Muslims are guided by the following main provisions, which are recognized as infallible truth and are binding for all believers: belief in Allah, the sanctity of the Quran, appointment through Mohammed, the immortality of the soul, the resurrection, the Day of Judgement, a belief in heaven and hell, devils, demons and angels. A basic knowledge of the Muslim religion is very different in different people and in different countries of the traditional Islam. Every Muslim knows the meaning of the creed of Islam: “Allah. There is no god but He, the Living, the Self-subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. His are all things in the heavens and on earth. Who is there can intercede in His presence except as He permitteth? aˆ¦ His Throne doth extend over the heavens and the earth, and He feeleth no fatigue in guarding and preserving them for He is the Most High, the Supreme in glory.” (Qur’an 2:255)
It expresses two main precepts of Islam: there is a single, unique, and eternal God Almighty – Allah; his messenger Allah chose an Arab from Mecca, Muhammad, through him God gave people the text of the holy book – the Koran, and by his hands he founded a community of believers. That is, belief in Allah is the primary tenet of faith in Islam. (Sell 2000)
According to Islam beliefs, Allah is all-powerful and all knowing, as well as merciful and compassionate. His greatness is expressed in many statements (for example, “Allah Akbar”) that are well known to all Muslims, which they often repeat in their speech, prayers, which can be found written on the monuments of Muslim architecture in Asia, Africa, Europe and America. Muslims believe that Allah at any time can create any miracle, just as in one command he created the heavens and the earth, mountains, rivers, flora and fauna. In the representation of Muslims he can at any moment break the natural course of history, to violate the laws of nature, for he is almighty: “God is the Creator of everything. He is the guardian over everything. Unto Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth”. And “No creature is there crawling on the earth, but its provision rests on God. He knows its lodging place and its repository” (Sell 2000).
Muslim believer should not, have no right to doubt the omnipotence of Allah, otherwise, he commits great sin, which can only be redeemed with gifts to clergy, or Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca and other holy places. (Sell 2000)
It is important to mention the main pillars of Islam which unite all believers, whatever other differences they may have. An observant Muslim must follow Five main pillars of Islam:
The Shahadah, or profession of faith: This is the essence of Islam. One must say aloud, sincerely and purposefully, “There is no God but Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet.”
Prayer: One must pray, in a ritualized manner, five times a day, in congregation if possible.
Zakat, or tithing: One must give a certain percentage of one’s assets to the poor each year.
Fasting: One cannot eat, drink, or smoke from dawn to dusk during Ramadan, the ninth month of the lunar calendar.
Hadj, or pilgrimage: One must journey to Mecca at least once, if it’s possible to do so. (Oxford Islamic Studies Online)
Almost every Muslim knows at least a few phrases from the holy book of Islam – Quran. The Quran was written in Arabic and in the ritual is used the Arabic original. For Muslims, the Quran is the direct word of Allah, addressed to Muhammad, and through him to all people. In it both the ordinary Muslims and theologians are seeking answers to questions of privacy and public life, to justify their actions. According to Islam, there are different ways of knowing Allah, and much can be said about him, as the great wonders of the world are like an open book, in which we can read a lot about God, who resides out of this world. God Himself comes to help us by sending envoys and sending his revelation, in which he tells about everything that we need to know about God.
The Islamic religion is full of recognition of the teachings and guidance of Allah, in the form in which it was opened by His Messenger Muhammad. Islam requires belief in the unity and sovereignty of Allah, making people aware of the significance of the Universe and his place in it. This belief frees person from any fear and prejudice, leading him to realize the presence of Almighty God and to the understanding of human responsibilities toward Him. However, this belief must in some way find expression and be tested in practice, as one only faith is not enough. (Esposito 2000)
Belief in one God requires that people must treat all mankind as one family, completely ruled by God, who is Creator of all and gives sustenance to everything. Islam rejects the idea of aˆ‹aˆ‹chosen people, as only faith in God and good deeds are the only ways leading to heaven. (Esposito 2002)
It is also necessary to say that in today’s world there are few Islamic schools, branches and sects, which represent different views and ideas. The earliest and most major split was caused by the emergence of Shia and Sunni. In the Shiite movement along with believing in the authority of the Qur’an and teachings of the Muhammad, people believe that his family, the Ahl al-Bayt, have special spiritual and political rule over the community, and in Ali ibn Abi Talib. (Esposito 2000)
The other important Islamic movement are called the Sunni. Its supporters recognize the legitimacy of Sunnah, the “normative” example of Muhammad’s life. The Quran and the Sunnah (the example of Muhammad’s life) as recorded in hadith are the primary foundations of Sunni doctrine. (Esposito 2000)
Later, in Islam there was the Sufi doctrine, which was influenced by the ideas of Mazdaism, Buddhism, and even neo-Platonism. Sufis originally did not recognize importance of external ritualism, and sought the true knowledge of God, a mystical merging with the deity, gave special importance to the names of God from the Quran. (Esposito 2000)
Despite the various trends in Islam, all Muslims believe the idea of aˆ‹aˆ‹belonging to one community of people united by a common faith, common traditions, common initial history and common interests in the modern world.