ROLL NO. 2017013
“Learning is defined as the process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior.”
Learning is a process. It’s the result of knowledge or experience. It serves as the feedback and future behavior.

Learning is one of the primary determinants of human behavior. Socio-cultural variables as culture, values attitude, ideas, concepts, motives, perception and responses to needs are all result of learning. Everybody spends his life learning as well as controlling other to achieve desired results.

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In consumer behavior learning is the change in behavior brought about by experience, the tendencies to perceive, think or act in certain ways with regards to given products, services or ideas. When learning occurs, behavioral modification is its manifestation and this is often relatively enduring.

MOTIVATION- Unfulfilled needs leads to motivation. Motives serve to stimulated learning.

CUES- Response that directs the motives. Marketers must provide cues that don’t upset their expectation.

RESPONSE- How individual react to drive or cue – how they behave- constitute their response.

REINFORCEMENT- Reinforcement increases the likelihood that a specific response will occur in the future as the result of particular cues or stimuli.

INTENTIONAL-learning acquired as a result of a careful search for information.

INCIDENTAL- learning acquired by accident or without much effort.

Behavioral Theories
Cognitive Theories
Behavioral Theories- This theory based on the premise that learning takes place as the result of observable responses to external stimuli. This is also known as stimulus response theory.

Cognitive Theories- This theory of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving.

Classical Conditioning
Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning
Modeling or Observational Learning
Classical Conditioning- This principle says that all living beings learn from or taught by “repetition”. This is called “conditioning” which means that a kind of spontaneous reaction to a specific state of affairs accomplished by means of repeated publicity. Classical conditioning or respondent conditioning pairs or connects one stimulus with any other that has already installed a given response. Over repeated trials of publicity, the brand new stimulus may even start to get the equal or comparable response. Pairing a stimulate with some other stimulus that elicits a recognized response to supply the equal reaction whilst used alone. Classical conditioning is the getting to know of institutions among occasions that allow us to expect and represent our environment.

Strategic Application of Classical Conditioning
Stimulus Generalization
Stimulus Discrimination
Repetition- Repetition increases strength of association and slows forgetting. More repetition will lead to advertisement wear out.
Three hit Theory: Three repetitions are required :-
To make consumer aware of the product service.

To show consumers relevance to the product.

To remind benefits.

Repetition depends on the competitive ads, if more competitors are there, consumer may forget your product.

Stimulus Generalization: learning depends not only by repetition but also on the ability of individuals to generalize.

Marketing Applications:-
Product Line, Form and Category Extensions
Family Branding
Stimulus Discrimination:- Its key in developing positioning strategy. To create a distinctive image in the minds of the customers about your product. Opposite to Stimulus Generalization and that results in the selection of specific stimulus from among the similar stimulus.

Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning: Consumers learn means of trial and error process in which some purchase behaviors result in more favorable outcomes (rewards) than others purchase behaviours. A favorable experience is instrumental in teaching the individual to repeat a specific behavior.
Instrumental Conditioning and Marketing
Make the product the ultimate reward
Provide samples and free trials
Provide non-product rewards
Practice relationship marketing
Reinforcement Schedules-Shaping
Massed versus Disturbed Learning

Reinforcement Behavior
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement: Positive outcomes that strengthen the likelihood of a specific response.

Example: Ad showing beautiful hair as reinforcement to buy shampoo.

Negative Reinforcement: Unpleasant or negative outcomes that serve to encourage a specific behavior.

Example: Ad showing wrinkled skin as reinforcement to buy skin cream.

Other Concept of Reinforcement
Punishment: Choose reinforcement rather than punishment.

Extinction: Combat with consumer satisfaction.

Forgetting: Combat with repetition
Cognitive learning: Holds that the form of getting to know most characteristics of humans is hassle fixing, which enables individuals to benefit a few manipulate over their environment. Learning based on the intellectual activity is called “cognitive getting to know”. Human beings are the maximum developed animals who’ve the most outstanding characteristics of wondering, deliberation and problem solving. Unlike behavioral theories, the cognitive theories involve a complex mental processing of statistics, and emphasize the function of motivation and mental approaches in generating the desired reaction.

There are three types of cognitive learning;
Observational Learning
Rote Learning
Observational Learning: individuals learn by observing the behavior of others, and consequences of such behavior. Also known as modeling or vicarious learning
Rote Learning: Learning concepts through simple repetition.Repeated ads teach consumers about a product’s attributes.

Reasoning: Highest level of cognitive learning. Involves creative thinking and depends on how information is processed and stored
Involvement Theory: A theory of consumers learning which postulates that consumers engage in a range of information processing activity from extensive to limited problem solving, depending on the relevance of the purchase.

Information Processing: A cognitive theory of human learning patterned after computer information processing that focuses on how information is stored in human memory and how it is retrieved
Social Judgment Theory:
There is another cognitive theory, called Judgment Theory. The relevant factor of the concept is that individuals processing of statistics approximately a difficulty are determined with the aid of one’s involvement with the issue. According to this theory client who are involved has a robust fine or bad opinion approximately a service or product primarily based on statistics processing and revel in. It requires lot of efforts to alternate their judgment.

Marketing Strategies
Marketing strategies require right look at and use of customer’s perceptions and learning and divides it into diverse segments in order that special consumers can be approached differently to influence them and make for them effective promotional programmes for one of kind segments of customers. They must be conditioned and approached otherwise according to information processing level.

The major factors on which markets are segmented may briefly be mentioned below:
1. Perception
2. Psychology
3. Region
4. Income
5. Conditioning of consumers
6. Level of information which they can retain i.e. knowledge
7. Level of education
Of central importance to the processing of information is the human memory. A basic research concern of most cognitive scientists is discovering how information gets stored in memory, how it is retained, and how it is retrieved.

Structure of Memory: Because information processing is kept temporarily before further processing: a sensory store, a short term store, and a long-term store.

Sensory Stage: All records come to us through our senses; however, the senses do not transmit entire pictures as a camera does. Instead, every feel gets a fragmented piece of statistics (inclusive of the odour, colour, form, and experience of a flower) and transmits it to the mind in parallel, wherein the perceptions of a single instantaneous are synchronized and perceived as a single photo, in a single second of time. The photo of a sensory enter lasts for a just a second or in the thoughts sensory keep. If it isn’t processed, it’s far misplaced at once.

Rehearsal and Encoding: The amount of information available for delivery from short-term storage to log-term storage depends on the amount of rehearsal if it is given. Failure to rehearse an input, either by repeating it or by relating it to other data, can result in fading and eventual loss of the information. Information can also be lost because of competition for attention.

Encoding: It is the process by which we select a word or visual image to represent a perceived object. When consumers are presented with too much information (called information overload), they may encounter difficulty in encoding and storing it all.

Retention: Information does not just sit in lengthy-term garage waiting to be retrieved. Instead, data is constantly organized and reorganized as new links among chunks of records are forged. In fact, many data-processing theorists view the long-time period store as a community which includes nodes (i.E., ideas), with links among and amongst them. The general bundle of associations brought to mind when a cue is activated is known as a schema. Product facts saved in memory has a tendency to be logo based totally, and customers interpret new data in a way steady with the manner in which it’s far already organized. Consumers are faced with heaps of latest products each 12 months and their information search is regularly structured upon how similar or dissimilar (discrepant) these products are to product categories already saved in memory. Consumers recode what they’ve already encoded to consist of large amounts of facts (chunking).

Retrieval: “Retrieval is the manner by means of which we get better facts from long term storage”. In this system, the character accesses the preferred information. Marketers hold that clients tend to don’t forget the product’s blessings in place of its attributes, suggesting that advertising messages are best once they link the product’s attributes with the blessings that customers are looking for from the product.

Interference: An old fact in memory interferes with mastering comparable, new material. The greater the range of aggressive commercials in a product class, the lower the keep in mind of logo claims in a particular advertisements. These interference effects are because of confusion with competing advertisements and make information retrieval tough.
Limited and Extensive Information Processing: For a long term, client researchers believed that all purchasers passed through a complicated series of intellectual and behavioral degrees in arriving at a buy selection. These stages ranged from focus (publicity to information) to assessment (preference, mind-set formation), to behavior (purchase), to final assessment (adoption or rejection). This equal series of tiers is often presented as the customer adoption system.

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