Once Dayia has left the room, the class attention will be redirected and positive narration will be given to students in the room for appropriate behaviors during this time. LEVEL 4 – Decreasing (inappropriate, disruptive, negative) BehaviorsIn order to help Dayia achieve maximum student success, and if level 3 interventions do not work, this level of interventions will be active.Interventions include:• A referral form will be filled out regarding Dayia’s behavior.
Sample referral: “When Dayia was expected to enter the classroom during her 1A chemistry class, she ran out of the classroom while cussing at the teacher and classmates without permission for the reason of avoidance/escape from the task or environment, associated with deficits in expressive language skills and emotional regulation skills.” Specific actions and notes will be shared. • The Learning Support department head will be contacted on the classroom phone or through email to remove Dayia from the class.
E.g. “Dayia is choosing to deliberately disobey all instructions in class today and is creating a disturbance through expletives and choice words that are disrupting her whole class environment.
She has verbalized threats to peers and is using her textbook to create loud slamming noises on her desk.”• Dayia will most likely be sent to attend the ALC (Alternative Learning Community Class) in place of her next chemistry class, and depending on her progress there, she will only reenter my classroom environment once the learning support department head chair determines that Dayia is showing self-control.• Once Dayia returns to the class environment and her time in the ALC room has ended, Dayia will be redirected to appropriate activities. Teacher will verbalize appreciation to have Dayia back in class and ready to go. There will be no comment on how the student behaved before referral. Dayia will be returned to the activity that the class has been working on to treat her equally to her peers.
Documentation of missed work and directions will be provided for her when she returns to class so that she does not feel behind and so that her make-up responsibilities are communicated to her. quantita1. What types of milestones will you look for? What kinds of data will you collect?Some milestones have been mentioned in the Preventative strategies, Modifications, and/or replacement behavior interventions to implement box #5.
In addition to the progress tracking sheet, daily/weekly meetings will be held with Dayia (I will see Dayia every 2 days on A days, while her case manager will check in with her daily, and learning support department head will see her 1-3 times per week depending on her schedule). The progress sheet is expected to be consistent, systematic, and cumulative. The progress sheets are expected to refer to Dayia’s amount of work turned in, discipline referrals/redirections in each class, mention make-up work or progress report on quality of work she turns in, frequency of direct interventions, and observational data. The tracking sheet will require teachers to write down what percentage of class, Dayia was on task (ex: 90% if teacher felt Dayia was responsive and cooperative with most of the day’s work but could have done better by completing all the work in the time allotted instead of telling jokes during a work time). This tracker will aid in the early identification and understanding of future behavioral problems. These progress tracking sheets will serve as details for conversations and parent phone calls.
The online gradebook will be used in conjunction to the progress tracking sheet to monitor assignment/assessment completion and grades. Major conversations regarding the tracking sheet will be noted in the online note-taking (SIS) system so that teachers, case managers, and learning support department chair will all be aware of her progress.Examples of milestones include:• Dayia received a progress sheet with a certain number (less than 2) of negative behaviors showing that she improved from the week or month before. • Dayia received a progress sheet with no negative behaviors from her teachers for the day.• Dayia received a progress sheet with 100% work completion data from all of her teachers on Monday.
• Dayia received 50% on-task behavior from her teacher in 1st hour, 75% on-task behavior from her 2nd hour teacher, and a 25% on-task behavior from her 3rd hour teacher. • Dayia received a passing grade on all of her classwork in the week.• Dayia displayed distracting behaviors (on her phone, yelled across the room) for all of her classes on a certain day date will be mentioned.• Dayia was only given 5 redirections for the week, which shows progress from the 15+ redirections she needed the week before. Milestone data will include quantitative (percentage, tracking, academic data) and qualitative (records of narratives, teacher interactions, class and task time, peer interactions, observational data).
There will be tallied amounts of times certain events take place (e.g. referrals) so that behaviors and certain interventions can be easily counted and addressed. Qualitative and quantitative data will be mixed together for some cases to provide explanation of Dayia’s behavior. For example:• Dayia has chosen to raise her hand to ask frivolous questions before the test (about 15 of them) in order to delay the text• It took Dayia 45 minutes to complete a chemistry pre-lab that was meant to take 5 minutes during warm-up time at the beginning of class.
• Dayia ran around the room about 4 times today to bother a certain classmate while he was working.• Dayia told the teacher to “get out of my face, expletive” 3 times when she was called to answer a question in class or reminded of directions. 2. How will you determine whether your intervention is working or if it should be revised?Dayia’s intervention plan will include positive strategies, modifications, and aids/supports required to address her behaviors of concern. There will be data collected over progress tracking sheets and on the school computer notes (SIS) to determine the total picture of Dayia’s behaviors and noted actions taken by staff (e.g. parent phone call) in order to minimize repeating what has already been done before or to use other positive strategies if one did not work.
The data collected during the FBA with progress-tracking sheet will help determine discrepancy between Dayia’s actual vs. expected behavior. Based on the timeline (day to day, week to week, month to month, marking period to marking period), Dayia will be expected to reach certain milestones. If Dayia is making good progress or is failing to reach certain milestones by desired time periods, evaluation procedures in intervention plans will be re-evaluated to check for inconsistencies and gaps in each class. If implementation can be improved throughout Dayia’s classes, there will be no need to change intervention plans immediately. If teachers collectively feel that a certain intervention is not working in their classrooms, I will work with the IEP team and learning support chair to discuss areas that need to be changed.
If adjustments need to be made, I will schedule a meeting with all teachers and adults affiliated with Dayia’s education (parents, guardians, case managers, IEP staff support, behavioral) to make appriopriate-time-line based behavioral interventions designed to monitor the consistency with which the FBA and BIP are implemented and to measure changes in behavior with what Dayia will work well with. There may be more information (e.g. changes in family/home environment, illness, physiological, break-ups, stresses at school/work, testing season) that Dayia might have in her life which may determine that more information is necessary to conduct an FBA with intervention plans that are designed to Dayia’s needs. Dayia seems to crave attention and wants relationships/connections, so it makes sense to involve relationships and connections to make interventions work. The emphasis in these meetings will be on teaching new behaviors, working on current behavioral plans and not a lot of focus on punishing the current ones in order that Dayia can continually be taught, practice with and be reinforced of appropriate behaviors.
3. What is your timeline for evaluating your student’s success?a. Based on Dayia’s history of referrals and problematic behaviors in all of her classes, I feel it is good practice for IEP teams and I to meet for at least 1 evaluation procedure of an intervention plan for each marking period (quarter) in the fall, winter, and spring. In order to monitor the consistency with which the progress tracking sheet and behavioral intervention plans are implemented, I will set a timeline for milestones after 3 weeks. I will then check Dayia’s progress after 3 weeks to check for consistencies, areas of improvement, areas that need to be revised/readdressed, and in order for her FBA to include updated information.
Plans will then be reviewed and revaluated if there is not much change after 3 weeks. If there is significant or some improvement consistent across classes after 3 weeks, milestones will then be 2 weeks and then every other week thereafter. The three week mark will serve as a sort of baseline and more consistent data collection (weekly) will provide more consistent, frequent data collection that will give me an ongoing evaluation of Dayia’s progress. After each marking period, I will schedule an IEP team meeting to discuss Dayia’s progress to see if she needs something added to, revised, or subtracted from her plan. Based on each timeline’s evaluation, I may find that Dayia has not met expected outcomes/goals due to a certain event at home or school. Dayia may have not made enough progress and think that certain outcomes/goals are not achievable anymore.
In this case, I will identify barriers to plan implementation for Dayia and have a team meeting (teachers, parent, and Dayia included) to plan implementation for each identified planning participant. Consulting with important adults in Dayia’s school life will determine the most valid interventions for her problem behaviors displayed at school. Including her mother will keep her in the loop while keeping Dayia accountable to the expectations set before her in the school.