Hong Kong Government planning to develop Kai Tak Sport Park to reinforce Hong Kong’s profile to host international sports event and providing quality sport facilities with student athletics to encourage sports development. Through the Kai Tak Sport Park project to lists numbers of stakeholders and to classify the type of stake holders and using strategy. management. Furthermore, the Kai Tak Sports Park project involve numbers of stakeholders and meet some uncertainty problems. The project team need to satisfy the stakeholders need and solve the uncertainty problems. The organization need change relationship with stakeholders from non-supportive to mixed blessing by using strategy.
2. Stakeholder Management
Stakeholder management focus interrelationship between organization and various stakeholders who can influence the project, the project can be positive or negative impact (Molwus, Erdogan and Ogunlana, 2017). Thus, the stakeholder management aim for organization identification, analyse, understand and more effectively managing their stakeholders (Chinyio and Olomolaiye 2010 cited in Molwus, Erdogan and Ogunlana 2017). Moreover, compare with traditional management, stakeholder management organization are focus on internal, external or interface (Savage et al., 1991). Stakeholders become active in participant, knowledge of and interdependent with an organization therefore organization change to stakeholder management (Savage et al., 1991).
2.1 Project Stakeholder
The stakeholders are relevant for and involved in the project such as customers, labour unions and financial institutions (Karlsen, 2002). In exhibit 1 different project stakeholders are illustrated (Karlsen, 2002). Besides, stakeholders are identifying primary and secondary stakeholder (Molwus, Erdogan and Ogunlana, 2017). Molwus, Erdogan and Ogunlana (2017) said “Primary stakeholders are those who have formal, official, or contractual relationships and have a direct and necessary economic impact upon the organization.” Secondary stakeholders are multiple and include not directly impact organization business but able to influence or affect organization (Molwus, Erdogan and Ogunlana, 2017). DE LOPEZ (2001) defined “Stakeholders were divided according to a two-dimensional matrix.” The first dimension evaluated the potential of stakeholders to project natural resource, the second dimension to estimate the influence or power of stakeholders in the project (DE LOPEZ, 2001)
2.2 Stakeholders’ influence
Stakeholders’ influence organization decision making, what type of influence strategy are used by organization and determines which type of stakeholders are chose to use (Frooman, 1999). Influence strategies are step by step to specify the type of stakeholder and identify stakeholders wants to development suitable management strategy (Frooman, 1999). Four type of influence strategy: withholding, usage, direct and indirect (Frooman, 1999). The influence strategy can transform the relationship between organization and stakeholders, mapping the type of influence strategy onto the type of stakeholder (Frooman, 1999).
2.3 Stakeholders type and strategy
There are classified four categories of stakeholders as shown in exhibit 2 (Karlsen, 2002). It would be more fitted to management project to develop a typology of stakeholders (DE LOPEZ, 2001). Each categories of stakeholder contain difference potential to affect the project and potential for collaboration with the project. Four categories of stakeholders: (1) supportive, (2) non-supportive, (3) marginal, (4) mixed blessing.
Type 1: Supportive Stakeholders
High potential for collaboration with the project but lower potential in potential to affect the project. Karlsen (2002) say supportive stakeholders is an ideal stakeholder means to supports the project and take more actions, most of project managers wish all stakeholders are supportive. Some of the supportive stakeholders may include suppliers, service providers and non-profit community organization (Savage et al., 1991). The strategy of stakeholders often ignores and overlooked as they are low potential to affect the project so need to take involve strategy. (Savage et al., 1991).
Type 2: Non-supportive Stakeholders
It is opposite side with supportive stakeholders. They have high potential to affect the project and low potential for collaboration with the project are the most distressing for a project and the project manager (Karlsen, 2002). These categories of stakeholders include competing organizations, labour unions, public authorities and usually the media (Karlsen, 2002). The management team are used defensive strategy. The defensive strategies try to reduce the stakeholder interest in the project (Savage et al., 1991).
Type 3: Margin Stakeholders
Both are low potential to affect the project and potential for collaboration with the project and need to monitor these categories of stakeholders (Karlsen, 2002). Monitoring helps the management team to act to increase their support or to deflect their opposition (Savage et al., 1991).
Type 4: Mixed blessing stakeholders
The potential for collaboration with the project and the potential in potential to affect the project are very high. It includes employee, client, customers or service (Savage et al., 1991). The management team should collaborate the stakeholders to change to be supportive or non-supportive stakeholders.
3. Case study—Kai Tak Sport Park
The Kai Tak Sports Park project aims to encourage Hong Kong sports development to host major international competition in Hong Kong to meet international sports organisation standard e.g. IAAF, FIFA. Also, the Park help to maintain Hong Kong’s position be one of the world’s leading cities.
3.1 Type of stakeholders
There are involve numbers of stakeholders and consist different needs, opinion about the Kai Tak Sports Park project. It will show each type of stakeholder example and reason to support their opinion.
Type 1: Supportive Stakeholders
Chief Executive Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor highly support the project since she encourages sport development in Hong Kong. Her policy address is planning more resource in organize training to enhance the international competition on 2017 (EJ Insight, 2017). The government support the construction and allocates number of resources in the project and allocate extra funding to support the Elite Athletes Development (Fu, 2018). Carrie Lam support the project reinforce the project development since the sport park project help to change Hong Kong’s people sport attitude and change the Hong Kong International reputation.
Commissioner for Sports Yeung Tak-keung support Kai Tak Sport Park project. Yeung Tak-keung said this project can help Hong Kong to attract more elite sport events as sport venue is important and is a chance to improve venue to prepare to host the international competition in the future (Ryding, 2018). Furthermore, Yeung Tak-keung said sport park not only for major events but also sport development and community sports (Porteous, 2017). The sport development help to change Hong Kong residence sport’s attitude and athlete can get more resourcing in training. Also, the standard international competition venue increase probability to host international competition and Hong Kong athlete can compete in Hong Kong. Thus, Hong Kong residence would pay more attention in sport competition to help sport development.
Chairman of the Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association Kwan Kee said Kai Tak Sport Park provide plenty of space and the government support, it is ensuring to provide enough area for track and field warm-up facilities (Chan, 2018). The project can provide international standard to host international event and warm up venue for athlete before competition (Chan, 2018). Besides, Kwan Kee said Hong Kong athletes get remarkable result in indoor athletics so have potential to develop the indoor sports (Chan, 2018). Moreover, Hong Kong residence can enjoy the park facilities since the park provide track and field warm-up facilities. It can get bilateral beneficial from athlete and residence.
Type 2 Non-Supportive Stakeholder
Democratic Party lawmaker Helena Wong Pik-wan who is represented Kowloon West to against government allocated resource to support Kai Tak Sport Park project. Her view of the project spends pointless money and hardly to fill the building stadiums (Fok, 2016). The government deploy HK$32 billion to support the project but the project was delayed, the government not provide updated estimate budget (Porteous, 2017). The project delay lot of time and discover some of planning problems during the processing. Therefore, Helena Wong strongly against the project as the project waste huge of money and unsure the finishing date.
Type 4 Mixed blessing stakeholders
Olympic and football chief Timothy Fok Tsun-ting is some of international committee member. Timothy said he hoped the new government can pass the stadium and help Hong Kong be truly international city (Careem, 2017). Also, he said he ensure sports can play a significant role in bringing the community together (Careem, 2017). Hong Kong had been hosted equestrian events at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. It is chance for Hong Kong change reputation and be truly international city. If China will host World Cup, Hong Kong can play a part and get benefit from the competition. Also, Timothy mention China would not forget Hong Kong if China get something. As Timothy is not direct to show support or against but he analysis the project pros and cons. He can impact some of organization decision making since he is Olympic and football chief and some of committee member.
3.2 Transforming relationship
Changing the relationship with stakeholder, the management team need to act strategy. The exhibit 3 shown the strategy to transform the relationship with stakeholders.
Supportive Stakeholders are low potential to affect the project and high potential for collaboration with the project. It needs to take involve strategy, the stakeholders often ignored. These categories of stakeholder should be informed and relevant with the project eg. Chief Executive Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor, Commissioner for Sports Yeung Tak-keung and Chairman of the Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association Kwan Kee. Chief Executive Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor in her policy address allocate resource to support the project and involve in the project. Commissioner for Sports Yeung Tak-keung and Chairman of the Hong Kong Amateur Athletic Association Kwan Kee are organization committee represent the organization to stae their needs, they need more space for athlete training and sport development in the future.
Non-supportive stakeholders are used defensive strategy try to reduce stakeholder’s interest in the project and satisfy their needs in the project. It is difficult to use strategy as the Kai Tak Sport Park Project involve lot of stakeholders and involve some non-supportive stakeholders such as Democratic Party lawmaker Helena Wong Pik-wan or near Kai Tak park living resident who affect by noise or security problem. The management team try to satisfy them and take good management.
Mixed blessing stakeholders in both dimensions of potential affected the project and potential collaboration with the project are high. Therefore, through collaboration strategy to get better manage. The collaboration strategy based on bilateral trust and must be beneficial for both sides. So, an administrative and an operational level can take collaboration strategy. The advantages of collaboration strategy are improved exploitation of resources, to reduce administrative costs and get better communication. Although Olympic and football chief Timothy Fok Tsun-ting in Kai Tak Sport Park project not state his position, he can affect another stakeholders view and affect the project. Timothy Fok have powerful stakeholder’s influence to influent the project success or fail.
4. Conclusion ; Recommendation
Through case study to know the project stakeholder management. First, we explored the stakeholder management theory. Second, based on theory to case study application. Then, using strategy to transform relationship with stakeholders.
The result shown stakeholder management can be used in several ways. The project management team should more attention with stakeholder and more oriented with stakeholders. The result shown the project management team need to know the concept of stakeholder are focusing on. Therefore, the stakeholder management are used, the project management team should get well prepare such as stakeholders’ strategy. Each type of stakeholder is using different strategy. Some stakeholders are can influent another stakeholder or the project, the management should use the collaboration strategy for these stakeholders. It shown the stakeholders’ influence in project stakeholder management.